The age of_jackson[1]


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The age of_jackson[1]

  1. 1. Jacksonian Era Some turning points in American History
  2. 2. Sectional Issues
  3. 3. Sectional Issues
  4. 4. Sectional Issues
  5. 5. The Candidates <ul><li>John Adams- North </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had served as secretary of state and helped end the War of 1812 (experienced) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncomfortable campaigning among common people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Henry Clay- West </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skillful negotiator that worked out several important compromises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lincoln called him a “great man” and supported his candidacy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Andrew Jackson- West </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military victories during the War of 1812 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was a landowner and slave owner but grew up poor and was seen as “a man of the people” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>William Crawford- South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Politician and Judge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congressman from Georgia, very powerful figure </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Did you know…? <ul><li>Candidates for president did not go “out on the campaign trail” </li></ul><ul><li>All campaigning for president was done by their supporters, not by the men themselves </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Road to the White House <ul><li>William Crawford was the leading candidate until he suffered a stroke that left him paralyzed and unable to speak (that guy>>) </li></ul><ul><li>Even though he was completely disabled, Crawford finished ahead of Henry Clay. (that guy>>) </li></ul><ul><li>John Quincy Adams, and Andrew Jackson were left to battle it out </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, only white land owning men could vote! </li></ul>
  8. 8. Here’s what we know <ul><li>There were 261 available electoral votes, so in order to win the election, the candidate needed 131 to win. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jackson had 99 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adams had 84 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crawford had 41 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clay had 37 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even though Jackson had more votes, he did not have the 131 electoral votes needed to win. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. What do you think? Corruption? <ul><li>This is the first time the House had to select the winner of the presidential election </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Clay, as speaker of the House, presided over the proceedings </li></ul><ul><li>He agreed to withdraw from the race if the votes for him would go to Adams </li></ul><ul><li>Was this because he hated Jackson (which he did, with a passion)…. OR….. </li></ul><ul><li>Was this because he was offered the job of Secretary of State if Adams won </li></ul>
  10. 10. A corrupt bargain?? <ul><li>The group of Adam’s backers banded together, this was the beginning of the Republican party . </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson’s supporters banded together, this was the beginning of the Democratic party . </li></ul><ul><li>Adams was elected, and he did name Henry Clay as the Secretary of State </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson proclaimed that this was corruption, and he was so mad he resigned his senate seat, and went home </li></ul>
  11. 11. John Q. Adams <ul><li>From Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>Son of 2 nd president of the US, John Adams </li></ul><ul><li>Helped write the Treaty of Ghent (which ended the War of 1812) </li></ul><ul><li>Former United States Senator from Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of State under President James Monroe </li></ul>
  12. 12. Andrew Jackson <ul><li>Charismatic war hero from the War of 1812 </li></ul><ul><li>Senator from Tennessee </li></ul><ul><li>Nicknamed “ Old Hickory ” because of his tough and aggressive personality (and because he used his hickory cane to whack people over the head) </li></ul><ul><li>Rich slave holder </li></ul>
  13. 13. Some facts about JQA <ul><li>He wanted to make internal improvements such as roads, and the stability of a national bank </li></ul><ul><li>He had a pet alligator that lived in the east wing of the white house </li></ul><ul><li>He is the first president to have a pool table installed in the white house </li></ul><ul><li>He was 5’7” tall, and it is said his voice was high and shrill </li></ul><ul><li>He used to skinny dip in the Potomac River </li></ul><ul><li>Attended Harvard, traveled extensively, and was extremely intelligent- he spoke SEVEN languages </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>He was the first president to be interviewed by a female </li></ul><ul><li>He was the first to have his photograph taken (see below!) </li></ul><ul><li>He negotiated the Canadian border with England, and the annexation of Florida from Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Neither he nor his father appear on any currency </li></ul><ul><li>Neither he nor his father owned slaves </li></ul><ul><li>He served as a senator for 17 years after his presidency, said it was a better job than being president </li></ul><ul><li>He dropped dead in the Capitol Building of a stroke at the age of 80 </li></ul>
