Building The New American Nation Chapters 5-6.1
National  Treasure  (2004) <ul><li>From Jerry Bruckheimer, producer of &quot;Pirates Of The Caribbean,&quot; and Jon Turte...
 
Shays’ Rebellion <ul><li>Shays's Rebellion ,  1786–87, armed insurrection by farmers in W Massachusetts against the state ...
<ul><li>The man who rose to lead the insurgents was Captain Daniel Shays (1747?-1825), a veteran of the Revolution and a f...
Sketches of Shays’s Rebellion
The Articles of Confederation <ul><li>The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before the ...
<ul><li>Richard Henry Lee introduced a historic resolution to the Second Continental Congress in June 1776 that called for...
The Old Northwest/Land Ordinance of 1785 <ul><li>It is interesting to note that only two laws of lasting significance were...
 
Also under the Articles… <ul><li>Native Americans suffered a huge defeat at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in august, 1794. ...
Weaknesses of the Articles <ul><li>The following are the major challenges to governing through the  Articles of Confederat...
No power to <ul><li>Enforce its own laws </li></ul><ul><li>Collect taxes or duties </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate trade with f...
The Constitutional Convention/The Miracle in Philadelphia <ul><li>Delegates showed up in Philadelphia to revise the Articl...
Fascinating Facts @ the Constitution <ul><li>The Constitution has 4,440 words.  It is the oldest and the shortest written ...
Constitution  Trivia a la Ben <ul><li>The Constitution was drafted in 1787.  </li></ul><ul><li>James Madison is often call...
The Constitutional Convention <ul><li>The Philadelphia Convention of 1787 (also known as the Federal Convention or the Con...
<ul><li>Advocates of reform exchanged correspondence to muster support for a convention to revise the Articles, laying the...
<ul><li>The convention consisted of states' governors, chief justices, attorneys general, and many delegates to the Confed...
<ul><li>Some leading figures were not present: John Adams and Thomas Jefferson were the American ministers to London and P...
<ul><li>Other difficulties facing them included the method of electing the chief executive, or president—solved by the inv...
<ul><li>The convention discarded the Articles and framed an entirely new constitution. They based their work on a set of r...
Virginia Plan <ul><li>Under the Virginia Plan, population or some other proportional measure would determine representatio...
New Jersey Plan <ul><li>William Paterson proposed that each state  </li></ul><ul><li>regardless of size and population sho...
The Great Compromise <ul><li>Also called the Connecticut Compromise was authored by Roger Sherman.  It called for proporti...
3/5’s Compromise <ul><li>In order to accommodate the South, population would be counted including the slaves within the st...
Rising Sun Chair <ul><li>In 1787 at a Constitutional Convention, Benjamin Franklin was waiting to sign a document that wou...
<ul><li>After the Constitutional Convention--Nov. 13, 1789, Ben Franklin quipped:  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Our new Constitutio...
ELECTORAL COLLEGE <ul><li>The electoral college is the method stipulated in Article II, Section 1, of the Constitution for...
The 3 Branches of Government/Separation of Powers <ul><li>Judicial—interprets the law </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative—enacts...
Checks and Balances <ul><li>Power would be divided among three parts of the gov’t.  No person could serve in more than one...
Checks and Balances in the Federal Government <ul><li>Executive Branch—President </li></ul><ul><li>May check the Judicial ...
Roles of the President <ul><li>1.  Chief Executive </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Commander in Chief </li></ul><ul><li>3.  Head of ...
Loose Construction vs. Strict Construction <ul><li>loose construction :   A loose or liberal interpretation of an issue. C...
<ul><li>This clause became the center of controversy from the early days of the nation when Alexander Hamilton and Thomas ...
<ul><li>The Federalists were originally those forces in favor of the ratification of the Constitution and were typified by...
Federalists  vs.  Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Leader-- John Adams, Alexander Hamilton </li></ul><ul><li>For a strong central ...
The Federalist Papers <ul><li>These are a series of eighty-five letters written to newspapers in 1787-1788 by Alexander Ha...
Alexander Hamilton <ul><li>Alexander Hamilton  was an American politician, statesman, journalist, lawyer, and soldier. One...
The Bill of Rights <ul><li>I - Freedom of Speech, Press, Religion and Petition </li></ul><ul><li>II - Right to keep and be...
<ul><li>I - Freedom of Speech, Press, Religion and Petition </li></ul><ul><li>Congress shall make no law respecting an est...
<ul><li>VI - Right to a speedy trial, witnesses, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall en...
Amendments <ul><li>XI - Judicial Powers Construed </li></ul><ul><li>XII - Manner of Choosing a President and Vice-Presiden...
Reasons why the Constitution was Ratified <ul><li>The ratification, or adoption, of the Constitution took place between Se...
Real Reasons Why it was ratified <ul><li>1.  George Washington was for it and he was usually right. </li></ul><ul><li>2.  ...
The Ratification of the Constitution <ul><li>The ratification controversy pitted supporters of the Constitution, who claim...
The Secret Deal <ul><li>In 1790, as the result of a compromise between a number of Southern congressmen and Alexander Hami...
The Ratification of the Constitution <ul><li>The struggle for ratification of the Constitution was both a direct, unabashe...
The Federal City/District of Columbia <ul><li>Near Mount Vernon. In the South, belonging to no state, it is a Federal Dist...
Pierre L’Enfant <ul><li>In 1784 L'Enfant came back to America and settled in New York City, where he was soon recognized a...
Benjamin Banneker <ul><li>Also among Banneker's talents was a remarkable memory.  When President Washington decided to mov...
BENJAMIN BANNEKER  (1731-1806)  <ul><li>  BENJAMIN BANNEKER   was probably the best-known African American in early United...
Did Ben really want the turkey to be the symbol of the United States of America? <ul><li>In a letter to his daughter, Benj...
Ben’s Other Folly <ul><li>Sure, George Washington is referred to as the First President of the United States, but Ben advo...
George Washington <ul><li>Washington’s Administration: </li></ul><ul><li>Cabinet:  A precedent </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary...
Presidential Precedents under Washington <ul><li>1.  Chooses the Cabinet members. </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Only served two te...
Martha Dandridge Parke-Custis Washington   <ul><li>Two years after the death of her first husband, Martha Dandridge Custis...
Events during Washington’s Administration <ul><li>The Report on Public Credit  by Alexander Hamilton </li></ul><ul><li>Neu...
<ul><li>As the first President, Washington appointed the entire Supreme Court, a feat almost repeated by President Frankli...
Alexander Hamilton’s Plan <ul><li>National Debt=National blessing </li></ul><ul><li>Assume all of the colonies’ debts at p...
First Bank of the United States   <ul><li>The establishment of the Bank raised early questions of constitutionality in the...
Citizen Genet <ul><li>Citizen Edmond Genet shows up in Washington to drum up American support for the French Revolution. <...
Election of 1792 <ul><li>George  WASHINGTON  Party: FEDERALIST  Home State: VA Electoral Votes: 132  </li></ul><ul><li>Joh...
The Whiskey Rebellion 1794 <ul><li>Unrest existed in many areas of the West, particularly west of the Alleghenies. Primary...
<ul><li>Excise taxes are &quot;internal&quot; taxes levied against specific goods made or used within a country. Historica...
<ul><li>If Washington had ever had an army of 13,000 men during the Revolutionary War, he might have won a few more battle...
John Jay  1745 – 1829   <ul><li>John Jay  was an American politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat and jurist. He is...
Jay’s Treaty 1795 <ul><li>Sent by Washington to England to sign a treaty that is concerned with the stopping of impressmen...
Pinckney Treaty 1796 <ul><li>Pinckney's Treaty , October 27, 1795 established intentions of friendship between the United ...
Ben’s Last Act <ul><li>Bothered by the Constitution’s inability to outlaw the inhumane practice in America, Franklin, who ...
Benjamin Franklin's Funeral and Grave He Was Able to Restrain Thunderbolts and Tyrants   <ul><li>As a young man in 1728, F...
Election of 1796 <ul><li>George Washington, worn-out, stung by criticism and yearning for the pleasures of Mount Vernon, r...
John Adams <ul><li>Adams' frustration was ended by his victory in the presidential election of 1796. Running as the Federa...
The XYZ Affair <ul><li>In 1797, President Adams labored to defuse growing tensions with France by sending two new diplomat...
Quasi-War With France <ul><li>In an effort to resolve differences with France that had accumulated between the two nations...
The Alien and Sedition Acts <ul><li>In 1798, the Federalist-controlled Congress passed a series of laws which, on the surf...
The VA and KY Resolutions <ul><li>The Jeffersonians argued quite rightly that the Sedition Act violated the terms of the F...
The Election of 1800 <ul><li>The pre-election atmosphere in 1800 was colored by the Alien and Sedition Acts controversy, w...
Aaron Burr <ul><li>Aaron Burr was a Senator from New York and a Vice President of the United States; born in Newark, N.J.,...
<ul><li>Hamilton had become a mortal enemy of Aaron Burr. The former had thrown his support to Thomas Jefferson, a politic...
Thomas Jefferson <ul><li>Thomas Jefferson wished to be remembered for three achievements in his public life. He had served...
Thomas Jefferson <ul><li>Thomas Jefferson  was the third President of the United States, second (1797–1801) Vice President...
The Jefferson Administration <ul><li>Midnight Judges </li></ul><ul><li>Tripolitan War—Barbary Pirates </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
Monticello <ul><li>Jefferson inherited about 5,000 acres (20 km²) of land and dozens of slaves from his father, out of whi...
John Marshall <ul><li>The contributions of Marshall as Chief Justice are hard to overestimate. His opinions established th...
Sally Hemings <ul><li>Sally Hemings  was a slave, probably born at Guinea Plantation, Cumberland County, Virginia, who was...
Barbary Pirates in Tripoli <ul><li>Inundated by many other problems which required immediate attention - border wars with ...
The Marine Hymn <ul><li>From the Halls of Montezuma, To the Shores of Tripoli; We fight our country's battles In the air, ...
Gabriel Prosser <ul><li>Gabriel Prosser (ca. 1775-1800) was the African American slave leader of an unsuccessful revolt in...
<ul><li>On the day of the attack the plot was disclosed by two slaves who did not want their masters slain; then Virginia ...
