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  1. 1. Scott Schnollscott.schnoll@microsoft.comPrincipal Technical WriterMicrosoft CorporationUNC302
  2. 2. Agenda Discuss the topology changes introduced in Exchange Server 2010 Client Access Transport Mailbox Understand our guidance on server sizing
  3. 3. Exchange 2010 Enterprise Topology Enterprise Network Phone system (PBX or VOIP) Edge Transport Hub Transport Routing & AV/AS Routing & Policy External SMTP servers Mailbox Unified Messaging Storage of mailbox Voice mail & and public folder voice access Mobile phone items Client AccessWeb browser Client connectivity Web services Outlook (remote user) Line of business application Outlook (local user)
  4. 4. Consolidation of Store Access Paths Entourage Exchange Components Exchange Components Transport WS Transport WS Agents OWA Agents Mailbox OWA Mailbox Agents UM Agents UM Sync Outlook / Sync MAPI clients MAPI,Middle Exchange Outlook / Exchange Middle MAPI clients RFR &Tier Biz Logic Biz Logic Tier NSPI RPC Entourage Exchange Core Biz Logic MAPI RPC DAV Mailbox Mailbox MAPI RPC Store Store
  5. 5. Architectural Changes
  6. 6. Client AccessThe middle tier Outlook Clients CAS is true middle tier with new services and functionality designed to restrict all Outlook data access to a single common path by migrating Mailbox and Directory endpoints to CAS Exchange CAS Array Outlook data connections go to RPC Client Access service on CAS instead of connecting directly to mailbox servers Address Book service on CAS replaces the DSProxy interface MBX GC Public folder connections connect directly to the Mailbox server, but through RPC Client Access service on backend
  7. 7. Client AccessHow RPC Client Access service improves experience Provides a better client experience during switchovers/failovers When a MBX server fails over, Outlook client will only see ~30 sec disconnection, as compared to 1-TTL min before Uses the same business logic for Outlook and other CAS clients Calendar logging + fix up Content/body conversion Greatly simplifies AD topology requirements for Outlook Supports more concurrent connections/mailboxes per Mailbox server Reduces code and client logic in Exchange Store process for increased reliability
  8. 8. Client AccessHow directory referral connections work1. Outlook calls get Address Book server API2. CAS queries Active Directory 4 1 3 a. Mailbox location (AD site) b. Mailbox version AD Site 2 AD Site 1 c. RpcClientAccessServer property of mailbox database3. CAS tells Outlook which CAS or CAS CAS CAS 2010 2 2010 array should be used for directory requests4. Outlook connects to the appropriate CAS MBX 2010 GC MBX 2010 GC If mailbox is moved back to 2003/2007, CAS will redirect the client to the mailbox server so that it can provide a referral to a global catalog server Otherwise, all legacy mailboxes will get directory referrals from mailbox server
  9. 9. Client Access Outlook connectingOutlook anywhere improvements with Outlook Anywhere Outlook Anywhere clients use HTTPS HTTPS the Address Book service on RPC_IN_DATA RPC_OUT_DATA Windows 2008+ CAS for directory-related RPC/HTTP Proxy requests This architecture resolves the RPC_IN_DATA RPC_OUT_DATA issue regarding DSProxy and CAS split HTTP connections that are RPC Client Access and Address Book services due to using SSL-ID load balancing solutions LDAP RPC AD Mailbox
  10. 10. Client AccessWriting to the directory New behavior ensure that Outlook can write changes to Active Directory for the following scenarios Distribution group membership Delegate management Certificate management When the Address Book service detects one of these modifications, it will utilize the appropriate cmdlet to commit the change to Active Directory based on the property tag (assuming user is scoped and authorized to make those changes) Add/Remove-DistributionGroupMember Set-Mailbox -PublicDelegates Set-Mailbox -UserCertificate -UserSMIMECertificate
  11. 11. Client AccessScaling mailbox connections 60K outbound 60K outbound connections / connections / CAS IP (W2K8) MBX server Outlook Anywhere Clients CAS MBX GC Exchange Server 2007 60K connections / MBX server Outlook Clients MBX Exchange Server 2007
  12. 12. Client AccessScaling mailbox connections # of CAS servers x 100 connections / CAS RPCCA service/process MBX Outlook Clients Exchange CAS NLB LDAP GC Exchange Server 2010