  15. 16. A few interesting facts about AJ <ul><li>He shot and killed a man in a duel over a horse race bet </li></ul><ul><li>He challenged another man to a duel, over a rude comment the man made about Jackson’s wife- the pistols were in a saddle bag but the horse, frightened by Jackson’s yelling, ran away with the guns so Jackson beat the man senseless with a cane </li></ul><ul><li>He owned 160 slaves </li></ul><ul><li>He had no formal education </li></ul><ul><li>He is the first President to have running water in the White House </li></ul><ul><li>He was 6’1” weighed 145 lbs and had blue eyes </li></ul><ul><li>The statue of him in New Orleans is the first successful equestrian statue with only two legs attached to the base </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>He was 61 when he was elected </li></ul><ul><li>He was the first president born on American soil </li></ul><ul><li>He was the first president to ride on a train </li></ul><ul><li>He was the first president to be a prisoner of war (he and his brother were taken prisoner by the British during the war of 1812) </li></ul><ul><li>He survived small pox, tuberculosis, and numerous sword and gunshot wounds, and lived to age 78 </li></ul><ul><li>Although customary to free slaves in your will, Jackson did not </li></ul><ul><li>He had no biological children </li></ul><ul><li>His face is on the $20 dollar bill </li></ul><ul><li>He had a pet parrot who he taught how to swear </li></ul>
  17. 18. Adams miserable 4 years <ul><li>Charges of corruption surrounded Adams, his reputation never recovered </li></ul><ul><li>Adams wanted a stronger government- southerners were afraid this would effect slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Adams made no effort to build support for his proposals and refused to fire anyone who openly opposed him, he did not give jobs to his “friends” </li></ul><ul><li>Although he wanted to move the Indians, he believed their lands should be purchased </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted a strong national bank to regulate the economy </li></ul><ul><li>Adams was one of the most qualified presidents the US has ever had </li></ul>
  18. 19. Tariff of 1828 <ul><li>Part of Adam’s plan was to have high protective tariffs (tax on imports) to protect American industry </li></ul><ul><li>Federally funded roads </li></ul><ul><li>Sale of land at low prices to encourage western settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Clay called this the “American System” because it was supposed to promote growth in all parts of the country </li></ul>
  19. 20. Tariff of Abominations <ul><li>People in the South who did not manufacture goods wanted the duties to be kept low </li></ul><ul><li>The bill made the duties so high that many people were very angry and called it the &quot;tariff of abominations“ </li></ul><ul><li>In the South, people were so angry that they swore never to buy anything from the North until the tariff lowered </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson’s supporters used this as a reason to hate Adams, and rally support for Jackson </li></ul>
  20. 22. The thing about it was…. <ul><li>Tariffs (or taxes) were the main source of revenue for the government </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson’s supporters had made changes to the bill to make the tariff’s extremely high, in hopes of embarrassing President Adams </li></ul><ul><li>They did not expect the bill to pass, but it did </li></ul><ul><li>This worked well for Jackson’s supporters, as this is largely the reason Adams was not re-elected in 1828 </li></ul>
  21. 23. Election of 1828 <ul><li>Jackson felt the election of 1824 was stolen from him </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson promised to repeal the “Tariff of Abominations” </li></ul><ul><li>Promised “no more aristocratic domination” </li></ul><ul><li>Promised to remove the Indians and leave the slaves </li></ul><ul><li>First election involving mudslinging (personal attacks) of this magnitude </li></ul>
  22. 24. Mudslinging <ul><li>Andrew Jackson's presidential election in 1828 proved a turning point in American History. Not only was it considered the dirtiest campaign ever witnessed, but it also marked the beginning of political involvement for ordinary Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>Never before had there been such an intense focus on the candidates' personalities and such little attention paid to the issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately this becomes the norm for presidential races. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Attacking Jackson <ul><li>His opponents accused him of murder, gambling, slave trading and treason. </li></ul><ul><li>They called him a 'military dictator,' and said his mother was a prostitute, his father a mulatto man, and his wife a bigamist . </li></ul>Adams used to refer to Jackson as a “Jack-ass” so political cartoonist Thomas Nash drew a picture of a donkey with Jackson’s face. This is how the Democratic party got the donkey symbol they still use today!!
  24. 26. Attacking Adams <ul><li>Adams was accused of installing gambling tables in the White House at the public expense (he had a pool table and chess board brought in, both of which he paid for with his own money) </li></ul><ul><li>Padding his expense account </li></ul><ul><li>Pimping women for the Tsar of Russia </li></ul>
  25. 27. Jackson’s Inauguration <ul><li>Adams won New England, Jackson won everywhere else </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson’s wife died of a heart attack on the eve of his inauguration </li></ul><ul><li>She was buried in the dress she had bought for the inauguration ceremony </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson blamed Adams and the dirty campaign for “killing his beloved Rachel” </li></ul>
  26. 28. Jackson’s Inauguration <ul><li>He arrived on foot to his swearing-in ceremony- to a crowd of 21,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson rode up Pennsylvania Avenue to the White House on a white horse, which he rode into the White House </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson was the first President to invite the public to attend the ball honoring his first inauguration </li></ul><ul><li>Many poor people came to the inaugural ball in their homemade clothes </li></ul>
  27. 29. Jackson’s Inauguration <ul><li>The crowd became so large that Jackson's guards could not keep them out of the White House, which became so crowded with people, mostly drunk, that china dishes, furniture, floors, and light fixtures were destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson escaped out a window and spent the night at a hotel </li></ul><ul><li>He did not attend any of the inaugural balls, as he was still “in mourning” over Rachel’s death </li></ul>
