Consumer Behavior

2,827 views

Published on

0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,827
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
10
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
298
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Consumer Behavior

    1. 1. Consumer Behavior <ul><li>Influences on consumer behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decision making </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes and attitude change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociocultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reference groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family decision making </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Culture and subculture </li></ul></ul></ul>
    2. 2. Consumer Problems and Recognition <ul><li>Consumer problem: Discrepancy between ideal and actua l state--e.g., consumer : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>has insufficient hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is hungry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has run out of ink in his or her inkjet cartridge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems can be solved in several ways -- e.g., stress reduction <----- vacation, movie, hot bath, medication </li></ul>
    3. 3. CONSUMER DECISIONS: Theory and Reality in Consumer Buying Information Search Problem Recognition Evaluation of Alternatives Purchase Postpurchase Evaluation/ Behaviors Theory Complications
    4. 4. Approaches to Search for Problem Solutions INTERNAL EXTERNAL Memory Thinking Word of mouth, media, store visits, trial CATALOG
    5. 5. Cost vs. Benefits of Search <ul><li>Market Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Product Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Situation Characteristics </li></ul>
    6. 6. Decision Issues <ul><li>Types of decisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routinized response (e.g., gas, sodas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited problem solving (e.g., car service, fast food) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended problem solving (e.g., new car, computer, medical procedures) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type of evaluation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensatory: Decision based on overall value of alternatives (good attribute can outweigh bad ones) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-compensatory: Absolutely must meet at least one important criterion (e.g., car must have automatic transmission) </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Variety Seeking and Impulse Buying <ul><li>Variety seeking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>need varies among consumers by optimal stimulation level (OSL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use innovativeness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impulse purchases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul></ul>“ Don’t give me that same old cola, that same old cola-- I want a rock’n’roller!”
    8. 8. Psychological Influences <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention and competition for attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subliminal influence? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perceived risk </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May or may not be conscious </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Values, beliefs, and attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle—e.g., VALS2 </li></ul>
    9. 9. Attitude Change Strategies <ul><li>Change Affect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitude toward the ad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mere exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Change behavior (e.g., sampling) </li></ul><ul><li>Change Belief Component </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change existing beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change importance of attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change ideal </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. One-sided vs. two sided appeals <ul><li>One-sided: only saying what favors your side </li></ul><ul><li>Two-sided: stating your case but also admitting points favoring the other side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is this effective? </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Sociocultural Influences <ul><li>Personal Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opinion leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word of mouth and rumors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Associative: “We’re the Pepsi generation…” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dissociative: “It’s not your father’s car.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aspirational </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Subculture </li></ul>
    12. 12. Potential Family Life Cycle Stages YOUNG SINGLE BLENDED SINGLE PARENT FULL NEST I/II/III EMPTY NEST I/II OLDER SINGLE YOUNG COUPLE
    13. 13. Economic/Marketing Implications of Household Cycles <ul><li>Income tends to increase with time </li></ul><ul><li>But children/ obligations add cost </li></ul><ul><li>Divorce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increases costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may change income distribution marriage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product demand due to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>singles with low expenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new couples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>divorced families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>empty nesters --> more income </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Household Decision Making <ul><li>Roles/influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information gatherers/holders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influencers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision makers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchasers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. More Sociocultural Influences <ul><li>Social class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positioning strategies: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Upward Pull” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ At Level” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In other cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture: “Share meanings” </li></ul><ul><li>Subculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious groups </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Organizational Buyers <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reseller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government and non-profit organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term relationships </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. The Means-End Chain Large engine Fast acceleration Performance Feeling of power Self-esteem Aim promotion/ positioning at higher levels of chain ! Attributes Consequences Values

    ×