  13. 13. Client AccessFirewall/proxy guidelines Internet Security and Acceleration (ISA) Server 2006 Kernel memory limitations imposed by the 32-bit architecture ISA:CAS ratio 3:1 (worst case – heavy Outlook Anywhere usage) Important when you have a large percentage of your users connected via Outlook Anywhere, as the ratio of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connections to users is much higher than you would see for Outlook Web Access (OWA), ActiveSync, POP, or IMAP traffic Beyond ISA 2006 … pre-release product information Forefront Unified Access Gateway (UAG) Next-generation secure remote access product and the future version of Microsoft Intelligent Application Gateway—native 64-bit architecture Will be tested with Exchange Server 2010 Forefront Threat Management Gateway (TMG) Next-generation network security product and the future version of Microsoft ISA Server—native 64-bit architecture Will be tested with Exchange Server 2010
  14. 14. Client AccessArchitectural considerations Versioning Exchange 2010 CAS required in every AD site where Exchange 2010 MBX is deployed Exchange 2007 MBX requires Exchange 2007 CAS Load balancing If planning on deploying more than 8 CAS servers in a load balanced array, consider deploying hardware load balancing solution If CAS is co-located with highly available Mailbox server, then non-Windows NLB solution is needed (e.g., hardware load balancer, ISA load balancing, or third-party software- based load balancing)
  15. 15. Architectural Changes
  16. 16. Transport RolesResiliency issues in Exchange 2007 Transport database is stateful Loss of service results in loss of mail Transport dumpster impacts the environment In extreme cases, up to 200% increase in IOPS/message due to many SGs and inefficient cache usage when compared to similar scenarios without dumpster Redelivery submission results in entire quota being redelivered and store removing duplicates
  17. 17. Transport RolesExchange 2010 resiliency improvements Shadow redundancy is a new feature of transport Provides redundancy for messages for the entire time they are in transit Transport becomes stateless Eliminates need for RAID, which reduces 50% write I/O Transport Dumpster Changes Database replication feedback is now used to control which messages remain in transport dumpster When message has been replicated to all database copies, message is truncated from transport dumpster Transport dumpster size is now based on log replication latency and frequency of feedback
  18. 18. Transport RolesHow does shadow redundancy work? 1. Hub (shadow) delivers message to Hub Edge1 (primary) Detects that Edge1 supports Transport 1 redundancy through XSHADOW verb Hub moves message to shadow queue and stamps Edge1 as current, primary ownerEdge1 Edge2 2. Edge1 (primary) receives message 2 (becomes “primary owner”) Edge1 delivers message to next hop Edge1 updates discard status of the Foreign message indicating delivery complete MTA to foreign MTA
  19. 19. Transport RolesHow does shadow redundancy work? 3. Success: Hub (shadow) queries Edge1 (primary) for expiry status Hub Hub issues XQDISCARD command (next SMTP Session),Edge1 checks local discard status and 4 1 3 responds with list of messages considered delivered  Hub deletes messages from its shadow queue 4. Failure: Hub (shadow) queries Edge1 (primary)Edge1 Edge2 discard status and resubmits 2 Hub opens SMTP session, issued XQDISCARD command (heartbeat)—if Hub can’t contact Edge1 within timeout, resubmits messages in shadow Foreign queue—resubmitted messages are delivered to MTA Edge2 (go to #1)
  20. 20. Transport RolesShadow redundancy: other scenarios For systems that do not support shadow redundancy, Exchange 2010 utilizes a delayed acknowledgement process SMTP submission from Exchange 2003/2007, 3rd party Message Transfer Agent( MTA ) and Mail User Agent (MUA - UM, POP and IMAP clients) 250 response delayed up to 30 sec (default) If transport server fails before ack, client resubmits Mailbox Submission redundancy relies on copy of message in sender’s “Sent Items” folder Mail Submission Service resubmits copy when hub doesn’t acknowledge successful delivery of message System generated (Journal Report, NDR) are considered “side effects” of original message submission, tracked as part of original delivery status
  21. 21. Transport RolesExchange 2010 performance enhancements ESE changes: ESE page size is 32KB ESE database page compression Intrinsic long value record storage ESE version store maintenance DB cache size increased to 1GB Checkpoint depth increased to 512MB Results: With transport dumpster changes and ESE improvements, transport IOPS requirements are targeted to be reduced by more than 50% Larger message sizes are supported without causing backpressure
  22. 22. Transport RolesEdge transport improvements Better Performance for EdgeSync via Deltasync Mode Under this mode, each time EdgeSync service only reads the delta change since last sync and updates the target accordingly Support for safe senders and blocked senders Configurable Safe List quotas Administrator defined blocked senders Automatic update of Safe Sender list propagation into Active Directory