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
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Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
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Building The New American Nation131
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Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
Building The New American Nation131
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Building The New American Nation131

  1. 1. Building The New American Nation Chapters 5-6.1
  2. 2. National Treasure (2004) <ul><li>From Jerry Bruckheimer, producer of &quot;Pirates Of The Caribbean,&quot; and Jon Turteltaub, director of &quot;Phenomenon&quot;, comes &quot;National Treasure.&quot; It's the thrilling, edge-of-your-seat adventure starring Academy Award winner Nicolas Cage (1995 Best Actor, &quot;Leaving Las Vegas&quot;) as Benjamin Franklin Gates. Ever since he was a boy, Gates has been obsessed with finding the legendary Knights Templar Treasure, the greatest fortune known to man. As Gates tries to find and decipher ancient riddles that will lead him to it, he's dogged by a ruthless enemy (Sean Bean, &quot;The Lord Of The Rings&quot; trilogy) who wants the riches for himself. Now in a race against time, Gates must steal one of America's most sacred and guarded documents - the Declaration of Independence - or let it, and a key clue to the mystery, fall into dangerous hands. Heart-pounding chases, close calls and the FBI turn Gates' quest into a high-stakes crime caper and one of the most exciting treasure hunt you've ever experienced. </li></ul><ul><li>Plot Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Benjamin Franklin Gates descends from a family of treasure-seekers who've all hunted for the same thing: a war chest hidden by the Founding Fathers after the Revolutionary War. Ben's close to discovering its whereabouts, as is his competition, but the FBI is also hip to the hunt. </li></ul><ul><li>Since childhood, Benjamin Franklin Gates has known that he is descended from a long line of people whose job is to guard a treasure hidden by the Founding Fathers, who hid clues to its whereabouts in the country's currency and on the back of the Declaration of Independence. Now, he has learned of a plot to steal the Declaration, and has only one option: steal it himself. Even if he pulls off this monumental task, keeping the treasure safe is still going to be incredibly hard, especially since the FBI has also gotten wind of the scheme. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Ben Gates comes from a family of treasure hunters. Now his grandfather believes that the Forefathers buried a treasure somewhere in the country and have placed clues everywhere but unfortunately the clues are highly cryptic and scattered all over the place. Now Ben thinks he has found it but it only leads him to another clue which is on the back of the Declaration of Independence. Now one of his associates Ian wants to steal it so that they could get the clue but Ben refuses to do it so he tries to kill Ben. But Ben evades him and tries to warn the authorities about Ian's plans but they don't believe him. So Ben takes it upon himself to steal it in order to protect it. And he does but Abigail Chase the curator of the National Archives, where it is kept, discovers what he has done and tries to stop him, but gets caught in the crossfire between Ben and Ian, so Ben takes her with him. While she doesn't believe him, he is determined to prove he is right about the treasure. But it won't be easy cause Ian's always a step behind him and he is being hunted by the FBI. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  3. 4. Shays’ Rebellion <ul><li>Shays's Rebellion , 1786–87, armed insurrection by farmers in W Massachusetts against the state government. Debt-ridden farmers, struck by the economic depression that followed the American Revolution, petitioned the state senate to issue paper money and to halt foreclosure of mortgages on their property and their own imprisonment for debt as a result of high land taxes. Sentiment was particularly high against the commercial interests who controlled the state senate in Boston, and the lawyers who hastened the farmers' bankruptcy by their exorbitant fees for litigation. When the state senate failed to undertake reform, armed insurgents in the Berkshire Hills and the Connecticut valley, under the leadership of Daniel Shays and others, began (Aug., 1786) forcibly to prevent the county courts from sitting to make judgments for debt. In September they forced the state supreme court at Springfield to adjourn. Early in 1787, Gov. James Bowdoin appointed Gen. Benjamin Lincoln to command 4,400 men against the rebels. Before these troops arrived at Springfield, Gen. William Shepard's soldiers there had repelled an attack on the federal arsenal. The rebels, losing several men, had dispersed, and Lincoln's troops pursued them to Petersham, where they were finally routed. Shays escaped to Vermont. Most of the leaders were pardoned almost immediately, and Shays was finally pardoned in June, 1788. The rebellion influenced Massachusetts's ratification of the U.S. Constitution; it also swept Bowdoin out of office and achieved some of its legislative goals. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>The man who rose to lead the insurgents was Captain Daniel Shays (1747?-1825), a veteran of the Revolution and a farmer from Pelham. The Supreme Judicial Court had indicted eleven other leaders for sedition, more would follow. Shays and 1,500 followers, many wearing their old Continental Army uniforms with a sprig of hemlock in their hats, occupied the Springfield Courthouse from September 25th to 28th, preventing the Supreme Judicial Court from sitting. Governor James Bowdoin assembled 4,400 militiamen under the command of General Benjamin Lincoln to defend the courts and protect the Commonwealth. </li></ul><ul><li>Shays and the others insurgents chose the Federal Arsenal in Springfield to be the next target. General Lincoln marched to defend the debtor court in Worcester on January 20th. Shays, with 2,000 farmers behind him, assaulted the arsenal on January 25, 1787. General William Shepard successfully defended the arsenal with 1,200 local militiamen. The rebels suffered four dead and twenty wounded in the attack. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Sketches of Shays’s Rebellion
  6. 7. The Articles of Confederation <ul><li>The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before the Constitution....there was The Articles of Confederation-- in effect, the first constitution of the United States. Drafted in 1777 by the same Continental Congress that passed the Declaration of Independence, the articles established a &quot;firm league of friendship&quot; between and among the 13 states. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created during the throes of the Revolutionary War, the Articles reflect the wariness by the states of a strong central government. Afraid that their individual needs would be ignored by a national government with too much power, and the abuses that often result from such power, the Articles purposely established a &quot;constitution&quot; that vested the largest share of power to the individual states. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Under the Articles each of the states retained their &quot;sovereignty, freedom and independence.&quot; Instead of setting up executive and judicial branches of government, there was a committee of delegates composed of representatives from each state. These individuals comprised the Congress, a national legislature called for by the Articles. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Congress was responsible for conducting foreign affairs, declaring war or peace, maintaining an army and navy and a variety of other lesser functions. But the Articles denied Congress the power to collect taxes, regulate interstate commerce and enforce laws. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually, these shortcomings would lead to the adoption of the U.S. Constitution. But during those years in which the 13 states were struggling to achieve their independent status, the Articles of Confederation stood them in good stead. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted by Congress on November 15, 1777, the Articles became operative on March 1, 1781 when the last of the 13 states signed on to the document. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Richard Henry Lee introduced a historic resolution to the Second Continental Congress in June 1776 that called for that body’s endorsement of independence. At the same time, he also proposed that “a plan of confederation be prepared and transmitted to the respective colonies . . ..” A few days later, Congress appointed John Dickinson to head a committee charged with drafting such a plan. </li></ul><ul><li>The fruits of the committee’s labors, “The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union,” were presented to Congress in July and touched off more than a year of spirited debate. </li></ul><ul><li>The formal declaration of independence had made it necessary for the states to form some type of central authority. Sentiment for a strong government was not great, however; the states were then involved in a life-and-death struggle with an egregiously powerful central authority, King George III and his ministers, and many Americans feared the substitution of one form of tyranny for another. </li></ul><ul><li>In the fall debates, two stumbling blocks were overcome by Congress: </li></ul><ul><li>Representation. It was agreed that the states would be equally represented in the new governing body — each state would have a single vote. The more populous states gave up on their plea for proportional representation. </li></ul><ul><li>Apportionment of Expenses. It was agreed that the relative physical size of a state would determine its obligation to fund the new government. A physical survey of the states was scheduled to determine their sizes. </li></ul><ul><li>The Articles were adopted by Congress in November and transmitted to the states for their consideration. Final ratification was not achieved until March 1, 1781. </li></ul><ul><li>The basic characteristics of the new government included: </li></ul><ul><li>A loose confederation of states, not a strong union with extensive central powers. </li></ul><ul><li>The necessity to have two-thirds (nine of 13) of the states approve proposals before implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>The necessity to have all of the states approve amendments to the Articles. </li></ul><ul><li>The vesting of executive authority in congressional committees, not in a single individual. The loosely organized federal government created by the Articles quickly demonstrated some glaring weaknesses. </li></ul><ul><li>The central government lacked the power to regulate trade, levy taxes and impose tariffs. No uniform paper currency or coinage was authorized; money from many states and of differing values was in circulation. </li></ul><ul><li>The central government also lacked control over foreign affairs, allowing a deplorable situation in which individual states sent envoys to foreign states. Some states had created their own armies, others their own navies. </li></ul><ul><li>In rare instances, when the Congress could agree to enact legislation, there was no judicial system to enforce the laws. </li></ul><ul><li>The end result was far from perfect, but it was a start. </li></ul>
  8. 9. The Old Northwest/Land Ordinance of 1785 <ul><li>It is interesting to note that only two laws of lasting significance were passed during the period of Confederation-the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. </li></ul><ul><li>T he 1785 law created the land system of 640 acres to a section (one mile by one mile) thirty-six sections to a Township and one section per Township (Section 16, in most cases) for the support of public schools for all people. </li></ul><ul><li>T he Northwest Ordinance identified the land north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River as the Northwest Territories and stipulated that, after a period of time under Federal control and after attaining a population of at least 60,000, a portion of the Northwest Territory could petition for statehood as a full and equal part of the USA.  No fewer than three nor more than five states could be created under the Northwest Ordinance.  It was in that manner that Illinois became a state in 1818 with its first capitol-a tiny, two story house in Kaskaskia. </li></ul><ul><li>W hile those brilliant and far-reaching laws were being passed under a failing form of government, this area was still not a frontier, but a pristine wilderness.  And, it was only two long lifetimes ago. </li></ul><ul><li>W hen the United States purchased the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803, a NEW Northwest was gained, so the area known as the Northwest Territories became forever known as the OLD NORTHWEST. </li></ul><ul><li>Large area of land created by the Continental Congress in the Northwest Ordinance of July 13, 1787. The region was later called the Old Northwest. </li></ul><ul><li>American settlers poured into the Northwest Territory, which was eventually divided into the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on standards set forth in the Land Ordinance of 1785, settlers could buy land in mile-square blocks. </li></ul><ul><li>They did so in large numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery was prohibited. </li></ul><ul><li>Several British forts nearby led to tensions that eventually broke out into the War of 1812. The American victory in that war ended British claims to any lands in the Northwest Territory. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Also under the Articles… <ul><li>Native Americans suffered a huge defeat at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in august, 1794. General Anthony Wayne broke the power of the Indian confederacy. In the Treaty of Grenville the Indians gave up their claims to the land in the Northwest Territory. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Weaknesses of the Articles <ul><li>The following are the major challenges to governing through the Articles of Confederation . </li></ul><ul><li>The Articles of Confederation created a “Firm league of friendship” between the states, not a strong national government. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress (the central government) was made up of delegates chosen by the states and could conduct foreign affairs, make treaties, declare war, maintain an army and a navy, coin money, and establish post offices. However, measures passed by Congress had to be approved by 9 of the 13 states. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress was severely limited in its powers. It could not raise money by collecting taxes; it had no control over foreign commerce; it could pass laws but could not force the states to comply with them. Thus, the government was dependent on the willingness of the various states to carry out its measures, and often the states refused to cooperate. </li></ul><ul><li>The articles were virtually impossible to amend, so problems could not be corrected. </li></ul><ul><li>There was no executive branch of government. </li></ul>
