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Networking Fundamentals

by Professor Shahzad ALi, Punjab Group of Colleges, Pakpattan, Pakistan

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Networking Fundamentals

  1. 1. Networking Fundamentals Instructor: Shahzad Ali Lec#1 27th Oct, 2015 Punjab Group of Colleges, Pakpattan Campus
  2. 2. Course Instructor Shahzad Ali Email:
  3. 3. Introductions to Computer Networks Introductory Lecture
  4. 4. What is a Network? • Networks means Interconnection • Interconnection of People
  5. 5. Network
  6. 6. Network
  7. 7. Computer Network • In information technology, a network is a series of points or nodes interconnected by communication paths. • A collection of computing devices that are connected in various ways in order to communicate and share resources • Usually, the connections between computers in a network are made using physical wires or cables  However, some connections are wireless, using radio waves or infrared signals
  8. 8. Computer Network
  9. 9. Computer Network • Simply referred to as a network • Collection of hardware components and software • Interconnected by communication channels • Allow sharing of resources and information • Example: o Two computers connecting together is an example of a network.
  10. 10. Classification of Networks • Area Networks • Network Design • Network Topology • Network Protocols • Wired vs. Wireless
  11. 11. Area Networks • LAN – Local Area Network • MAN – Metropolitan Area Network • WAN – Wide Area Network • PAN – Personal Area Network
  12. 12. Personal Area Network • Small Computer network • A personal area network, or PAN, is a computer network organized around an individual person within a single building • A PAN may include wired and wireless devices • The reach of a PAN typically extends to 10 meters o Wired – USB o Wireless- Bluetooth and Infrared • Some examples of devices are o PCs o Printers o Fax machines o Scanners, etc.
  13. 13. Local Area Network • A network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as  Home  School  Computer laboratory  Office building
  14. 14. Metropolitan Area Network • A computer network that usually spans a city or a large campus • A MAN usually interconnects a number of LANs • Uses a high-capacity backbone technology, such as fiber- optical links • Within limits of a city • Example: o Cable TV Network
  15. 15. Wide Area Network • WAN spans a large physical distance • The Internet is the best largest WAN spanning the Earth.
  16. 16. Network Design
  17. 17. 17 • Network Clients (Workstation) • Computers that request network resources or services • Network Servers • Computers that manage and provide network resources and services to clients • Usually have more processing power, memory and hard disk space than clients Client-Server Network
  18. 18. Client-Server Network • Server – Service Provider • Client – Service Requester
  19. 19. Peer-to-Peer Network • Peer-to-peer network is also called workgroup • No hierarchy among computers  all are equal
  20. 20. Network Topology • Topology  Design of Network  Or refers to the layout of connected devices  Think of a topology as a network’s virtual shape or structure
  21. 21. Network Topology Types of topology • Physical o Actual layout of the computer cables and other network devices • Logical o The way in which the network appears to the devices that use it
  22. 22. Types Network Topologies • Bus • Ring • Star • Mesh
  23. 23. Network Protocols • An agreed-upon set of rules for transmitting data between two devices. • Protocols specify interactions between the communicating entities.
  24. 24. Network Protocols Types of Protocols Used • Proprietary Systems o A system that uses technologies kept private by a particular commercial vendor • Open systems o Systems based on a common model of network architecture and a suite of protocols used in its implementation
  25. 25. Wired Vs. Wireless • Network with Ethernet cables predominated in businesses, schools, and homes for several decades. • Recently wireless networking alternatives have emerged as the premier technology for building new computer networks.
  26. 26. Q&A ?