  23. 23. Transport RolesResilient routing for co-located HA Mailbox/Transport Hub Transport attempts to re-route a message for a local Mailbox server to another Hub Transport server in same site if the Hub Transport server is also a DAG member and it has a copy of the mailbox database mounted locally Mail Submission service was modified so that it would prefer to not submit messages to a local Hub Transport role when Mailbox/Hub server is a member of a DAG. The behavior is to load balance across other Hub Transport servers in same AD site, and fall back to local Hub Transport server if there are no other available Hub Transport servers in the same site
  24. 24. Transport RolesArchitectural considerations Shadow redundancy enables RAID-less solutions for mail.que database Routing version boundary change: Exchange 2010 Mailbox servers can only submit to Exchange 2010 Hub Transport servers and Exchange 2010 Hub Transport servers can only deliver to Exchange 2010 Mailbox servers Exchange 2007 Mailbox servers can only submit to Exchange 2007 Hub Transport servers and Exchange 2007 Hub Transport servers can only deliver to Exchange 2007 Mailbox servers Exchange 2010 Hub Transport servers can communicate with Exchange 2007 Hub Transport servers via SMTP (and vice versa) For Edge, Exchange 2010 Hub Transport will become authoritative for Edgesync in the coexistence scenario
  25. 25. Architectural Changes
  26. 26. MailboxStore/ESE changes Exchange 2007 Issues Exchange Server 2010 Exchange does many small, random Exchange store schema and ESE optimized for fewer large, smoother, sequential I/Os input/outputs (I/Os) which inhibit the types of •Store schema changes disks that can be used •DB I/O size improvements •Database cache effectiveness improvements •ESE optimized for new store schema Result: Exchange 2010 reduces I/O by an additional 70% when compared to Exchange Server 2007 and is optimized for SATA class disks Large item count per folder is an issue due to Schema changes of the table structure and deferred index updates greatly improves restricted view performance restricted views (affects large mailbox deployments) Result: Supports 100,000 items per folder Outlook Personal Folder Files (PSTs) are a New Messaging Records Management features •Item level policy settings litigation, security, and management nightmare •Archive mailbox feature for importing and storing PST data •Compliance Officer search capabilities Result: PSTs can be removed by placing data into Exchange repository and can be searched easilyAttend UNC304 – Storage in Exchange Server 2010 – Today @ 5:00 PM, Arena 2
  27. 27. MailboxHigh availability changes Single-copy cluster Cluster Continuous Exchange Server 2010 Replication High Availability*Over granularity Server-level Server-level Database-levelCopies of data 1 2 2 to 16*Over time ~2 min ~2 min ~30 sec (POR)*Over management Windows Cluster Windows Cluster Exchange ServerData replication SCR or 3rd party replication Continuous replication Continuous replicationManagement tools Separate Separate UnifiedHost other roles? No No Yes Other advantages Step up to automatic failover without rebuilding the mailbox server Incrementally add replicated copies to meet business needs No subnet or special DNS requirements Attend UNC303 – High Availability in Exchange Server 2010 – Today @ 3:30 PM, Arena 1B
  28. 28. MailboxArchitectural considerations Streaming backup support has been removed Utilize direct-attached storage (DAS) solutions to reduce costs with large mailboxes and continuous replication Leverage the Storage Cost Calculator Deploy Database Availability Groups (DAGs) and use replication to achieve high availability If deploying 3 or more database copies, consider RAID-less storage design and combining logs and database on same spindles Ensure unique database names across the organization
  29. 29. MailboxArchitectural considerations Large mailbox support (10 GB+) enables different scenarios Deploy Office 2007 Service Pack 2 (SP2) or later Leverage records management functionality Scenario 1: Deploy a single mailbox to contain all data Scenario 2: Deploy primary mailbox to support 1-2 years worth of data Deploy archive mailboxes to allow end users to retain long-term needed data
  30. 30. MailboxPublic Folders Co-existence support between Mailbox server 2010 and Mailbox server 2003/2007 Outlook can access public folder data from Exchange 2010, 2007, or 2003 OWA 2010 only gives access to public folders with replicas located on Exchange 2010 This is different from OWA 2007, which had a redirection behavior, opening up OWA 2000/2003 for public folders on older mailbox servers in separate browser windows Get-PublicFolderStatistics now captures last user access Unlike Exchange 2007, public folder stores can no longer be enabled for continuous replication, but you can create a public folder store on a mailbox server that resides in a DAG Public Folder replication is your data resiliency solution