  11. 13. No power to <ul><li>Enforce its own laws </li></ul><ul><li>Collect taxes or duties </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate trade with foreign countries or between states </li></ul><ul><li>Raise an army </li></ul><ul><li>Set up national courts </li></ul>
  12. 14. The Constitutional Convention/The Miracle in Philadelphia <ul><li>Delegates showed up in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation, but James Madison had already decided that a completely new constitution had to be devised. It was Madison’s idea and he wrote the main framework of what will become our Constitution. The Founding Brothers who met were the well-fed, well-read, well-bred, and the well-wed. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Fascinating Facts @ the Constitution <ul><li>The Constitution has 4,440 words. It is the oldest and the shortest written constitution of any gov’t in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Neither George Washington nor Thomas Jefferson signed it. </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional Convention met at the State House in Philadelphia, PA. </li></ul><ul><li>There were 55 delegates to the Convention. </li></ul><ul><li>It was Ben’s humor that quelled many a spat during the convention. </li></ul><ul><li>Ben used the carpentry analogy for both sides to arrive at compromise. </li></ul><ul><li>Twelve of the Thirteen states were represented. </li></ul><ul><li>Rhode Island did not send delegates to the Convention. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Constitution Trivia a la Ben <ul><li>The Constitution was drafted in 1787. </li></ul><ul><li>James Madison is often called the &quot;Father of the Constitution.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The Constitution became law on June 21, 1788 after 2/3 of the states ratified it. </li></ul><ul><li>The first state to ratify the Constitution was Delaware. PA was second. </li></ul><ul><li>The ninth state to ratify the Constitution was New Hampshire. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all the states had ratified the Constitution by April 30, 1789 when George Washington became the first President of the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>The structure of the document has not changed since it was written. </li></ul><ul><li>Ben commented upon Washington’s chair—it is indeed a sunrise and not a sunset. </li></ul><ul><li>Amendments have provided the flexibility necessary to meet changing circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>The Constitution is preserved for all to view at the National Archives in Washington, DC. </li></ul>
  15. 17. The Constitutional Convention <ul><li>The Philadelphia Convention of 1787 (also known as the Federal Convention or the Constitutional Convention) was a landmark in American and world history. Both its handiwork, the Constitution of the United States, and its example of a people's representatives using reason and experience to decide how to govern themselves had profound influence on subsequent experiments in government. </li></ul><ul><li>The convention met in the State House (now called Independence Hall) in Philadelphia from May 25 to September 17, 1787. Fifty-five delegates from twelve of the thirteen states (Rhode Island did not send delegates) took part in its deliberations. </li></ul><ul><li>The convention was the result of a campaign to reform the first charter of government of the United States, the Articles of Confederation. Throughout the 1780s, politicians who thought in national terms worried that the Confederation faced problems its government was too weak to solve. Former allies, such as France and Spain, and its former adversary, Great Britain, restricted trade with the new nation and hampered America's development of its western territories. The Confederation Congress lacked the power to resolve boundary disputes between the states, to prevent states from imposing tariffs and other restrictions on interstate commerce, or to compel the states to meet requisitions issued to finance the Confederation. The Confederation even lacked an independent source of revenue, and plans in 1781 and 1783 to grant Congress authority to levy a 5 percent tax on imports had failed. Because all thirteen states had to ratify amendments, one state's refusal could block any attempt to amend the Articles. </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Advocates of reform exchanged correspondence to muster support for a convention to revise the Articles, laying the foundation for interstate conferences and conventions seeking similar goals. In 1785, delegates from Maryland and Virginia, meeting in the Mount Vernon Conference, set a precedent for interstate conferences on reform. In 1786, hoping to extend this success, some proposed that the states meet in a convention on commercial matters at Annapolis, Maryland. Twelve delegates from five states gathered there in September; their report, written by Alexander Hamilton of New York, urging a general convention spurred the calling of the Federal Convention. </li></ul><ul><li>On February 21, 1787, the Confederation Congress adopted a resolution authorizing the convention but limited its mandate to revision of the Articles. Several states already had named their delegates and, citing the Annapolis Convention's report, authorized them to take any measures &quot;to render the constitution of government adequate to the exigencies of the Union.&quot; The convention thus began with an inconsistent mandate. </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>The convention consisted of states' governors, chief justices, attorneys general, and many delegates to the Confederation Congress, as well as several distinguished Americans who had agreed to come out of retirement to participate one last time in American politics. Although they followed a wide range of callings—lawyers, physicians, soldiers, clergymen, merchants, and farmers—most of the delegates were well-to-do members of their states' elite; one historian called them the well-bred, well-fed, well-wed, and well-read. </li></ul><ul><li>They fell into several groups: </li></ul><ul><li>1. National political figures: Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania and George Washington of Virginia composed this group. Their willingness to place their prestige at risk by attending the convention testified to its legitimacy and to the severity of the problems facing the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Senior statesmen of American politics: John Dickinson of Delaware, William Livingston of New Jersey, George Mason of Virginia, John Rutledge of South Carolina, and Roger Sherman of Connecticut were among these men. Veterans of colonial politics, they had helped lead the struggle against Great Britain. They brought with them an ability to compromise and a sensitivity to the clashing interests of the several states. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Advocates of state and local interests: These included John Lansing, Jr., of New York, Luther Martin of Maryland, William Paterson of New Jersey, Charles C. Pinckney of South Carolina, and Robert Yates, Jr., of New York. Because they spoke for particular interests, they made it necessary at least to consider localist views and interests in framing the new charter of government. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Architects of national government: Alexander Hamilton of New York, James Madison of Virginia, Charles Pinckney of South Carolina, and James Wilson of Pennsylvania formed this group. Each of these men hoped to make his ideas the basis of the convention's deliberations. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Quiet men: Among these were John Blair of Virginia, Jacob Broome of Delaware, Jared Ingersoll of Pennsylvania, and James McHenry of Maryland. They provided the votes needed to build consensus and to establish grounds for compromise. </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>Some leading figures were not present: John Adams and Thomas Jefferson were the American ministers to London and Paris, John Jay was the Confederation's secretary for foreign affairs in New York City, and Patrick Henry was elected as a representative, but declined because he “smelt a rat.” </li></ul><ul><li>The convention elected Washington as its president and appointed a committee to prepare rules. Two of these were vital to the convention's success. First, as was customary among legislatures in the Anglo-American world, the convention met in secret, which would permit full and free discussion. Second, the delegates were free to change their minds and reopen any matters for further debate. </li></ul><ul><li>The delegates rotated between sessions in full convention and meetings of the Committee of the Whole House, the latter a useful parliamentary procedure permitting informal debate, freedom in stating views, and flexibility in reaching and reconsidering decisions. Select committees worked out compromises, prepared drafts, or formulated a range of solutions to a given problem. The delegates attacked questions piecemeal, debating and deciding on individual aspects. Often a decision on one issue would require them to reconsider other decisions they had reached. They traced a tortuous, crisscrossing route, at times pausing in dismay as they realized that a vote they had just taken had undone the accomplishments of hours or even days of grueling debate. </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>Other difficulties facing them included the method of electing the chief executive, or president—solved by the invention of the electoral college; the counting of slaves in the ratio for apportioning representation and taxation among the states—resolved with the &quot;three-fifths&quot; ratio, under which three-fifths of the slave population would be added to the free population; and the dispute over the need for a bill of rights, a proposal rejected by the convention in its last week. But the delegates devoted little attention to the powers of the president and almost none to the structure of the judiciary or the executive branch, leaving these matters to the new Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>The document approved on September 17, the Constitution of the United States, was a terse outline of government—seven articles of four thousand words. In framing it, the delegates drew on their accumulated experience and memories of colonial, state, and national politics, their familiarity with English constitutional history and classical civilization, and the political ideas of the Age of Enlightenment. Thirty-nine delegates signed the Constitution; the convention sent it to the Confederation Congress for submission to the states, which were to refer it in turn to ratifying conventions chosen by the people. </li></ul><ul><li>James Madison took detailed notes of the convention's debates to educate future generations about the difficulties and challenges of constitution making. Together with convention documents, the notes kept by Madison, John Lansing, Jr., Robert Yates, James McHenry, and other delegates form the basis for the modern understanding of the convention's work. Although these documents had little influence on the workings of the Constitution in its first decades, modern constitutional lawyers use them in preparing arguments about the &quot;original intent&quot; of the Framers. </li></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>The convention discarded the Articles and framed an entirely new constitution. They based their work on a set of resolutions known as the Virginia Plan, largely the work of James Madison. These resolutions proposed the creation of a supreme national government with separate legislative, executive, and judicial branches . </li></ul><ul><li>The convention's principal task was the design of the national legislature. The delegates agreed on the powers they wished to lodge in the new Congress, but disagreed about how the states and the American people would be represented in it. Under the Virginia Plan, population or some other proportional measure would determine representation in both houses of Congress. To protect the principle of state equality, small-state delegates rallied behind William Paterson's New Jersey Plan , which would have preserved each state's equal vote in a one-house Congress with augmented powers. Although the delegates rejected the New Jersey Plan on June 19, it took them nearly a month of further argument before they adopted on July 16 what has been called the Great Compromise , under which the House of Representatives would be apportioned based on population and each state would have two votes in the Senate. </li></ul>
  21. 23. Virginia Plan <ul><li>Under the Virginia Plan, population or some other proportional measure would determine representation in both houses of Congress. To protect the principle of state equality, small-state delegates rallied behind William Paterson's New Jersey Plan, which would have preserved each state's equal vote in a one-house Congress with augmented powers. Although the delegates rejected the New Jersey Plan on June 19, it took them nearly a month of further argument before they adopted on July 16 what has been called the Great Compromise , under which the House of Representatives would be apportioned based on population and each state would have two votes in the Senate. </li></ul><ul><li>The Virginia Plan called for a powerful central government, comprised of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Smaller states were concerned that this plan would not be truly representative of their needs and interests. </li></ul>
  22. 24. New Jersey Plan <ul><li>William Paterson proposed that each state </li></ul><ul><li>regardless of size and population should have one vote to ensure equality. </li></ul><ul><li>To protect the principle of state equality, small-state delegates rallied behind William Paterson's New Jersey Plan, which would have preserved each state's equal vote in a one-house Congress with augmented powers. Although the delegates rejected the New Jersey Plan on June 19 th . </li></ul><ul><li>The alternative plan, the New Jersey Plan, would revise and amend the Articles of Confederation to allow Congress to control trade and taxes, but still provide states with much control and autonomy at the local level. </li></ul>
