Political Economy of Hunger inAdivasi AreasCentre for Environment and Food SecurityNew Delhi, 2005
1Political Economy of Hunger inAdivasi AreasA Survey Research on Hunger in Adivasi Areas of Rajasthan & JharkhandSupported...
2ContentsPreface 3-5Part – I 6-77Executive Summary of Survey Report 6-18Background information about Sample States and Dis...
3PrefacePolitical economy of hunger in Adivasi areas is inextricably linked to the politicalecology of development in post...
4natural resources. It is these starving, hungry and poor Adivasis who have beenmade to pay the “price of progress”. It is...
5their support. Secondly, we are grateful to all the researchers and field investigatorswho worked very hard to make this ...
6Part- IExecutive summary of survey research on hunger and poverty inAdivasi areas of Rajasthan and JharkhandOut of a tota...
7This data suggests that at least 16.5 percent of the surveyed Adivasi householdshad eaten either just one poor/partial me...
8from Rajasthan could not afford any pulse or animal product on the previous day ofsurvey, the corresponding figure for Jh...
92.8 percent of the households had survived by eating just one poor/partial meal aday throughout the previous week. 30 sam...
10Protein (pulses & animal products) consumption during previous week40.2 per cent of sample Adivasi households could not ...
11cent for 15-20 days, 11.4 per cent for 10-15 days and 3 per cent of households hadeaten this kind of food for 5 days of ...
12samples surviving only on this category of food for more than 10 days of the monthis 3.4 per cent.Three families from th...
13Protein (pulses& animal products) consumption during previous month33.3 per cent of samples could not get any pulse or a...
14When asked as for how many months of the previous year they did manage to gettwo poor/partial meals-a-day, only 8.1 per ...
15of the previous year. This data implies that 10 per cent of sample Adivasihouseholds had to survive only on distress foo...
16Protein (pulses & animal products) consumption during previous year30.8 per cent of sample households in Rajasthan and J...
17Adivasis’ own perception about their state of food securityTo get Adivasis’ own perception about their current state of ...
18of 50.1 per cent card holding samples who had BPL cards, only a tiny 9.2 per centhouseholds said that they were getting ...
19Background information about sample states and districtsAdivasis constitute 8% (83,580,63 in the Census, 2001) of the to...
20RajasthanAccording to 1991 Census, Adivasis consititute 12.4 Per cent (31,25,506) ofRajasthan’s total population. Howeve...
21List of sample villagesVillage Panchayat TehsilSamoli Samoli KotraRajpur Gura KotraSada Sada KotraTibarni Ka Khet Dang K...
22area sown was 121005 hect. and 61241 hect. was forest land. The percentage ofarea sown against total geographical area w...
23JharkhandIn the state of Jharkhand, the Adivasi population has dropped from around 60% in1911 to 27.67% in 1991District ...
24Adivasis of JharkhandTRIBES POPULATION % in Tribalpopulationliteracy withinTribeAsur 7783 0.13 10.62Baiga 3553 0.06 4.22...
25mountains, and deep forests on the mountain slopes. The district contains one of thebest Sal forests and its SARANDA (se...
26Gumla DistrictGumla district is covered by dense forests, hills and rivers. It is situated in thesouthwest portion of th...
27Gumla district is a backward district as compared to other districts of the State. Thedistrict has a total population of...
28Key Findings of the Survey Research on Hunger and Povertyin Adivasi Areas of Rajasthan and JharkhandThe findings of a su...
29those villages. In the selection of household samples, only one category ofhouseholds were excluded, i.e.- those with re...
30Occupation of Adivasi HouseholdsOut of the total 1000 sample Adivasi households, a staggering 82 per cent wereagricultur...
31condemned to live without any electricity in their homes. It seems to be theproverbial case of darkness under the lamp. ...
32Among the total sample Adivasi respondents, 68.7 per cent were illiterate, 4.4 percent barely-literate, 8.8 per cent had...
33of their family members had gone anywhere in search of livelihood. While 27.4 percent of Rajasthan samples said that the...
34sample Adivasi households were facing either starvation or semi-starvation onthe previous day of the survey. It is inter...
35households (4.4 per cent) had eaten only one poor/partial meal on the previous dayand two families (0.4 per cent) had su...
36Proportion of Jungle food in total food intake on previous dayProportion of Jungle food in total food intake on previous...
37survey. As against only 30(6 per cent) samples from Rajasthan whose previousday’s one-fourth diet consisted of jungle fo...
38households said that they could not afford any pulse or animal product on theprevious day of the survey. Only 23.4 per c...
39days of the previous week could secure one square meal plus one poor/partial meal,98.9 percent said that they could not ...
40Adivasi families had eaten either for the whole previous week or for a significant partof it only one distress meal-a-da...
41consisted of jungle food, 75 samples (15 per cent) in Jharkhand said that 75-100 percent of their diet during the week c...
