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Introduction to Spark SQL and Catalyst / Spark SQLおよびCalalystの紹介


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Presentation material by Mr. Takuya Ueshin at ScalaMatsuri 2014

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Introduction to Spark SQL and Catalyst / Spark SQLおよびCalalystの紹介

  1. 1. Introduction to SparkSQL & Catalyst Takuya UESHIN ! ScalaMatsuri2014 2014/09/06(Sat)
  2. 2. Who am I? Takuya UESHIN @ueshin Nautilus Technologies, Inc. A Spark contributor 2
  3. 3. Agenda What is SparkSQL? Catalyst in depth SparkSQL core in depth Interesting issues How to contribute 3
  4. 4. What is SparkSQL?
  5. 5. What is SparkSQL? SparkSQL is one of Spark components. Executes SQL on Spark Builds SchemaRDD like LINQ Optimizes execution plan. 5
  6. 6. What is SparkSQL? Catalyst provides a execution planning framework for relational operations. Including: SQL parser & analyzer Logical operators & general expressions Logical optimizer A framework to transform operator tree. 6
  7. 7. What is SparkSQL? To execute query needs some steps. Parse Analyze Logical Plan Optimize Physical Plan Execute 7
  8. 8. What is SparkSQL? To execute query needs some steps. Parse Analyze Logical Plan Optimize Physical Plan Execute 8 Catalyst
  9. 9. What is SparkSQL? To execute query needs some steps. Parse Analyze Logical Plan Optimize Physical Plan Execute 9 SQL core
  10. 10. Catalyst in depth
  11. 11. Catalyst in depth Provides a execution planning framework for relational operations. Row & DataType’s Trees & Rules Logical Operators Expressions Optimizations 11
  12. 12. Row & DataType’s o.a.s.sql.catalyst.types.DataType Long, Int, Short, Byte, Float, Double, Decimal String, Binary, Boolean, Timestamp Array, Map, Struct o.a.s.sql.catalyst.expressions.Row Represents a single row. Can contain complex types. 12
  13. 13. Trees & Rules o.a.s.sql.catalyst.trees.TreeNode Provides transformations of tree. foreach, map, flatMap, collect transform, transformUp, transformDown Used for operator tree, expression tree. 13
  14. 14. Trees & Rules o.a.s.sql.catalyst.rules.Rule Represents a tree transform rule. o.a.s.sql.catalyst.rules.RuleExecutor A framework to transform trees based on rules. 14
  15. 15. Logical Operators Basic Operators Project, Filter, … Binary Operators Join, Except, Intersect, Union, … Aggregate Generate, Distinct Sort, Limit InsertInto, WriteToFile 15 Project Filter Join Table Table
  16. 16. Expressions Literal Arithmetics UnaryMinus, Sqrt, MaxOf Add, Subtract, Multiply, … Predicates EqualTo, LessThan, LessThanOrEqual, GreaterThan, GreaterThanOrEqual Not, And, Or, In, If, CaseWhen 16 + 1 2
  17. 17. Expressions Cast GetItem, GetField Coalesce, IsNull, IsNotNull StringOperations Like, Upper, Lower, Contains, StartsWith, EndsWith, Substring, … 17
  18. 18. Optimizations ConstantFolding NullPropagation ConstantFolding BooleanSimplification SimplifyFilters FilterPushdown CombineFilters PushPredicateThroughProject PushPredicateThroughJoin ColumnPruning 18
  19. 19. Optimizations NullPropagation, ConstantFolding Replace expressions that can be evaluated with some literal value to the value. ex) 1 + null => null 1 + 2 => 3 Count(null) => 0 19
  20. 20. Optimizations BooleanSimplification Simplifies boolean expressions that can be determined. ex) false AND $right => false true AND $right => $right true OR $right => true false OR $right => $right If(true, $then, $else) => $then 20
  21. 21. Optimizations SimplifyFilters Removes filters that can be evaluated trivially. ex) Filter(true, child) => child Filter(false, child) => empty 21
  22. 22. Optimizations CombineFilters Merges two filters. ex) Filter($fc, Filter($nc, child)) => Filter(AND($fc, $nc), child) 22
  23. 23. Optimizations PushPredicateThroughProject Pushes Filter operators through Project operator. ex) Filter(‘i === 1, Project(‘i, ‘j, child)) => Project(‘i, ‘j, Filter(‘i === 1, child)) 23
  24. 24. Optimizations PushPredicateThroughJoin Pushes Filter operators through Join operator. ex) Project(“left.i”.attr === 1, Join(left, right) => Join(Project(‘i === 1, left), right) 24
  25. 25. Optimizations ColumnPruning Eliminates the reading of unused columns. ex) Join(left, right, LeftSemi, “”.attr === “”.attr) => Join(Project(‘id, left), right, LeftSemi) 25
  26. 26. SQL core in depth
  27. 27. SQL core in depth Provides: Physical operators to build RDD Conversion from Existing RDD of Product to SchemaRDD support Parquet file read/write support JSON file read support Columnar in-memory table support 27
  28. 28. SQL core in depth o.a.s.sql.SchemaRDD Extends RDD[Row]. Has logical plan tree. Provides LINQ-like interfaces to construct logical plan. select, where, join, orderBy, … Executes the plan. 28
  29. 29. SQL core in depth o.a.s.sql.execution.SparkStrategies Converts logical plan to physical. Some rules are based on statistics of the operators. 29
  30. 30. SQL core in depth Parquet read/write support Parquet: Columnar storage format for Hadoop Reads existing Parquet files. Converts Parquet schema to row schema. Writes new Parquet files. Currently DecimalType and TimestampType are not supported. 30
  31. 31. SQL core in depth JSON read support Loads a JSON file (one object per line) Infers row schema from the entire dataset. Giving the schema is experimental. Inferring the schema by sampling is also experimental. 31
  32. 32. SQL core in depth Columnar in-memory table support Caches table like RDD.cache, but as columnar style. Can prune unnecessary columns when read data. 32
  33. 33. Interesting issues
  34. 34. Interesting issues Support the GroupingSet/ROLLUP/CUBE Use statistics to skip partitions when reading from in-memory columnar data 34
  35. 35. Interesting issues Pluggable interface for shuffles Sort-merge join Cost-based join reordering 35
  36. 36. How to contribute
  37. 37. How to contribute See: Contributing to Spark Open an issue on JIRA Send pull-request at GitHub Communicate with committers and reviewers Congratulations! 37
  38. 38. Conclusion Introduced SparkSQL & Catalyst Now you know them very well! And you know how to contribute. ! Let’s contribute to Spark & SparkSQL!! 38