  23. 25. The Great Compromise <ul><li>Also called the Connecticut Compromise was authored by Roger Sherman. It called for proportional representation in the House of Representatives, and one representative (later changed to two) per state in the Senate. </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves were to be counted among the population as 3/5ths of a person, to satisfy the South. </li></ul><ul><li>Bicameral legislature—House of Representatives and the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>A bicameral lawmaking branch was created. While states were to have equal representation in the Senate regardless of state size, the House of Representatives membership was to be based on state population. In addition to this legislative branch, an executive and judicial branch were formed, and it was agreed that no branch would have more power than the other, through a system of checks and balances. This new plan was known as the Great Compromise. As a result of this work, the Constitution was drafted and presented to the American public on September 17, 1787. </li></ul>
  24. 26. 3/5’s Compromise <ul><li>In order to accommodate the South, population would be counted including the slaves within the state. Slaves were to be counted as 3/5’s of a person—derogatory, definitely, but it did leave the door ajar for better representation of the whole population. </li></ul><ul><li>It was basically done by the South to give them a majority and some control. They feared all along that slavery would be abolished and they could not risk that. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Rising Sun Chair <ul><li>In 1787 at a Constitutional Convention, Benjamin Franklin was waiting to sign a document that would hold the fate and destiny of our nation. As he stood, his eyes fell upon a carving on the back of George Washington's chair, a carving of half a sun. He stared thoughtfully at it for a minute, then proclaimed words that would be remembered forever, &quot;I have often looked at that picture behind the president without being able to tell whether it was a rising or setting sun. Now at length I have the happiness to know that it is indeed a rising, not a setting sun.&quot; </li></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>After the Constitutional Convention--Nov. 13, 1789, Ben Franklin quipped: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Our new Constitution is now established, and has an appearance that promises permanency; but in the world nothing can be said to be certain except death and taxes.” </li></ul>Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
  27. 29. ELECTORAL COLLEGE <ul><li>The electoral college is the method stipulated in Article II, Section 1, of the Constitution for electing the president and vice president. Originally each state chose electors equal in number to its representatives and senators. The electors voted for two candidates each, at least one of whom had to be from another state. The person receiving the most votes became president with the runner-up becoming vice president. If no person received a majority, the House of Representatives was to choose the president and vice president from the three leading candidates. </li></ul><ul><li>The election of 1800, in which Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr were tied in the electoral vote, resulted in passage of the Twelfth Amendment (1804). Electors now cast separate votes for president and vice president; in the event of ties the House of Representatives is to choose the president and the Senate the vice president. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern critics note that the electoral college has several potentially dangerous flaws. For example, a president can be elected with a majority of electoral votes, even though his or her opponent has won a majority of popular votes; this last happened in 1888. Reformers have urged that the electoral college be abolished in favor of direct popular vote for president and vice president, or that the electoral votes of each state be allotted to the candidates in proportion to the popular vote they receive rather than the present winner-take-all system. Defenders of the electoral college reject the dangers as exaggerated and insist that the system has worked far better than one might expect. </li></ul>
  28. 30. The 3 Branches of Government/Separation of Powers <ul><li>Judicial—interprets the law </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative—enacts the law </li></ul><ul><li>Executive—enforces the law </li></ul>
  29. 31. Checks and Balances <ul><li>Power would be divided among three parts of the gov’t. No person could serve in more than one of those parts at one time. No one part could be a gov’t by itself. The legislature could pass laws but could not enact them by itself. The judiciary could conduct trials but could not make laws to punish the guilty. Each part needed the other parts and so the powers of gov’t were limited and checked by the others. </li></ul>
  30. 32. Checks and Balances in the Federal Government <ul><li>Executive Branch—President </li></ul><ul><li>May check the Judicial Branch by granting pardons to those who are convicted of federal crimes </li></ul><ul><li>May check Congress by vetoing bills passed by Congress, sending messages to Congress, appealing to the people. </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative Branch—Congress </li></ul><ul><li>May check the Executive Branch by impeaching the President, overriding a veto, refusing to confirm Presidential appointments, approving or failing to approve treaties </li></ul><ul><li>May check the Judicial Branch by impeaching judges, changing the number of justices on the Supreme Court, proposing an amendment to the Constitution if the Supreme Court finds a law unconstitutional. </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial Branch—The Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>May check the Executive by interpreting the laws and treaties, ruling that laws and executive acts are unconstitutional </li></ul><ul><li>May check the Legislative by interpreting laws and treaties, declaring laws unconstitutional. </li></ul>
  31. 33. Roles of the President <ul><li>1. Chief Executive </li></ul><ul><li>2. Commander in Chief </li></ul><ul><li>3. Head of a Political Party </li></ul><ul><li>4. Chief of State </li></ul><ul><li>5. Chief Legislator </li></ul><ul><li>6. Chief Diplomat </li></ul>
  32. 34. Loose Construction vs. Strict Construction <ul><li>loose construction : A loose or liberal interpretation of an issue. Commonly applied to that view of the U.S. Constitution that expands federal powers beyond those specifically mentioned in the document. </li></ul><ul><li>strict construction : A close or literal interpretation of an issue. Commonly applied to that view of the U.S. Constitution that limits federal powers to those specifically described in that document. </li></ul>
  33. 35. <ul><li>This clause became the center of controversy from the early days of the nation when Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson tangled over the constitutionality of a national bank. Their arguments, in one form or another, persist to today: </li></ul><ul><li>The “loose constructionists” (the Hamiltonians or Federalists) viewed Clause 18 as an opportunity to increase federal power </li></ul><ul><li>The “strict constructionists” (the Jeffersonians or Anti-Federalists) believed that Clause 18 limited federal power. In their opinion, Congress could legitimately exercise only specified functions (Clauses 1-17); to do otherwise would be a violation of Amendment X, which specified that those powers not delegated to the federal government are reserved to the states or the people. </li></ul><ul><li>President George Washington sided with Hamilton and supported the establishment of the First Bank of the United States. The Federalist position regarding “implied powers” became part of the national fabric largely through the decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court under John Marshall. </li></ul><ul><li>Clause 18 is also known as the “elastic clause” or the “necessary and proper clause.” </li></ul>
  34. 36. <ul><li>The Federalists were originally those forces in favor of the ratification of the Constitution and were typified by: </li></ul><ul><li>A desire to establish a strong central government (unlike that which existed under the Articles of Confederation) </li></ul><ul><li>A corresponding desire for weaker state governments </li></ul><ul><li>The support of many large landowners, judges, lawyers, leading clergymen and merchants </li></ul><ul><li>The support of creditor elements who felt that a strong central government would give protection to public and private credit. </li></ul><ul><li>The opposing point of view was put forth by the Anti-Federalists. </li></ul><ul><li>The term &quot;Federalist&quot; was later applied to the emerging political faction headed by Alexander Hamilton in George Washington's administration. </li></ul>
  35. 37. Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists <ul><li>Leader-- John Adams, Alexander Hamilton </li></ul><ul><li>For a strong central gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>For the urban, rich biz-industrialism </li></ul><ul><li>For a national bank </li></ul><ul><li>For a loose interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-England </li></ul><ul><li>Leader-- Thomas Jefferson </li></ul><ul><li>For states’ rights </li></ul><ul><li>For the common man—farmer-agrarian </li></ul><ul><li>For state banks </li></ul><ul><li>For strict interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-France </li></ul><ul><li>Change name to Democratic-Republicans  Jeffersonian Democrats </li></ul>
  36. 38. The Federalist Papers <ul><li>These are a series of eighty-five letters written to newspapers in 1787-1788 by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, urging ratification of the Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>After a new Constitution, intended to replace the ineffectual Articles of Confederation, had been hammered out at the Philadelphia Convention, it was agreed that it would go into effect when nine of the thirteen states had approved it in ratifying conventions. There ensued a nationwide debate over constitutional principles, and the press was inundated with letters condemning or praising the document, among them these articles, signed &quot;Publius.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The three men—chief among them Hamilton, who wrote about two-thirds of the essays—addressed the objections of opponents, who feared a tyrannical central government that would supersede states' rights and encroach on individual liberties. All strong nationalists, the essayists argued that, most important, the proposed system would preserve the Union, now in danger of breaking apart, and empower the federal government to act firmly and coherently in the national interest. Conflicting economic and political interests would be reconciled through a representative Congress, whose legislation would be subject to presidential veto and judicial review. This system of checks and balances and the Constitution's clear delineation of the powers of the federal government—few, limited, and defined, as Madison put it—would protect states' rights and, as they saw it, individual rights. The ultimate protection of individual liberties had to wait for later passage of the Bill of Rights, for these men, as their arguments made plain, distrusted what Madison called &quot;the superior force of an interested and overbearing majority.&quot; Many of the constitutional provisions they praised were intended precisely to dampen democratic &quot;excesses.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The articles, written in the spirit both of propaganda and of logical argument, probably had little influence on public opinion of the day. Nevertheless, the essays, published in book form as The Federalist in 1788, have through the years been widely read and respected for their masterly analysis and interpretation of the Constitution and the principles upon which the government of the United States was established. </li></ul>
  37. 39. Alexander Hamilton <ul><li>Alexander Hamilton was an American politician, statesman, journalist, lawyer, and soldier. One of the United States' most prominent and brilliant early constitutional lawyers, he was an influential delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention and the principal author of the Federalist Papers, which successfully defended the U.S. Constitution to skeptical New Yorkers. Although the final constitution fell short of Hamilton's hopes, he actively supported ratification in his home state. The New York convention was initially heavily opposed to the new document, but Hamilton exhibited tremendous powers of persuasion and carried the day. He also played a prominent role in influencing opinion in other states by authoring at least 51 of the 85 Federalist Papers . </li></ul><ul><li>In 1789 Hamilton was appointed the nation's first secretary of the treasury, a position from which he issued bold ideas and a string of deeply insightful reports. His Report on Public Credit was followed by examinations of revenue generation, the establishment of a central bank, (the Bank of New York1), creation of a mint and an analysis of manufacturing. Hamilton also accompanied army forces that put down the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794. He also put the new United States of America onto a sound economic footing as its first and most influential Secretary of the Treasury, establishing the First Bank of the United States, public credit and the foundations for American capitalism and stock and commodity exchanges. </li></ul><ul><li>Hamilton's tenure in the Washington cabinet was also marked by the development of partisan disagreement with Thomas Jefferson. Much to the president's disappointment, the Federalists and Jeffersonian Republicans divided public opinion throughout the country. Hamilton resigned in 1785. </li></ul><ul><li>Out of political office, Hamilton continued to be influential. He worked to defend Jay's Treaty with England in 1795 and assisted Washington in writing his Farewell Address. </li></ul>