  31. 31. Agenda Discuss the topology changes introduced in Exchange Server 2010 Understand our guidance on server sizing
  32. 32. Scale Out vs. Scale Up Scale out is a strategic choice made by Microsoft Focus is on supporting large mailboxes at low cost, goal to further decrease input/output (I/O) to reduce Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) Scaling up increases risk that an outage or failure affects more users Scaling out provides an opportunity for high availability at low cost
  33. 33. Processor Core Scalability Single role servers Beta/RC: 12 cores maximum No benefit moving to 16 cores from a performance perspective High scale all-in-one server—currently under investigation Beta/RC: 16 cores max
  34. 34. Client AccessRC sizing guidance Since CAS role is now a true middle-tier solution, CAS servers require beefier hardware CAS to Mailbox processor core ratio changes drastically as a result of RPC Client Access service (3:4) Processor/Memory requirements: 8 cores recommended 2 GB RAM/core recommended (8 GB min)
  35. 35. TransportRC sizing guidance Memory and processor requirements are staying inline with Exchange 2007 requirements Processor/Memory requirements: 4 cores recommended 1 GB RAM/core recommended Transport rule attachment scanning and content encryption technologies may impact these guidelines
  36. 36. MailboxRC sizing guidance Use 4 – 8 total cores for mailbox 16 cores shows decline in throughput on single role machines RAM 4GB base RAM for content indexing and mailbox assistants 2-8MB per mailbox recommended for database cache and will be based on message profile and mailbox size Example: Light Message Profile with 10+GB mailbox – 8MB memory Size and prepare disks correctly Use storage calculator
  37. 37. Unified MessagingRC sizing guidance Use 4 cores 4-8 GB of RAM recommended More than 8 GB is not shown to improve TCO or scale Not recommended combining with other roles Audio quality can be affected Place close to the mailbox servers that host UM- enabled mailboxes Voice mail preview may impact these guidelines
  38. 38. Exchange 2010 Ratio Guidelines Processor core ratios Client Access Server (CAS) : Mailbox = 3 : 4 Hub Transport server : Mailbox = 1 : 7 (no A/V on Hub) = 1 : 5 (with A/V Hub) Edge guidance expected to be very similar to Exchange Server 2007 GC: Mailbox = 1 : 4 (32–bit GC) = 1 : 8 (64-bit GC)
  39. 39. Tools Profiling Exchange Profile Analyzer (EPA) Performance Monitor (Perfmon) Sizing Exchange 2010 Mailbox Storage Requirements Calculator Validation Jetstress 2010 - Exchange Load Generator “Loadgen” Remote Connectivity Analyzer – Monitoring Exchange 2010 Management Pack -
  40. 40. Key Takeaways Exchange Server 2010 introduces several paradigm shifts Client connections are performed through Client Access Server role Shadow redundancy introduces message resiliency within transport pipeline High Availability, store, and new compliance scenarios improve data retention, resiliency, and availability There are changes to server sizing and scalability, most notably with CAS
  41. 41. Resources Sessions On-Demand & Community Microsoft Certification & Training Resources Resources for IT Professionals Resources for Developers
  42. 42. Related ContentBreakout SessionsUNC302 Exchange 2010 ArchitectureUNC304 Storage in Exchange 2010UNC305 Exchange 2010 VoicemailUNC306 Migrating to Exchange 2010: Deployment Best PracticesUNC308 Migration and Co-existence with Exchange/Non-Exchange and Exchange OnlineHands-on LabsUNC11-HOL Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 Governance and ArchivingUNC13-HOL Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 Server Management ToolsUNC14-HOL Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 Setup and DeploymentUNC15-HOL Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 Transport RoutingUNC17-HOL Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 Unified Messaging Configuration andInteroperability with Microsoft Office Communications Server 2007 R2Instructor Led LabsUNC14-ILL Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 Setup and Deployment
  43. 43. Track ResourcesExchange Server 2010 Release Candidate Download (English) Server 2010 Documentation Exchange Team Blog Posts in Exchange Server 2010 Forums Communications Server Team Blog Posts
  44. 44. Evaluation Prize Complete an evaluation on CommNet and enter to win an award winning JABRA premium DECT headset 5 to win per day RRP $599
  45. 45. © 2009 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries.The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.