  28. 31. Jackson’s Presidency <ul><li>Equal protection and equal benefits for whites </li></ul><ul><li>“ Spoils” system- replaced supporters of Adams, with his supporters and friends </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson wanted to reduce the size and power of the government </li></ul><ul><li>Thought states should have the power to enforce federal laws, and if they did not like a law passed by congress, the state could nullify (refuse to enforce) it. </li></ul>
  29. 32. John C. Calhoun <ul><li>Was Adam’s Vice President and was re-elected as Jackson’s Vice-President </li></ul><ul><li>He liked the idea of strong government, but was like Jackson in his support of slavery </li></ul><ul><li>He and Jackson became bitter enemies- Calhoun rallied South Carolina to reject the tariff’s </li></ul><ul><li>Calhoun also said Jackson had invaded Florida (Seminole War) without permission of the President </li></ul><ul><li>Calhoun and Jackson fought bitterly until Calhoun resigned his position in 1832 to return to South Carolina to fight for state’s rights </li></ul>
  30. 33. First “sex scandal” in US Politics <ul><li>Peggy Eaton was overly flirtatious at a time when women did not behave this way (she also tended bar, which proper women did not do) </li></ul><ul><li>She remarried too soon after her husband’s suicide (which some claimed was brought on by her cheating) </li></ul><ul><li>The women of Washington snubbed her, and spread rumors (led by Calhoun’s wife) </li></ul><ul><li>Many members of Jackson’s cabinet quit, including Peggy’s husband John Eaton </li></ul>
  31. 34. Peggy Eaton <ul><li>Anyone nice to her, gained favor with Jackson </li></ul><ul><li>After the death of John Eaton, Peggy, age 59 married a 19 year old music teacher Antonio Buchignani </li></ul><ul><li>A few years later, Antonio ran off to Europe with all Peggy’s money, and her 17 year old granddaughter </li></ul><ul><li>Peggy died alone and completely broke in 1869 </li></ul>
  32. 35. Kitchen Cabinet <ul><li>Whoever did not quit over the Peggy Eaton situation, was fired </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson got rid of 5 of his 8 cabinet members, and brought in an unofficial group of advisors/friends </li></ul><ul><li>Were called the “kitchen cabinet” because being an unofficial group, they met in the kitchen- most if not all presidents since have had their own unofficial group of advisors, a tradition that has spilled over into British, Australian, Canadian, and Israeli politics </li></ul>
  33. 36. Uh oh…..nullification crisis <ul><li>South Carolina nullifies the tariffs of 1828 and 1832, which forbade the collection of taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson accuses them of treason, threatens military action to enforce </li></ul><ul><li>South Carolina thought other states would join in refusing to collect taxes, no one did </li></ul><ul><li>Keep in mind that South Carolina was the first state to secede (drop out) of the union- led by none other than John C. Calhoun </li></ul>
  34. 37. Indian Removal <ul><li>Jackson’s attitude towards natives was negative – which was common </li></ul><ul><li>Did not believe they could be “civilized” </li></ul><ul><li>Whites should not have to live with or close to them </li></ul><ul><li>Whites feared them (violence) </li></ul><ul><li>Natives harbored runaway slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson recognized 5 tribes, Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Choctaw, Chickasaw </li></ul>
  35. 38. Indian Removal Act <ul><li>Jackson put through the Indian Removal Act 1830, claimed removal was voluntary, but also said natives would no longer be protected from the states </li></ul><ul><li>He set aside 2 million for the removal of all natives, it cost more than 5 million to move just the Choctaw </li></ul><ul><li>Cherokees appealed to Georgia state government and won the right to stay, Jackson sent troops to force them out </li></ul>
  36. 39. Trail of Tears <ul><li>The natives were not savages, they built roads, churches, schools, and had jobs as farmers and ranchers and had a very organized representative government </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of the natives was not widely supported, but Jackson insisted </li></ul><ul><li>Men, women, and children were taken from their homes, herded into makeshift camps with minimal food or supplies and forced to walk over a thousand miles to Oklahoma </li></ul><ul><li>4,000 Cherokee alone died </li></ul>
  37. 41. Jackson vs. the Bank <ul><li>Wanted to destroy the bank </li></ul><ul><li>Did not like paper currency or the “credit” system </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson vetoed the charter of the bank </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson wanted all the federal reserves taken out of the bank, fired two treasury secretaries for refusing to do it </li></ul><ul><li>The bank, and the economy of the US collapsed, caused a panic in 1832 </li></ul>
  38. 42. <ul><li>In 1835, Richard Lawrence, an out of work house painter attempted to shoot Jackson- this is the first time someone tried to kill a president </li></ul><ul><li>The pistol misfired, and it is said Jackson beat the man with his cane, and that Davey Crockett disarmed the would-be assassin </li></ul>
  39. 43. The end <ul><li>At the end of his second term, Jackson participated in the election of his successor Martin van Buren </li></ul><ul><li>He retired to his plantation, The Hermitage, in Tennessee </li></ul><ul><li>He enjoyed 8 years of retirement before he died of heart failure at his home in 1845 </li></ul><ul><li>At his funeral, they had to remove Jackson’s pet parrot for swearing </li></ul><ul><li>He left his estate to his adopted son, Andrew Jackson Jr </li></ul>
  40. 44. Andrew Jackson’s home and bedroom where he died. Andrew Jackson & Rachel are buried here side by side.
  41. 45. Actual pictures of Jackson One year before his death
  42. 47. So…. <ul><li>Is Andrew Jackson a man who we should celebrate, or a man for whom we should apologize </li></ul>