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Navigating Patents- Law and Process to File


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Navigating Patents- Law and Process to File

  1. 1. Overview of International Intellectual Property Laws Treaties and Use August 18, 2009
  2. 2. Treaties <ul><li>Multiple parties/nations </li></ul><ul><li>Highly negotiated </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Vague language </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistent between treaties </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and value standards </li></ul>
  3. 3. WIPO <ul><li>Administers intellectual property treaties (~24) </li></ul><ul><li>Aids in setting up national laws on IPR </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains records of various international agencies – IP search sites </li></ul><ul><li>184 members </li></ul><ul><li>Geneva headquarters </li></ul>
  4. 4. Paris Convention <ul><li>7 July 1884 </li></ul><ul><li>Method to have 1 year priority </li></ul><ul><li>Global novelty </li></ul><ul><li>Many negotiated amendments with different nations signed to different ones </li></ul><ul><li>173 members </li></ul>
  5. 5. PCT <ul><li>Subset from Paris </li></ul><ul><li>24 January 1978 </li></ul><ul><li>Originally for formalities – paper, margins </li></ul><ul><li>141 members </li></ul>
  6. 6. WTO <ul><li>1 January 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>153 members </li></ul><ul><li>Major task is trade issues among nations </li></ul><ul><li>WTO members must treat all members alike – duty, fees for import, security, health </li></ul><ul><li>Membership is IMPORTANT for fair trade practices </li></ul>
  7. 7. WTO - 2 <ul><li>Developed Countries – US etc – should be fully in compliance from 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Countries – CA? CN? – should be fully in compliance since Jan 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Least Developed Countries – 32 [UN 49] – compliance extended until 2016 </li></ul>
  8. 8. WTO - 3 <ul><li>Enforcement is provided including loss of membership, penalties (CN?) </li></ul><ul><li>Disputes are only between nations </li></ul><ul><li>Usually on bans to import or unfair practices – dumping, piracy of IPR, protection of home industry </li></ul>
  9. 9. TRIPs <ul><li>A part of GATT so that when nations had to sign to join WTO they had to accept TRIPs too </li></ul><ul><li>More uniform IPR protection globally for innovators </li></ul><ul><li>Cut down on piracy (copyright) and counterfeit (patents/trademarks) and have stiff penalties (WIPO/Paris/PCT has no enforcement) </li></ul>
  10. 10. TRIPs - 2 <ul><li>Basic principles – minimum standards </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate protection – years, types </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcement by nations must be strong in local systems </li></ul><ul><li>Settle disputes between WTO members </li></ul><ul><li>Transitional provisions for compliance </li></ul>
  11. 11. TRIPs - 3 <ul><li>Patents </li></ul><ul><li>At least 20 years from filing </li></ul><ul><li>All technology areas must be patentable unless public order or morality issue (applied to all uniformly) </li></ul><ul><li>Include microorganisms, drugs, process includes the product – Budapest Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Indications (Article 22-24) </li></ul><ul><li>Plant varieties – UPOV Convention </li></ul>
  12. 12. US Provisional <ul><li>Provisional Application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just as hard to write for priority claim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs to be global – have at least 1 claim, inventors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 12 months – then another case –US utility or PCT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low cost $220 LE/$110 SE; >100 sheets $220/ $135 SE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not examined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not published </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never issues as a patent </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Errors on Provisional <ul><li>Disclose before filed – public or TM </li></ul><ul><li>Not well written </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enablement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written description </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does not comply with all the US laws or treaties </li></ul>
  14. 14. US Utility <ul><li>Original US Application </li></ul><ul><li>Can issue </li></ul><ul><li>Publishes at 18 months from 1 st filed (unless file a request) </li></ul><ul><li>Is examined </li></ul><ul><li>Cost higher: Filing $330 LE/ $165 SE/ $82 electronic </li></ul><ul><li>More costs for claims >3 indep.; >20 claims total, size >100 pgs $270/$135 per 50 pgs; Search $540 LE/ $270 SE; Exam $220 LE/ $110 SE </li></ul>
  15. 15. Requirements <ul><li>Novelty – absolute, global </li></ul><ul><li>Non-obvious – Philips, KSR, Festo Cases </li></ul><ul><li>Utility – useful vs. industrial applicability </li></ul>
  16. 16. US Prosecution <ul><li>Several Office Actions over time, time delays </li></ul><ul><li>RCE when needed $840 LE/ $405 SE </li></ul><ul><li>Takes effort and knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Claims can cost too </li></ul><ul><li>Patent valuable when issued </li></ul>
  17. 17. Maintenance Fees on US Patent <ul><li>Due after issue of patent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.5 years = $980 LE/ $490 SE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7.5 years = $2,480 LE/ $1,240 SE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11.5 years = $4,110 LE/ $2,055 SE </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Time Line <ul><li>0 = filed US Provisional </li></ul><ul><li>12 months = PCT or US Utility filed </li></ul><ul><li>17.5 months = withdraw publication/abandon </li></ul><ul><li>18 months = published </li></ul><ul><li>30 months = national countries files </li></ul>
  19. 19. PCT - Advantages <ul><li>File in language of Receiving Office (RO) – many national offices qualify as RO </li></ul><ul><li>Must have 1 inventor a citizen of that country or the assignee is incorporated there [IB will always accept the case from a member] </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 30 months to decide where to file national (7 Countries is break even on costs; EP = 1 with 34 ctry) </li></ul><ul><li>Get all countries at filing </li></ul>
  20. 20. PCT - Concerns <ul><li>Export license – US if an inventor is US or data generated in US </li></ul><ul><li>Security clearance if US government funding (DOD; DOE; etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Costs – if intend less than 7 countries at national stage </li></ul><ul><li>Publication at 18 months </li></ul>
  21. 21. PCT – Where to File <ul><li>Technology driven </li></ul><ul><li>Speed to market </li></ul><ul><li>Where are the markets? </li></ul><ul><li>Obsolesce </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing </li></ul><ul><li>Value received for the cost incurred </li></ul>
  22. 22. PCT – Content of Case <ul><li>Specification – problems between countries (US – written description & enablement; EP - solution) </li></ul><ul><li>Claims – number, type, multiple dependencies, independent claims, wording (complex – meaning and translations) </li></ul><ul><li>How to draft PCT case is a separate course for IP lawyers as it is complex </li></ul>
  23. 23. PCT - Procedure <ul><li>0 Month - File Priority Case </li></ul><ul><li>12 months – file PCT Case + Non-PCT Country Cases </li></ul><ul><li>16 months – receive ISR/WO – can informally comment within 2 months; Article 19 - amend only claims [AT, AU, CA, CN, EP, ES, FI, JP, KR, RU, SE, US; IB] </li></ul>
  24. 24. PCT – Procedure - 2 <ul><li>17.5 months – stop publication; revoke priority claim; withdraw all designations but US </li></ul><ul><li>18 months – publication </li></ul><ul><li>22 months – demand; IPRP; can amend entire application; Article 34 </li></ul><ul><li>28 months – IPRP; informal comments </li></ul><ul><li>30 months – National Phase </li></ul>
  25. 25. National Phase <ul><li>Some countries give strong weight to a positive IPRP </li></ul><ul><li>Examination should be in 54 languages of members (no one examiner does this so many countries re-examine) </li></ul><ul><li>Examination standards are different so the art is applied wrong – 35 USC § 102(e) </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance fees are national and exponentially increase with patent life </li></ul>
  26. 26. Now Global Ready? <ul><li>The world is small, so know how to work in it. </li></ul>