  38. 40. The Bill of Rights <ul><li>I - Freedom of Speech, Press, Religion and Petition </li></ul><ul><li>II - Right to keep and bear arms </li></ul><ul><li>III - Conditions for quarters of soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>IV - Right of search and seizure regulated </li></ul><ul><li>V - Provisions concerning prosecution </li></ul><ul><li>VI - Right to a speedy trial, witnesses, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>VII - Right to a trial by jury </li></ul><ul><li>VIII - Excessive bail, cruel punishment </li></ul><ul><li>IX - Rule of construction of Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>X - Rights of the States under Constitution </li></ul>
  39. 41. <ul><li>I - Freedom of Speech, Press, Religion and Petition </li></ul><ul><li>Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. </li></ul><ul><li>II - Right to keep and bear arms </li></ul><ul><li>A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed. </li></ul><ul><li>III - Conditions for quarters of soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. </li></ul><ul><li>IV - Right of search and seizure regulated </li></ul><ul><li>The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. </li></ul><ul><li>V - Provisons concerning prosecution </li></ul><ul><li>No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation. </li></ul>
  40. 42. <ul><li>VI - Right to a speedy trial, witnesses, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense. </li></ul><ul><li>VII - Right to a trial by jury </li></ul><ul><li>In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. </li></ul><ul><li>VIII - Excessive bail, cruel punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. </li></ul><ul><li>IX - Rule of construction of Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. </li></ul><ul><li>X - Rights of the States under Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. </li></ul><ul><li>There were two others, but they were not included—one concerned with the abolition of slavery and the other with Congressional salary… </li></ul>
  41. 43. Amendments <ul><li>XI - Judicial Powers Construed </li></ul><ul><li>XII - Manner of Choosing a President and Vice-President </li></ul><ul><li>XIII - Slavery Abolished </li></ul><ul><li>XIV - Citizen rights not to be abridged </li></ul><ul><li>XV - Race no bar to voting rights </li></ul><ul><li>XVI - Income taxes authorized </li></ul><ul><li>XVII - U.S. Senators to be elected by direct popular vote </li></ul><ul><li>XVIII - Liquor Prohibition </li></ul><ul><li>XIX - Giving nationwide suffrage to women </li></ul><ul><li>XX - Terms of the President and Vice-President </li></ul><ul><li>XXI - Repeal of Amendment XVIII </li></ul><ul><li>XXII - Limiting presidential terms of office </li></ul><ul><li>XXIII - Presidential vote for the District of Columbia </li></ul><ul><li>XXIV - Barring poll tax in federal elections </li></ul><ul><li>XXV - Presidential disability and succession </li></ul><ul><li>XXVI - Lowering the voting age to 18 years </li></ul><ul><li>XXVII - Congressional Pay </li></ul>
  42. 44. Reasons why the Constitution was Ratified <ul><li>The ratification, or adoption, of the Constitution took place between September of 1787 and July of 1788. The Federal Convention, which had drafted the Constitution between May and September 1787, had no authority to impose it on the American people. Article VII of the Constitution and resolutions adopted by the convention on September 17, 1787, detailed a four-stage ratification process: (1) submission of the Constitution to the Confederation Congress, (2) transmission of the Constitution by Congress to the state legislatures, (3) election of delegates to conventions in each state to consider the Constitution, and (4) ratification by the conventions of at least nine of the thirteen states. </li></ul>
  43. 45. Real Reasons Why it was ratified <ul><li>1. George Washington was for it and he was usually right. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The Anti-Federalists had no other plan ready… </li></ul><ul><li>3. The Anti-Federalists found it acceptable if the Bill of Rights were added. </li></ul><ul><li>4. There was a deal to sweeten the South—the Federal capital would be located in the South if the South ratified it—also </li></ul><ul><li>5. No mention of slavery is in it. Although Jefferson knew that the issue of slavery—our peculiar institution was “like holding a wolf by the ears”—you dare not let go, although you know the danger. Also he felt it was “a firebell ringing in the night”—a cause of terror and alarm. </li></ul><ul><li>6. The Federal Residency Act—1790 made the District of Columbia the national capital in the South. The South agreed to ratify under that condition. </li></ul>
  44. 46. The Ratification of the Constitution <ul><li>The ratification controversy pitted supporters of the Constitution, who claimed the name &quot;Federalists,&quot; against a loosely organized group known as &quot;Anti-federalists.&quot; The Anti-federalists denounced the Constitution as a radically centralizing document that would destroy American liberty and betray the principles of the Revolution. The Federalists urged that the nation's problems were directly linked to the frail, inadequate Confederation and that nothing short of the Constitution would enable the American people to preserve their liberty and independence, the fruits of the Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>The Federalists—led by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay, John Marshall, James Wilson, John Dickinson, and Roger Sherman—had several advantages. In a time of national political crisis, they offered a clear prescription for the nation's ills; they were well organized and well financed; and they were used to thinking in national terms and to working with politicians from other states. They also had the support of the only two truly national political figures, George Washington and Benjamin Franklin. </li></ul><ul><li>The Anti-federalists—led by Patrick Henry, George Mason, Richard Henry Lee, James Monroe, John Hancock, Samuel Adams, Elbridge Gerry, George Clinton, Willie Jones, and Melancton Smith—counted among their advantages the support of most state politicians and the American people's distrust of strong central government. Their most potent argument against the Constitution was that it lacked a bill of rights. </li></ul>
  45. 47. The Secret Deal <ul><li>In 1790, as the result of a compromise between a number of Southern congressmen and Alexander Hamilton, then serving as Secretary of the Treasury, the seat of the United States Government was temporarily moved from Federal Hall in New York to Congress Hall in Philadelphia before taking its current residence in Washington, DC. In exchange for locating a permanent capital on the banks of the Potomac River, the congressmen agreed to support Hamilton's financial proposals. </li></ul><ul><li>Philadelphia served as the temporary capital for a decade, until 1800, when the Capitol building in the new Federal city of Washington, DC was opened. </li></ul>
  46. 48. The Ratification of the Constitution <ul><li>The struggle for ratification of the Constitution was both a direct, unabashed contest for votes and a complex, impressive argument about politics and constitutional theory. It was the first time that the people of a nation freely determined their form of government. It was also the first national political controversy in American history; the people of all thirteen states for the first time debated and decided the same issue. Ratification was a catalyst for the creation of a national political community, transforming the ways Americans thought of themselves and encouraging the growth and popularity of national loyalties. The political discourse generated by the ratification controversy continues to this day within the matrix of the Constitution. </li></ul>
  47. 49. The Federal City/District of Columbia <ul><li>Near Mount Vernon. In the South, belonging to no state, it is a Federal District, designed specifically as the national capital. </li></ul>
  48. 50. Pierre L’Enfant <ul><li>In 1784 L'Enfant came back to America and settled in New York City, where he was soon recognized as an outstanding designer and engineer. In 1791 President Washington picked him to design the nation's new capital city. Three years later, after a series of disagreements and personality clashes with the three commissioners appointed by Washington to oversee the project, he was dismissed by his mentor. He was not paid for his services. L'Enfant later tried to obtain $95,500 for his work. Congress gave him what it deemed a suitable fee — about $3800. As an old man, L'Enfant lived with friends in Maryland, where he died in 1825, penniless and forgotten. In 1909 his remains were reburied in Arlington National Cemetery, where, at long last, a suitable monument was built to him. </li></ul>
  49. 51. Benjamin Banneker <ul><li>Also among Banneker's talents was a remarkable memory.  When President Washington decided to move the capital to the District of Columbia, he appointed Pierre Charles L'Enfant to build it.  L'Enfant's plans consisted of the creation of boundaries and the layout of the streets and buildings.  </li></ul><ul><li>Upon Jefferson's request, Banneker was appointed as a member of the team.  Things fell apart shortly after the planning began, when L'Enfant resigned, left for France, and took all the plans and maps with him.  </li></ul><ul><li>To everyone's amazement, Banneker recreated the plans from memory within two days.  The capital would not be the same if it were not for Banneker's memory. </li></ul>
  50. 52. BENJAMIN BANNEKER (1731-1806) <ul><li> BENJAMIN BANNEKER was probably the best-known African American in early United States history. He was an astronomer, farmer, mathematician, and surveyor. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1791, Banneker was an assistant to Major Andrew Ellicott, the surveyor appointed by President George Washington to lay out the boundaries of the District of Columbia. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson had recommended Banneker for this work. </li></ul><ul><li>Banneker was born on Nov. 9, 1731, near Baltimore. His grandmother, an Englishwoman, taught him to read and write. For several winters, he attended a small school open to blacks and whites. There he developed a keen interest in mathematics and science. Later, while farming, Banneker pursued his mathematical studies and taught himself astronomy. In 1753, he completed a clock built entirely of wood, each gear carved by hand. His only models were a pocket watch and a picture of a clock. The clock kept almost perfect time for over 50 years. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1791 to 1796, Banneker made all the astronomical and tide calculations and weather predictions for a yearly almanac. Banneker sent Jefferson a copy of his first almanac. With it he sent a letter calling for the abolition of slavery and a liberal attitude toward blacks. Banneker's skills impressed Jefferson. Jefferson sent a copy of the almanac to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Paris as evidence of the talent of blacks. Opponents of slavery in the United States and England also used the almanacs as evidence of the abilities of black people. </li></ul><ul><li>The publishers of Banneker's almanacs printed contributions by prominent Americans in addition to his material. In the 1793 almanac, for example, the surgeon and statesman Benjamin Rush proposed the appointment of a U.S. secretary of peace. Banneker probably contributed a few proverbs, essays, and poems to the almanac. He died on Oct. 25, 1806. </li></ul>
  51. 53. Did Ben really want the turkey to be the symbol of the United States of America? <ul><li>In a letter to his daughter, Benjamin Franklin wrote: </li></ul><ul><li>For my own part I wish the Eagle had not been chosen the representative of our country. He is a bird of bad moral character. He does not get his Living honestly. You may have seen him perched on some dead tree near the river, where, too lazy to fish for himself, he watches the labor of the Fishing Hawk; and when that diligent Bird has at length taken a fish, and is bearing it to his nest for the support of his mate and young ones, the Eagle pursues him and takes it from him. With all this injustice, he is never in good case but like those among men who live by sharping & robbing he is generally poor and often very lousy. Besides he is a rank coward: The little King Bird not bigger than a Sparrow attacks him boldly and drives him out of the district. He is therefore by no means a proper emblem for the brave and honest Cincinnati of America who have driven all the King birds from our country... &quot;I am on this account not displeased that the figure is not known as a Eagle, but looks more like a Turkey. For the truth the Turkey is in comparison a much more respectable bird, and withal a true original native of America . . . He is besides, though a little vain & silly, a bird of courage, and would not hesitate to attack a grenadier of the British Guards who should presume to invade his farm yard with a red coat on. </li></ul>
  52. 54. Ben’s Other Folly <ul><li>Sure, George Washington is referred to as the First President of the United States, but Ben advocated that he should be called “His Highness the President of the United States of America and Protector of the Rights of the Same.” The House of Representatives refused to pass this—and today’s simply use the more democratic form of “Mr. President.” </li></ul>
  53. 55. George Washington <ul><li>Washington’s Administration: </li></ul><ul><li>Cabinet: A precedent </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson </li></ul><ul><li>Attorney General: Edmund Randolph </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of War: Henry Knox </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of the Treasury: </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander Hamilton </li></ul>
  54. 56. Presidential Precedents under Washington <ul><li>1. Chooses the Cabinet members. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Only served two terms. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Adopted Mr. President as the form of address. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Established the tariff, national bank, and government bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Establishes the United States Navy. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Named the justices of the Supreme Court, 3 circuit courts, & 13 district courts </li></ul><ul><li>7. Policy of Neutrality during European wars. </li></ul>