42and only one household (0.01 per cent) had taken two square meals for the wholemonth. It is important to note here that ...
43families for 15-20 days and 34(6.8 per cent) families for 10-15 days of the previousmonth, these figures for Jharkhand a...
44days and 8.8 per cent for 5 days of the previous month. The corresponding figuresfor the state of Jharkhand are 5 per ce...
45eating only one distress meal-a-day for more than 10 days and 2.8 per cent sampleshad not eaten any food for 2-10 days o...
46Protein (pulses& animal products) consumption during previous month33.3 per cent of samples out of 1000 Adivasi househol...
47cent of Adivasis in Jharkhand had eaten some pulses or animal products for morethan 15 days of the previous month. The r...
48When asked as for how many months of the previous year they could secure onesquare meal plus one poor/partial meal-a-day...
49per cent) samples for 12 months, 17 (3.4 per cent) for 11 months, 28(5.6 per cent)for 10 months, 18(3.6 per cent) for 9 ...
50When asked as for how many months of the previous year they had to survive onjust one poor/partial meal–a-day, 1.3 per c...
51meal-a-day, we get a very disturbing figure of 32.6 per cent of sample Adivasihouseholds living in semi- starvation duri...
52jungle food, 9.1 per cent said that it was up to three-fourth and 8.4 per cent samplessaid that 75-100 per cent of their...
53Rajasthan and Jharkhand either could not eat any pulse & animal product or did eatfor hardly three months during the yea...
54survey, 18.7 per cent had less than 10 kg of food grains at home, 45.9 per centof them had less than 50 kg,15.9 per cent...
55food grains in their homes, 22.2 per cent of Adivasi households in Jharkhand hadover 300 kg of food grains in their home...
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)
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Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi Areas - A survey research by the Centre for Environment and Food Security (2005)

  1. 1. Political Economy of Hunger inAdivasi AreasCentre for Environment and Food SecurityNew Delhi, 2005
  2. 2. 1Political Economy of Hunger inAdivasi AreasA Survey Research on Hunger in Adivasi Areas of Rajasthan & JharkhandSupported by:HIVOSCentre for Environment and Food SecurityNew Delhi, 2005
  3. 3. 2ContentsPreface 3-5Part – I 6-77Executive Summary of Survey Report 6-18Background information about Sample States and Districts 19-27Key findings of Survey 28-77Part – II 78-122Political Economy of Hunger in Adivasi areas of India 78-122Annexure - Tabulated data of Survey i-xix
  4. 4. 3PrefacePolitical economy of hunger in Adivasi areas is inextricably linked to the politicalecology of development in post-Independence India. While the benefits of economicgrowth and industrial development have substantially gone to the rich sections of thesociety living in cities and towns, the ecological price of that progress has beenlargely borne by poor communities of rural India, especially Adivasis. The 28th and29th Reports of the Commissioner for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes in1989 and 1990 reported that ‘colonization of tribals’ has been carried out in thename of development, which has pushed the tribal people to the brink of survival.A quick review of the major ‘hunger-events’ hogging the limelight in cosmopolitanmedia in the last 25 years suggests that almost all the ‘hunger hot-spots’ of India liein the Adivasi areas and almost every starvation-victim is an Adivasi. What makesAdivasis so vulnerable to starvation and endemic hunger? This survey research onthe “Political economy of hunger in Adivasi areas of Rajasthan and Jharkhand” is avery tiny but sincere effort to get an answer to this vexed question.The governments would like us to believe that hunger in tribal areas is because ofoccasional droughts and “collapsed” PDS (Public Distribution System) in these areas.But ‘collapsed’ PDS or drought are not even the tip of ‘hunger-iceberg’ in the Adivasiareas. The germs of the malady lie much deeper. The core of this problem lies in thestructural changes in Adivasi economy in the last five and a half decades that havedepleted and destroyed the traditional livelihoods and food systems of thesecommunities.Immediately after Independence, the Nehruvian development paradigm embarkedon building “temples of modern India”. The social and ecological costs of thisdevelopment have been largely borne by country’s Adivasi communities in terms ofphysical displacement, destruction of subsistence base and gradual alienation from
  5. 5. 4natural resources. It is these starving, hungry and poor Adivasis who have beenmade to pay the “price of progress”. It is the same Adivasis whose survival base hasbeen sacrificed at the altar of “national interest” and “greater common good”.These are the same people whose sources of livelihood have been appropriated byinvoking the “colonial Brahmastra” (ultimate weapon) of “eminent domain" of theState. Whether it is mining or construction of big dams and mega power projects,protection of forest or conservation of wildlife, Adivasis’ lives and livelihoods bore thebiggest brunt. The crisis has been further aggravated by the policies of globalizationand economic liberalization. Not only the promised “trickle – downs" dried up midwaybut it is the same Adivasis, Dalits and poor who have been asked to pay the price ofStructural Adjustment