2.INTRODUCTION TO PARIS CONVENTION
3. INTRODUCTION TO PCT
4. PCT PATENT APPLICATION PROCESS
5. INTRODUCTION TO WTO/GATT SYSTEM
• The Paris Convention is one of the Intellectual Property Treaty
administered by WIPO.
• It was launched in 1883 in order to provide some international
harmonizing and streamlining of intellectual property laws.
• There are 169 member countries.
The provisions of the Paris Convention may be sub-divided into four main
- a first category contains rules of substantive law which guarantee a basic right known as the
right to national treatment in each of the member country
a second category establishes another basic right known as the right of priority
- a third category defines a certain number of common rules in the field of substantive law which contain
either rules establishing rights and obligations of natural persons and rules requiring or permitting
the member countries to enact legislation following those rules
- a fourth category deals with the administrative framework which has been set up to implement the
Convention, and includes the final clauses of the Convention.
• The Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) is a Global Protection Treaty
administered by WIPO.
• The Patent Cooperation Treaty aims to provide a simplified and
less costly method of preserving the rights to file a patent
application in member countries.
• It seeks to achieve this by providing what is known as a PCT
• The Patent Cooperation Treaty has 128 member countries
Patent Co-operation Treaty [PCT]
• The PCT created a Union.
• The Union has an Assembly.
• Every State party to the PCT is a member of the Assembly.
• Among the most important tasks of the Assembly are the
amendment of the Regulations issued under the Treaty, the
adoption of the biennial program and budget of the Union and the
fixing of certain fees connected with the use of the PCT system.
WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION
FACT FILE : THE WTO
Location: Geneva, Switzerland
Established: 1 January 1995
Created by: Uruguay Round negotiations (1986-94)
Membership: 153 countries
Secretariat staff: 625
Introduction to WTO
The WTO is the only global organization concerned in international laws on trade between
nations. The basic mission of the organization is to ensure that trade flows smoothly and freely.
• The organization does this through:
1. Management of agreements on trade.
2. Presence as a forum for trade negotiations.
3. Resolving Trade-related disputes.
4. Review of nation related trade policies.
5. Assisting the developing countries in trade policy-related topics through Technological and
training programs aid.
6. Cooperating with other world organizations. 10
Silent features of WTO
(1) World Trade Organization is a separate legal entity.
(2) It has a legal and institutional foundation of the multi trading system.
(3 All its agreements are permanent and binding to all member countries.
(4) World Trade Organization has global status like IMF, but it is not an agent of UN.
(5) All its members enjoys equal voting rights, irrespective of type and volume of trade.
(6) It has an automatic dispute settlement system.
(7) WTO has a rule based and time bound approach.
(8) It has a wide coverage of not only trade but also service.
(9) WTO focuses an trade related aspects of intellectual property rights.
(10) World Trade organization is a huge organizational body having a large secretariat.
Objectives of WTO
1.To implement the new world trade system as visualized in the agreement; to promote world trade in a
manner that benefits every country;
2.To ensure that developing countries secure a better balance in the sharing of the advantages resulting from
the expansion of international trade corresponding to their developmental needs;
3.To improve the level of living for the global population and speed up economic development of the member
4.To enhance competitiveness among all trading partners so as to benefit consumers and help in global
5.To increase the level of production and productivity with a view to ensuring level of employment in the world;
6.To expand and utilize world resources to the best;
Functions of WTO
• Administering WTO trade agreements
• Forum for trade negotiations
• Handling trade disputes
• Monitoring national trade policies
• Technical assistance and training for developing countries
• Cooperation with other international organizations
• Trade without discrimination
• The principle of transparency through the reduction of customs tariffs
with clear, transparent, and low tariffs.
• The principle of reciprocity: the state reduces customs restrictions and
liberalizes trade; in return, another state does the same (reciprocity).
• The principle of preferential trade treatment
World Trade Agreement
1. World Trade Organization Agreement.
2. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
3. General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS).
4. Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property
• GATT membership now includes more than 110 countries.
THERE ARE VARIOUS ARTICLES…….
• Article I -General Most- Favored-Nation Treatment;
• Article III -National Treatment on Internal Taxation and Regulation;
• Article XI -General Elimination of Quantitative Restrictions;
• Article XIII -Non-discriminatory Administration of Quantitative Restrictions;
• Article XVI -Subsidies;
• Article XX -General Exceptions