  55. 57. Martha Dandridge Parke-Custis Washington <ul><li>Two years after the death of her first husband, Martha Dandridge Custis married Colonel George Washington on January 6, 1759. Shortly after the marriage, he left the colonial arm of the British military due to the British policy denying colonials command opportunities with the regular British army. They lived a prosperous and apparently happy life at Washington's Mount Vernon estate. </li></ul><ul><li>Martha and George Washington had no children together, but they raised Martha's two surviving children. They also raised her two youngest grandchildren, Eleanor Parke Custis and George Washington Parke Custis (April 30, 1781 - October 10, 1857) after their father Jack died, probably of typhus, while serving as an aide to Washington during the siege of Yorktown in 1781. </li></ul><ul><li>They also provided personal and financial support to nieces, nephews and other family members in both the Dandridge and Washington families. She spent the infamous winter at Valley Forge with the General, and was instrumental in maintaining some level of morale among officers and enlisted troops. </li></ul><ul><li>She opposed his election as president of the newly formed United States of America, and refused to attend the inauguration, but gracefully fulfilled her duties as the official state hostess during their two terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Martha Washington survived her husband and died at Mount Vernon, Virginia. She was buried on May 22, 1802 at Mount Vernon. </li></ul>
  56. 58. Events during Washington’s Administration <ul><li>The Report on Public Credit by Alexander Hamilton </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrality Act—ignore both England & France </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen Genet—embarrassment and French </li></ul><ul><li>Jay’s Treaty—supposed to be vs. impressment </li></ul><ul><li>Pinckney’s Treaty—deal with Spain for Miss. River traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Whiskey Rebellion—western PA farmers hate excise tax </li></ul><ul><li>The Farewell Address—warnings have been unheeded! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) no foreign entanglements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) do not split into political factions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) pay off the national debt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) two-term limit –sets a precedent </li></ul></ul>
  57. 59. <ul><li>As the first President, Washington appointed the entire Supreme Court, a feat almost repeated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt during his four terms in office (1933-1945). Washington appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States: </li></ul><ul><li>John Jay - Chief Justice - 1789 </li></ul><ul><li>James Wilson - 1789 </li></ul><ul><li>John Rutledge - 1790 </li></ul><ul><li>William Cushing - 1790 </li></ul><ul><li>John Blair - 1790 </li></ul><ul><li>James Iredell - 1790 </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Johnson - 1792 </li></ul><ul><li>William Paterson - 1793 </li></ul><ul><li>John Rutledge - Chief Justice, 1795 (an associate justice since 1790) </li></ul><ul><li>Samuel Chase - 1796 </li></ul><ul><li>Oliver Ellsworth - Chief Justice - 1796 </li></ul>
  58. 60. Alexander Hamilton’s Plan <ul><li>National Debt=National blessing </li></ul><ul><li>Assume all of the colonies’ debts at par value—sell bonds </li></ul><ul><li>National Bank—to issue money backed by gold </li></ul><ul><li>Tariff—tax on all imported goods </li></ul><ul><li>Excise tax—on all manufactures </li></ul><ul><li>Sale of Western lands brings in $$ to gov’t </li></ul>
  59. 61. First Bank of the United States <ul><li>The establishment of the Bank raised early questions of constitutionality in the new government. Hamilton, then Secretary of the Treasury, argued that the Bank was an effective means to achieve the authorized powers of the government. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson argued that the Bank violated traditional property law and that its relevance to constitutionally authorized powers was weak. </li></ul><ul><li>Tenets the bank was based on include: </li></ul><ul><li>Sound finance, with a balanced government budget deficit, except during wartime emergency </li></ul><ul><li>Sound banking, with reserves in gold </li></ul><ul><li>Lender last resort availability </li></ul><ul><li>The currency notes issued could serve as instruments of national policy </li></ul><ul><li>It was located in Philadelphia . </li></ul>
  60. 62. Citizen Genet <ul><li>Citizen Edmond Genet shows up in Washington to drum up American support for the French Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Washington tells him to keep a low profile and do not expect help from us since we are Neutral!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Genet tries to indoctrinate and enlist American support anyway. We tell him to leave. He does, but soon comes back fleeing the guillotine… </li></ul>
  61. 63. Election of 1792 <ul><li>George WASHINGTON Party: FEDERALIST Home State: VA Electoral Votes: 132 </li></ul><ul><li>John ADAMS Party: FEDERALIST Home State: MA Electoral Votes: 77 </li></ul><ul><li>Before the ratification of the 12th amendment in 1804, the candidate who received the majority of electoral votes became president, and the runner-up was named vice president. See The Electoral Process Before the 12th Amendment. </li></ul><ul><li>George CLINTON Party: DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICAN Home State: NY Electoral Votes: 50 Thomas JEFFERSON Party: DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICAN Home State: VA Electoral Votes: 4 Aaron BURR Party: DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICAN Home State: NY Electoral Votes: 1 Not Cast Electoral Votes: 6 </li></ul><ul><li>From the moment the Constitution was ratified, divisions among those in power arose and political factions developed. The two most prominent factions were the Federalists (with whom Washington and John Adams agreed) who advocated a strong central government, and the Democratic-Republicans who believed the states should hold the most power. George Washington, who had originally wanted to retire after his first presidential term, decided to run again in order to try to halt the rise of political parties. The Democratic-Republicans, who were aware of Washington's obvious and undiminished popularity and who were at the time outnumbered by the Federalists, didn't oppose his reelection. Once again Washington received a vote on every elector's ballot, giving him his second unanimous presidential election. </li></ul>
  62. 64. The Whiskey Rebellion 1794 <ul><li>Unrest existed in many areas of the West, particularly west of the Alleghenies. Primary contributing issues included a lack of federal courts in the West, which necessitated long trips to Philadelphia, lack of protection against Native American attacks and a high federal excise tax on domestically produced distilled spirits. </li></ul><ul><li>At Alexander Hamilton's urging, Congress in 1791 enacted a tax on spirits at twenty-five percent of the liquor's value. Large producers were not pleased with the tax, but generally complied; the small producers were irate and began to organize opposition. In the western counties of Pennsylvania the Scots-Irish farmers were particularly hard-hit; most were grain growers and many were distillers. Mobs tarred and feathered a tax collector and burned the home of another; shots were exchanged. </li></ul><ul><li>Washington called upon the rebels to disperse, but his plea was ignored. The president then ordered the governors of the surrounding states to summon their militias. A force of nearly 13,000 men was raised and marched into western Pennsylvania. Opposition quickly faded away, but Hamilton (never reluctant to press federal power) actively directed the capture of more than 100 participants. Eventually two were convicted of treason, but later received presidential pardons. </li></ul><ul><li>The Whiskey Rebellion was the first test of federal authority in the young republic; it demonstrated the willingness and ability of the federal government to enforce its laws. It also established a precedent when the President called up state militias for federal purposes. </li></ul>
  63. 65. <ul><li>Excise taxes are &quot;internal&quot; taxes levied against specific goods made or used within a country. Historically, liquor and tobacco have been the targets of such taxes; in modern times excise taxes have been collected on the cost of long distance telephone calls. </li></ul><ul><li>The first use of an excise tax in the United States was in 1791 and applied to whiskey. Small excise taxes are sometimes referred to as &quot;nuisance taxes.“ </li></ul><ul><li>The Whiskey Tax was 6 cents on the gallon. </li></ul>Illustrations from WHISKEY REBELS, by Leland D. Baldwin, ©1939 by University of Pittsburgh Press, 1967 by Leland D. Baldwin. Used by permission of the University of Pittsburgh Press.                       
  64. 66. <ul><li>If Washington had ever had an army of 13,000 men during the Revolutionary War, he might have won a few more battles. </li></ul>
  65. 67. John Jay 1745 – 1829 <ul><li>John Jay was an American politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat and jurist. He is noted for serving with Benjamin Franklin and John Adams in France and writing part of the Federalist Papers with Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. He also is remembered for serving on the U.S. Supreme Court as the first, as well as the youngest, Chief Justice of the United States from 1789 to 1794. </li></ul><ul><li>Jay’s Treaty was so unpopular that he quipped that he could travel from Boston to Philadelphia solely by the light of his burning effigies. It certainly ruined Jay's chances for the presidency. </li></ul>
  66. 68. Jay’s Treaty 1795 <ul><li>Sent by Washington to England to sign a treaty that is concerned with the stopping of impressment against American sailors on American vessels. The British are stopping every ship and taking off 1000’s of our Americans claiming that they are English sailors. Jay comes back with a lovely treaty about trade, but not one word about impressment. Alexander Hamilton, however, convinced Washington it was the best treaty that could be expected, and Washington agreed to sign it an iti is approved by Congress, but there are lots of burnings in effigy for Jay and his treaty. </li></ul>Many Americans were very displeased with this settlement, and there were public protests against Jay and his treaty. One popular cry went: Damn John Jay! Damn everyone that won't damn John Jay! Damn every one that won't put lights in his window and sit up all night damning John Jay!
  67. 69. Pinckney Treaty 1796 <ul><li>Pinckney's Treaty , October 27, 1795 established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain. It also defined the boundaries of the U.S. with the Spanish colonies and guaranteed U.S. navigation rights on the Mississippi River. Thomas Pinckney negotiated the treaty for the U.S and Don Manuel de Godoy represented Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>By terms of the treaty, Spain and the U.S. agreed that the southern boundary of the U.S. with the Spanish Colonies of East and West Florida was a line beginning on the Mississippi River at the 31st degree north latitude --the current boundary between the present state of Florida and Georgia and the line from the northern boundary of the Florida panhandle to the northern boundary of that portion of Louisiana east of the Mississippi. </li></ul><ul><li>This boundary had been in dispute since the British had expanded the territory of the Florida colonies while it was in possession of them. It had moved the boundary from the 31st degree latitude northwards to a line drawn due east from the junction of the Yazoo River and the Mississippi (the present day location of Vicksburg, Mississippi). After the American Revolutionary War, Spain claimed the British border adjustment while the U.S. insisted on the original boundary. </li></ul><ul><li>The treaty set the western boundary of the U.S., separating it from the Spanish Colony of Louisiana as the middle of the Mississippi River from the northern boundary of the United States to the 31st degree north latitude. The agreement therefore put the lands of the Chickasaw Nation of American Indians within the new boundaries of the United Sates. The U.S. and Spain agreed to not incite native tribes to warfare. (Previously Spain had been supplying arms to local tribes for many years.) </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation of the total Mississippi River length with right of deposit was guaranteed. </li></ul>
  68. 70. Ben’s Last Act <ul><li>Bothered by the Constitution’s inability to outlaw the inhumane practice in America, Franklin, who had at one time owned at least two slaves as personal servants, decided that his last official act would be to submit a petition for the abolition of slavery. Unlike so many of his other humanitarian ideas, it failed. </li></ul>Authentic replica of the original document with Benjamin Franklin's signature. Franklin's letter to the House of Representatives and the Senate calling for the abolition of slavery dated February 3, 1790. Includes Franklin's cover letter to Vice President John Adams asking for his recognition of the petition.
  69. 71. Benjamin Franklin's Funeral and Grave He Was Able to Restrain Thunderbolts and Tyrants <ul><li>As a young man in 1728, Franklin had composed his own mock epitaph which read: </li></ul><ul><li>The Body of B. Franklin Printer; Like the Cover of an old Book, Its Contents torn out, And stript of its Lettering and Gilding, Lies here, Food for Worms. But the Work shall not be whlly lost: For it will, as he believ'd, appear once more, In a new & more perfect Edition, Corrected and Amended By the Author. He was born on January 6, 1706. Died 17 </li></ul>Franklin was buried beside his wife Deborah, who had preceded him in death by 25 years. His beloved son Francis Folger, who had died at age 4 from smallpox, was also in the family plot. Franklin himself had composed the black-bordered Pennsylvania Gazette which announced his death. Dr. Jones, Franklin's physician, informed the readers of Franklin's final illness. He had been suffering from empyema, pus filling in his lung brought on by attacks of pleurisy many years earlier. His temperature was high. This made breathing laborious, and he almost suffocated. After several days of breathing woes, the pain went away for a day, upon which he left his bed and asked that it be made properly so that he might have a dignified death. His daughter, Sally, told him that she hoped he would live many years more. &quot;I hope not,&quot; he replied. An abscess in Franklin's lung burst and he passed into a coma. He died on April 17, 1790, with his grandsons William Temple and Bennie at his side. Benjamin Franklin was 84 years old.
