CHAPTER 8 SECTION 4-THE GROWTH
OF NATIONALISM AND THE ELECTION
March 12/13, 2014
By the end of today’s class, you should be
Describe nationalism home and abroad.
Identify the Monroe Doctrine and it’s important
Identify the candidates in the Election of 1824,
discuss the outcomes, and describe the term
The Growth of Nationalism
After the War of 1812, Nationalism surges.
Americans are becoming more self confident and
encourage economic growth.
People begin to realize themselves as part of a
country instead of separate states. People view
themselves as 1 country, under a national
Madison inspired the postwar wave of nationalism
through economic development and military
he Supreme Court-Nationalism at
Led by Chief Justice John Marshall, the Supreme Court became a strong
support of nationalism. These decisions strengthened the Federal
Government’s role in the economy.
(1) McCulloch v. Maryland: (1819)
-Background: In 1816, Congress chartered the Second Bank of the United
States. In 1818, Maryland passed legislation to impose taxes on the bank.
Cashier, James McCulloch refused to pay the tax.
-Issues: Does Congress have the authority to establish the bank? Did the
Maryland law interfere with congressional powers.
-Results: In a unanimous decision, the Court held that Congress had the
power to incorporate the bank and that Maryland could not tax instruments of
the national government. Chief Justice Marshall noted that Congress
possessed implied powers not explicitly outlined in the Constitution. Balance
between state and federal power.
The Supreme Court
(2) Gibbons v. Ogden
-Background: A New York state law gave to individuals the exclusive
right to operate steamboats on waters within state jurisdiction.
Issue: Thomas Gibbons -- a steamboat owner who did business
between New York and New Jersey under a federal coastal license --
challenged the monopoly license granted by New York to Aaron
Results: In an unanimous decision, the Court found that New York's
licensing requirement for out-of-state operators was inconsistent with a
congressional act regulating the coasting trade. Regulation of
navigation by steamboat operators and others for purposes of
conducting interstate commerce was a power reserved to and
exercised by the Congress. So, the power to regulate interstate
commerce was granted to Congress.
Nationalism Abroad-The Monroe
At age 58, James Monroe is elected
President in 1817. Monroe is next in
the “Virginian Dynasty” (Washington,
Adams, Jefferson, Madison)
The most notable moment in his
administration was the Monroe
Doctrine. The Monroe Doctrine was a
policy of the United States introduced
on December 2, 1823. Monroe, was
concerned about Spain reclaiming
sovereignty in the Western
So, he asks former Presidents,
Jefferson and Madison for advice.
Both told Monroe to join forces with
Britain (not what he wanted to hear!)
However, John Quincy Adams
suggests the US “go at it alone.”
The Monroe Doctrine
During his message to Congress, President
Monroe essentially declared that the United
States would not tolerate intervention in the
America’s by European nations. Monroe also
promised that the United States would not
interfere with already established
colonies/governments in Europe.
In one sense, the Monroe Doctrine can be viewed
as an act of isolationism. Also was referred to as
“the last step towards independence.” Despite the
popularity of the Monroe Doctrine at home, it
carried virtually no force.
The Election of 1824
In 1824, there was no clear favorite to win the
election for President of the US. Candidate
Adams was known as a “monarchist” with an
English wife. Clay was known as a drunkard and
gambler. Jackson was known as a “murderer.”
The Election of 1824 featured 4 candidates from
the same political party. Despite their flaws, these
men were called “favorite son” candidates and
were very popular in their own area of the country.
Let’s explore the 4 candidates.
John Quincy Adams
He was the son of John
Adams, the only Federalist
Adams was Monroe’s
Secretary of State-not
automatic he would be
He was the favorite son of the
He favored a high protective
tariff, was against slavery, and
supported the freedom of
Secretary of State, and Speaker
of the House.
From Kentucky, he was the
favorite son of the West.
Clay is the most visible
candidate, known as being a
Supports the American system
Slave holder, but he disapproves
of it as a system -South doesn’t
Because of differing views, he
and Adams dislike one another.
William H. Crawford of Georgia
was born in Virginia and hoped
to continue the “Virginia
Former secretary of war, he
was the favorite son of the
He has the support of
members of Congress, but has
Despite this he emerges as a
leading candidate, but he
He was a Senator from Tennessee and
Jackson's reputation as an Indian fighter
and western expansionist, owing to his
military escapades in Spanish Florida,
gave him national standing above all
He was one of the favorite sons of the
West, since he drew Western support
He was referred to “as the next George
He is “an outsider” so political views and
Jackson receives the most popular votes and
electoral votes, but he was not declared winner
since he did not receive a majority of electoral
The 12th Amendment provided that elections in
which no candidate received a majority should be
decided by the House of Representatives from
among the top three candidates
Clay was out of contention and Crawford was an
unlikely prospect because of a serious illness.
The race is now between Adams and Jackson.
Jackson clearly expected to win, figuring that the
House would act to confirm his strong showing.
The Corrupt Bargain
Clay, as Speaker of the House, used his influence
to sway the vote towards Adams. Although they
were not close, Clay knew that he and Adams
shared a common political philosophy.
It is likely that Clay believed Adams was more
experienced, but he knew an Adams victory would
benefit his career. Clay, wanting nothing to do with
furthering the career of Jackson, supposedly
received a bargain from Adams.
The bargain was that Clay would forge a coalition
with Adams, essentially giving him further votes.
In return, Clay is named secretary of state!
Jackson and his supporters outraged, called it
“corrupt bargain.” Jackson referred to Clay as
“The Judas of the West.”
Election of 1828
Whether or not a deal was actually done became
irrelevant. Adams was an inept president and his
administration was crippled with the “corrupt
Jackson, unhappy with the results of the Election
of 1824, starts campaigning in 1825 and works
hard for the next 3 years ensuring next time he is
The election is a rematch of the Election of 1824,
with John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson.
Jackson will run his campaign based on the policy
that he is for and supports the common man.
For homework, please finish the Jackson
Summarize the following sections of Chapter 8