  70. 72. Election of 1796 <ul><li>George Washington, worn-out, stung by criticism and yearning for the pleasures of Mount Vernon, refused to consider a third term. He supported his vice president, John Adams, but thought it unseemly to campaign on behalf of any candidate. </li></ul><ul><li>The Constitution in 1796 required presidential electors to place the names of two individuals on their ballots; the candidate with the highest vote count, if a majority, became the president and the runner up the vice president. </li></ul><ul><li>It was generally agreed among the leading Federalists that John Adams of Massachusetts should follow the Southerner George Washington. Alexander Hamilton, however, had quarreled with Adams and sought to influence the results. Hamilton much preferred Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina, the presumed vice presidential candidate, and persuaded a number of Southern electors to vote for Pinckney and a lesser candidate, i.e. ignoring Adams. Word leaked out, however, and Adams supporters in New England influenced electors to drop Pinckney's name from their ballots. </li></ul><ul><li>The results were not anticipated by anyone. Adams won with 71 electoral votes, but was followed by Thomas Jefferson with 68 votes; Thomas Pinckney trailed the leaders with 59. The president was a Federalist, but the vice president was the leader of the Republican opposition – an untidy situation. </li></ul>
  71. 73. John Adams <ul><li>Adams' frustration was ended by his victory in the presidential election of 1796. Running as the Federalist candidate, he edged out Thomas Jefferson, leader of the Democratic-Republicans (also called the Republicans). According to the laws of the time, Jefferson thus became vice president. As a result, the new president and vice president belonged to opposing political parties. </li></ul><ul><li>John Adams was the first president to occupy the White House. He and Abigail moved in near the end of his term, in the fall of 1800. The President's Palace, as it was then known, was still unfinished and littered with debris. </li></ul><ul><li>Adams' one term as president was marked by troubles, both international and domestic. The foreign affairs crisis involved American neutrality at a time when Britain and France were at war. French attacks on American ships stirred up a warlike atmosphere in the United States, even inside Adams' own Cabinet. Adams's four years as president (1797–1801) were marked by the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts, which made the Federalist Party unpopular and led to factional strife within the party itself. Adams and Hamilton became alienated, and members of Adams's own cabinet began to look to Hamilton rather than to the president as their political chief. At the time, the United States was drawn into European military affairs such as the XYZ Affair. Adams, instead of bowing to the militant spirit aroused by these events, devoted himself to delaying war with France, against the wishes of Hamilton and his adherents, which eventually played out in the Quasi-War. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1800, Adams ran again as the Federalist presidential candidate, but distrust of him in his own party, the popular disapproval of the Alien and Sedition Acts, and the popularity of his opponent, Thomas Jefferson, caused his defeat. He then retired into private life. </li></ul>The first vice president—he hated that most “insignificant of jobs” for both of Washington’s terms..
  72. 74. The XYZ Affair <ul><li>In 1797, President Adams labored to defuse growing tensions with France by sending two new diplomats, John Marshall and Elbridge Gerry, to join C.C. Pinckney in Paris. The French foreign minister, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, kept the American mission waiting for weeks, then deployed agents (designated X, Y and Z by the Americans) to demand a $250,000 bribe for himself and a $12 million loan for France. Bribery was standard diplomatic fare at the time, but the amount was deemed exorbitant. </li></ul><ul><li>C.C. Pinckney is said to have expressed his dismay by stating either, &quot;No, no, not a sixpence!&quot; or &quot;Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute.&quot; </li></ul>
  73. 75. Quasi-War With France <ul><li>In an effort to resolve differences with France that had accumulated between the two nations since the Treaty of Alliance of 1778, President John Adams dispatched a commission of three men to meet with French Minister of Foreign Affairs Talleyrand in 1797. After many delays the American commissioners were approached by three intermediaries of Talleyrand, who demanded apologies for allusions critical of France made by President Adams and payment of a bribe of several million dollars before official negotiations could proceed. </li></ul><ul><li>Convinced that further negotiations were hopeless the three commissioners returned to the United States, and President Adams released their dispatches to Congress, substituting X, Y, and Z for the names of Talleyrand’s agents. “I will never send another minister to France without assurances that he will be received, respected, and honored, as the representative of a great, free, powerful, and independent nation,” Adams declared. The American public was outraged at publication of the dispatches, and Congress enacted a series of measures to raise an army and authorize a Navy Department. </li></ul><ul><li>It also unilaterally abrogated treaties with France, authorizing privateers and public vessels to attack French ships found competing with American commerce. Between 1798 and 1800 the U.S. Navy captured more than 80 French ships although neither country officially declared war. </li></ul>
  74. 76. The Alien and Sedition Acts <ul><li>In 1798, the Federalist-controlled Congress passed a series of laws which, on the surface, were designed to control the activities of foreigners in the United States during a time of impending war. Beneath the surface, however, the real intent of these laws was to destroy Jeffersonian Republicanism. The laws, known collectively as the Alien and Sedition Acts, included: </li></ul><ul><li>The Naturalization Act , which extended the residency period from 5 to 14 years for those aliens seeking citizenship; this law was aimed at Irish and French immigrants who were often active in Republican politics </li></ul><ul><li>The Alien Act , which allowed the expulsion of aliens deemed dangerous during peacetime </li></ul><ul><li>The Alien Enemies Act , which allowed the expulsion or imprisonment of aliens deemed dangerous during wartime; this was never enforced, but it did prompt numerous Frenchmen to return home </li></ul><ul><li>The Sedition Act , which provided for fines or imprisonment for individuals who criticized the government, Congress or president in speech or print. </li></ul><ul><li>The Alien Acts were never enforced, but the Sedition Act was. A number of Republican newspaper publishers were convicted under the terms of this law. The Jeffersonians argued quite rightly that the Sedition Act violated the terms of the First Amendment </li></ul>
  75. 77. The VA and KY Resolutions <ul><li>The Jeffersonians argued quite rightly that the Sedition Act violated the terms of the First Amendment and offered a remedy in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions. Since Congress was firmly controlled by the Federalists, the fight against the Alien and Sedition Acts moved to the state legislatures in late 1798. James Madison prepared the Virginia Resolutions and Thomas Jefferson wrote the Kentucky Resolutions . Both followed a similar argument: The states had the duty to nullify within their borders those laws that were unconstitutional. </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing concrete resulted from the passage of these resolutions; no other states followed with similar actions. The death of Washington in 1799 helped to quiet tempers, and the Alien and Sedition Acts soon expired or were repealed. However, the issue of nullification had been put on the table. (No state can nullify a federal law!!!!!!!!!) </li></ul><ul><li>While these laws were either repealed or allowed to expire in the next administration, they were significant as rallying points for the Jeffersonians. The heavy-handed Federalist policies worked to the advantage of the Republicans as they prepared for the Election of 1800. </li></ul>
  76. 78. The Election of 1800 <ul><li>The pre-election atmosphere in 1800 was colored by the Alien and Sedition Acts controversy, which had created much ill feeling between the contending parties. </li></ul><ul><li>The Jeffersonian Republicans triumphed. Since 1796, they had control of New York State thanks largely to Aaron Burr's political skills; he had wrested control of the legislature from Alexander Hamilton. </li></ul><ul><li>The bad news, however, was that the two Democratic-Republican candidates, Jefferson and Burr, garnered the same number of electoral votes; according to the Constitution, the matter was to be resolved in the House of Representatives. (See Article II, Section 1, Clause 3.) </li></ul><ul><li> Candidate Party Electoral Vote Thomas Jefferson (VA) Democratic-Republican 73 </li></ul><ul><li>Aaron Burr (NY) Democratic-Republican 73  </li></ul><ul><li>John Adams (MA) Federalist 65  </li></ul><ul><li>C.C. Pinckney (SC) Federalist 64  </li></ul><ul><li>John Jay (NY) Federalist 1  </li></ul><ul><li>Thirty-six ballots were cast over five days to reach a decision. Once again Hamilton played a pivotal role, throwing his support to Jefferson, whom he disliked, rather than Burr, whom he truly hated. </li></ul><ul><li>This election is sometimes referred to as the &quot;Revolution of 1800” because it marked the transition from the Federalists, the only party to have held the presidency to that point, to the Democratic-Republicans of Jefferson. It appeared that major changes were in the offing. </li></ul><ul><li>The dilemma posed by two candidates receiving an equal number of electoral votes was later addressed in Amendment XII. </li></ul>
  77. 79. Aaron Burr <ul><li>Aaron Burr was a Senator from New York and a Vice President of the United States; born in Newark, N.J., February 6, 1756; graduated from the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) in 1772; studied theology but soon abandoned it for the law; during the Revolutionary War entered the Continental Army 1775-1779; admitted to the bar in 1782 and practiced in Albany, N.Y.; moved to New York City in 1783; member, State assembly 1784-1785, 1798-1799; attorney general of New York 1789-1790; commissioner of Revolutionary claims in 1791; elected to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1791, to March 3, 1797; unsuccessful candidate for reelection; president of the State constitutional convention in 1801; in the presidential election of 1800, Burr and Thomas Jefferson each had seventy-three votes, and the House of Representatives on the thirty-sixth ballot elected Jefferson President and Burr Vice President; challenged and mortally wounded Alexander Hamilton in a duel fought at Weehawken, N.J., July 11, 1804; indicted for murder in New York and New Jersey but never tried in either jurisdiction; escaped to South Carolina, then returned to Washington and completed his term of service as Vice President; arrested and tried for treason in August 1807 for attempting to form a republic in the Southwest of which he was to be the head, but was acquitted; went abroad in 1808; returned to New York City in 1812 and resumed the practice of law; died in Port Richmond, Staten Island, N.Y., September 14, 1836; interment in the President’s lot, Princeton Cemetery, Princeton, N.J. </li></ul><ul><li>Burr ran for governor of New York in 1804. Hamilton again opposed him. Burr lost the election. He then challenged Hamilton to a duel. On July 11, 1804, the men faced each other with pistols in Weehawken, New Jersey. Burr fatally wounded Hamilton with one shot. A New York coroner's inquest &quot;found a verdict of wilful murder by Aaron Burr, vice president of the United States.&quot; A New Jersey grand jury indicted him for murder, but he was never arrested. Burr presided over the Senate until his term ended. </li></ul>
  78. 80. <ul><li>Hamilton had become a mortal enemy of Aaron Burr. The former had thrown his support to Thomas Jefferson, a political opponent, in a successful effort to defeat Burr for the presidency in the disputed Election of 1800. Later Hamilton played a leading role in denying Burr the governorship of New York. </li></ul><ul><li>On July 11, 1804, Hamilton and Burr met in a pistol duel at Weehawken, New Jersey, in which Hamilton sustained a mortal wound. </li></ul>Alexander Hamilton was perhaps the most talented political figure in American history, but he was prevented from achieving widespread recognition because of an overbearing nature and an inability to relate to the concerns of the common man. The Bank of New York, created by private investors, was the first bank created in New York and became, in 1913, the controlling bank of the Federal Reserve System.
  79. 81. Thomas Jefferson <ul><li>Thomas Jefferson wished to be remembered for three achievements in his public life. He had served as governor of Virginia, as U.S. minister to France, as Secretary of State under George Washington, as vice-president in the administration of John Adams, and as president of the United States from 1801 to 1809. On his tombstone, however, which he designed and for which he wrote the inscription, there is no mention of these offices. Rather, it reads that Thomas Jefferson was &quot;author of the Declaration of American Independence, of the Statute of Virginia for religious freedom, and Father of the University of Virginia&quot; and, as he requested, &quot;not a word more.&quot; Historians might want to add other accomplishments--for example, his distinction as an architect, naturalist, and linguist--but in the main they would concur with his own assessment. </li></ul>
  80. 82. Thomas Jefferson <ul><li>Thomas Jefferson was the third President of the United States, second (1797–1801) Vice President, first (1789–1795) United States Secretary of State, and an American statesman, ambassador to France, political philosopher, revolutionary, agriculturalist, horticulturist, land owner, architect, etymologist, archaeologist, slave-owner, author, inventor, lawyer and founder of the University of Virginia. He was also the founder and leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, and the first President from that party. The Jeffersonian Republicans, as they were often called, dominated American politics for over a quarter-century. </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson is perhaps best known for being the primary author of the United States Declaration of Independence (1776). Achievements of his presidency include the Louisiana Purchase and the Lewis and Clark Expedition. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people consider Jefferson to be among the most brilliant men ever to occupy the Presidency. President John F. Kennedy welcomed 49 Nobel Prize winners to the White House in 1962, saying, &quot;I think this is the most extraordinary collection of talent, of human knowledge, that has ever been gathered at the White House, with the possible exception of when Thomas Jefferson dined alone.&quot; </li></ul>
  81. 83. The Jefferson Administration <ul><li>Midnight Judges </li></ul><ul><li>Tripolitan War—Barbary Pirates </li></ul><ul><li>The Louisiana Purchase </li></ul><ul><li>Lewis and Clark Expedition </li></ul><ul><li>Aaron Burr—Treason??? </li></ul><ul><li>The Embargo of 1807 </li></ul>
  82. 84. Monticello <ul><li>Jefferson inherited about 5,000 acres (20 km²) of land and dozens of slaves from his father, out of which he created his home which would eventually be known as Monticello. He practiced law in Virginia and in 1772 Jefferson married a widow, Martha Wayles Skelton. </li></ul>
  83. 85. John Marshall <ul><li>The contributions of Marshall as Chief Justice are hard to overestimate. His opinions established the bedrock of constitutional law for the young nation, drawing from the document an array of both specific and implied powers. It was through Marshall that Federalism continued to exist despite the demise of the Federalist political party. </li></ul><ul><li>The establishment of the judicial review of congressional legislation stemmed from Marbury v Madison (1803). </li></ul><ul><li>McCulloch v Maryland (1819) set the precedent for setting aside state legislation by invalidating state taxation of a federal agency. The Dartmouth College Case (1819) helped to protect the inviolability of contracts. </li></ul><ul><li>Gibbons v Ogden (1824) supported federal primacy in the regulation of commerce. His powers of persuasion were so great that his Federalist philosophy dominated the Court in an age of Democratic appointments. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite Marshall’s contributions, he remained a partisan political figure, as evidenced in his dealings with his rival Jefferson in Marbury and the Aaron Burr trial, and later with Andrew Jackson and the Cherokee issue. </li></ul><ul><li>Marshall also is remembered for authoring a five-volume Life of George Washington (1804-07). </li></ul>
  84. 86. Sally Hemings <ul><li>Sally Hemings was a slave, probably born at Guinea Plantation, Cumberland County, Virginia, who was initially owned by John Wayles, who died in 1774, leaving Sally to his daughter Martha Wayles, wife of Thomas Jefferson Martha and Sally were half-sisters: both were fathered by John Wayles. </li></ul><ul><li>Martha Jefferson died in 1782, and in 1784 Thomas Jefferson took up residence in Paris as American envoy to France. In 1787 after the death of Lucy Jefferson, Thomas Jefferson sent for 9 year old Mary (Maria) Jefferson. Thomas Jefferson had requested that Isabel, an older woman be sent as a companion for Mary, but as Isabel was pregnant, Mary (Maria) Jefferson was accompanied by 14 year old Sally Hemings instead. </li></ul><ul><li>Rumors that Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson were sexually involved circulated well before Jefferson assumed office in 1801, and they were published in 1802. The truth of these rumors has long been debated. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence in support of the theory that Jefferson was father of Sally Hemings' children is that (1) Jefferson and Hemings were both at Monticello at the time of the conceptions of her children; (2) Madison Hemings, Sally's son, stated in an 1873 interview that Sally named the President as the father of all her children; (3) Sally's children were said to resemble Jefferson physically; and (4) Sally's children, unlike Jefferson's other slaves, were allowed to slip away, or were manumitted, before Jefferson's death, and the two who remained were provided for in Jefferson's will. </li></ul><ul><li>Some had argued that the resemblance to Jefferson was because the children had been fathered by one of Jefferson's nephews (Samuel or Peter Carr), sons of Jefferson's sister, by his brother Randolph Jefferson or one of Randolph's five sons. </li></ul>
  85. 87. Barbary Pirates in Tripoli <ul><li>Inundated by many other problems which required immediate attention - border wars with Indians, naval conflict with Revolutionary France - the US Congress capitulated to demands for tribute. Within the next fifteen years, treaties were ratified with each of the four Barbary states: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Tripolitania (one of three regions which were combined to form Libya). By the time Thomas Jefferson was appointed president (1801) the situation had changed: a treaty had been signed ending naval war between the US and France, and the American ship George Washington , transporting the yearly tribute to Algiers, had been ordered to sail on to Constantinople to deliver the money directly to the Ottoman sultan. (To add to the humiliation, Captain William Bainbridge was instructed to fly the Ottoman flag whilst in harbor at Algiers.) America had, by this time, paid over $2,000,000 in tribute and ransom to the Barbary States - but this was only one-fifth of what was expected. </li></ul><ul><li>Angered by delayed and undersized payments the Barbary State regents demanded more. The escalating situation was finally brought to a head by the Pasha of Tripolitania, Yusuf Karamanli. On May 14, 1801, he ordered the flag staff (flying the 'Stars and Stripes') standing in front of the US consulate to be cut down. This symbolic act was taken as a declaration of war against America. </li></ul><ul><li>Recorded as the first land engagement of American troops outside the American continent, the battle at Derna has a particular place in the memory of the United States Marine Corps. The trek across the desert is commemorated in the first verse of the Marines' Hymn: &quot;to the shores of Tripoli&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Lieutenant Presley Neville O'Bannon and his marines led the attack on the harbor fortress. At 2:45 pm, backed up by a large number of European mercenaries, and following an offshore bombardment, O'Bannon bravely rushed the harbor defenses. The defenders turned and ran - leaving cannon loaded and ready to fire. After raising the 'Stars and Stripes', O'Bannon turned the guns towards the town. By 4 pm the entire town had fallen. </li></ul>
  86. 88. The Marine Hymn <ul><li>From the Halls of Montezuma, To the Shores of Tripoli; We fight our country's battles In the air, on land, and sea; First to fight for right and freedom And to keep our honor clean; We are proud to claim the title Of UNITED STATES MARINES. </li></ul><ul><li>Our flag's unfurled to every breeze, From dawn to setting sun; We have fought in every clime and place Where we could take a gun; In the snow of far off northern lands And in sunny tropic scenes; You will find us always on the job -- The UNITED STATES MARINES. </li></ul><ul><li>Here's health to you and to our Corps Which we are proud to serve; In many a strife we've fought for life And never lost our nerve; If the Army and the Navy Ever look on Heaven's scenes; They will find the streets are guarded By UNITED STATES MARINES. </li></ul>The U.S. Marine Corps is the United States' military band of brothers dedicated to warfighting. The proud Brotherhood of Marines is guided by principles, values, virtues, love of country, and its Warrior Culture. This brotherhood of American Patriots has no song. Instead, Marine Warriors have a hymn . When The Marines' Hymn is played, United States Marines stand at attention. They silently show their pride in their fellow Marines, their Corps, their Country, their heritage, and their hymn.      The Marines' Hymn is a tribute to Warriors. Marine Warriors stormed fortress Derna, raised the American flag, and gave us &quot;the shores of Tripoli.&quot; Marines fought their way into the castle at Chapultepec and gave us the &quot;halls of Montezuma.&quot; Marines exist for the purpose of warfighting. Fighting is their role in life. They &quot;fight for right and freedom&quot; and &quot;to keep our honor clean.&quot; They fight &quot;in the air, on land, and sea.&quot; The Marine Corps is Valhalla for Warriors. U.S. Marines need no song . They have a hymn .
  87. 89. Gabriel Prosser <ul><li>Gabriel Prosser (ca. 1775-1800) was the African American slave leader of an unsuccessful revolt in Richmond, Va., during the summer of 1800. </li></ul><ul><li>Gabriel Prosser, the slave of Thomas H. Prosser, was about 25 years old when he came to the attention of Virginia authorities late in August 1800. Little is known of his childhood or family background. He had two brothers and a wife, Nanny, all slaves of Prosser. Gabriel Prosser learned to read and was a serious student of the Bible, where he found inspiration in the accounts of Israel's delivery from slavery. Prosser possessed shrewd judgment, and his master gave him much latitude. He was acknowledged as a leader by many slaves around Richmond. </li></ul><ul><li>With the help of other slaves, especially Jack Bowler and George Smith, Prosser designed a scheme for a slave revolt. They planned to seize control of Richmond by slaying all whites (except for Methodists, Quakers, and Frenchmen) and then to establish a kingdom of Virginia with Prosser as king. The recent, successful American Revolution and the revolutions in France and Haiti--with their rhetoric of freedom, equality, and brotherhood--supplied examples and inspiration for Prosser's rebellion. In the months preceding the attack Prosser skillfully recruited supporters and organized them into military units. Authorities never discovered how many slaves were involved, but there were undoubtedly several thousand, many armed with swords and pikes made from farm tools by slave blacksmiths. </li></ul><ul><li>The plan was to strike on the night of Aug. 30, 1800. Men inside Richmond were to set fire to certain buildings to distract whites, and Prosser's force from the country was to seize the armory and government buildings across town. With the firearms thus gained, the rebels would supposedly easily overcome the surprised whites. </li></ul><ul><li>On the day of the attack the plot was disclosed by two slaves who did not want their masters slain; then Virginia governor James Monroe alerted the militia. That night, as the rebels began congregating outside Richmond, the worst rainstorm in memory flooded roads, washed out bridges, and prevented Prosser's army from assembling. Prosser decided to postpone the attack until the next day, but by then the city was too well defended. The rebels, including Prosser, dispersed. </li></ul><ul><li>Some slaves, in order to save their own lives, testified against the ringleaders, about 35 of whom were executed. Prosser himself managed to escape by hiding aboard a riverboat on its way to Norfolk. In Norfolk, however, he was betrayed by other slaves, who claimed the large reward for his capture on September 25. Returned to Richmond, Prosser, like most of the other leaders, refused to confess to the plot or give evidence against other slaves. He was tried and found guilty on Oct. 6, 1800, and executed the next day . </li></ul>
  88. 90. <ul><li>On the day of the attack the plot was disclosed by two slaves who did not want their masters slain; then Virginia governor James Monroe alerted the militia. That night, as the rebels began congregating outside Richmond, the worst rainstorm in memory flooded roads, washed out bridges, and prevented Prosser's army from assembling . Prosser decided to postpone the attack until the next day, but by then the city was too well defended. The rebels, including Prosser, dispersed. </li></ul><ul><li>Some slaves, in order to save their own lives, testified against the ringleaders, about 35 of whom were executed. Prosser himself managed to escape by hiding aboard a riverboat on its way to Norfolk. In Norfolk, however, he was betrayed by other slaves, who claimed the large reward for his capture on September 25. Returned to Richmond, Prosser, like most of the other leaders, refused to confess to the plot or give evidence against other slaves. He was tried and found guilty on Oct. 6, 1800, and exec

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