Programmes, reduction in fiscal deficit, financial prudence, asteep reduction in food subsidy and other social sector allocations etc.This Report on the “Political economy of hunger in Adivasi areas of Rajasthan andJharkhand” is the outcome of both primary and secondary research on the issuecarried out during last two years by the Centre for Environment and Food security(CEFS). This study is broadly divided into two parts. Part-I consists of the keyfindings of the field survey on “hunger in Adivasi areas of Rajasthan and Jharkhand”carried out among one thousand Adivasi households of these two states. Part-II ofthis report is the outcome of our secondary research on the “Political economy ofhunger in Adivasi areas of India”.This research report would not have been possible but for the generous help, kindcooperation and unstinted support of innumerable activists, academics, experts,NGOs and research institutes during this study. It is difficult to mention here namesof all those individuals and institutes who have helped us during this research study.First and foremost, I must acknowledge that this study owes a lot to Prof. AshisNandy and Dr. Prodipto Roy, not only for their expert advice and guidance for thisresearch, but also for the immense generosity and great dignity shown during all
  6. 6. 5their support. Secondly, we are grateful to all the researchers and field investigatorswho worked very hard to make this study possible. I must thank Mr. Saji M Kadvil,Ms. Swati Baijal, Ms. Richa Bansal and Ms. Satya Singh for their sincerity inresearch and research assistance for this study. I am so grateful to Dr. ShrutiKshirsagar and Dr. Archana Sharma for their hard work during the field survey inUdaipur and Dungarpur districts of Rajasthan. The field survey in Udaipur andDungarpur owes a lot to ASTHA (Udaipur) and Shri. Bhanwar Singh for helping us inorganizing the logistics for the field survey. I am also greatful to many activists ofUdaipur like, Shri. Kishore Saint, Shri. Mohan Singh Danghi and many others for alltheir help.The field survey in Jharkhand owes a lot to Mr. Shekhar from Ranchi. We aregrateful to him for all the help and support he provided us in organizing the logisticsfor field survey in West Singhbhum and Gumla districts. Ms. Jyotsna Tirkey, Mr. AmitPaty, Ms. Laxmi, Mr Jyoti Kumar and Mr. Suraj Kumar worked very hard during fieldsurvey in West Singhbhum & Gumla districts. We are also grateful to Dr. RameshSharan and all those people from Jharkhand who helped us during our field research.Last but not the least, this study would not have been possible but for the generousgrant provided by Hivos. Ms. Jamuna Ramakrishna from Hivos deserves specialthanks for her promptness, patience and utmost dignity shown during all herdealings with CEFS.Parshuram RaiOctober 12th2005(Vijayadashmi)
  7. 7. 6Part- IExecutive summary of survey research on hunger and poverty inAdivasi areas of Rajasthan and JharkhandOut of a total 1000 sample Adivasi households from 40 sample villages in Rajasthanand Jharkhand surveyed for this study, a staggering 99 per cent were facing chronichunger. The data gathered during this survey suggests that 25.2 percent of surveyedAdivasi households had faced semi-starvation during the previous week of thesurvey. This survey found that 24.1 percent of the surveyed Adivasi households hadlived in semi-starvation condition throughout the previous month of the survey. Over99 per cent of the Adivasi households had lived with one or another level of endemichunger and food insecurity during the whole previous year. Moreover, out of 500sample Adivasi households surveyed in Rajasthan, not a single one had securedtwo square meals for the whole previous year.Daily hunger ProfileAmongst total 1000 households asked as to whether they had eaten two squaremeals on the previous day of the survey, only four respondents (0.4 per cent), twoeach from Rajasthan & Jharkhand said that they had eaten two square meals on theprevious day. When they were asked whether they could get one square meal plusone poor/partial meal on the previous day, only five households (0.5 per cent)replied yes. Out of the remaining households, 47.9 per cent had eaten twopoor/partial meals, 34.7 per cent got one poor/partial meal plus one distress meal,11.3 per cent could get just one poor/partial meal, 0.2 per cent had eaten only onedistress meal and 5 per cent of the surveyed Adivasis could eat only jungle food onthe previous day of the survey.
  8. 8. 7This data suggests that at least 16.5 percent of the surveyed Adivasi householdshad eaten either just one poor/partial meal or one distress meal or only jungle foodon the previous day of the survey. In other words, at least 16.5 per cent of sampleAdivasi households were facing either starvation or semi-starvation on the previousday of the survey. While only nine families (1.8 per cent) in Rajasthan had survivedon Jungle food, 41 Adivasi households (8.2 per cent) in Jharkhand had to make dowith only jungle food on the previous day of the survey.Proportion of Jungle food in total food intake on previous dayA staggering 62.4 per cent of sample Adivasi households said that the proportion ofjungle food in their previous day’s diet was zero, 16.9 per cent samples said thatone-fourth of their diet on the previous day consisted of jungle food, 9.9 per centfamilies said that half of their diet on the previous day consisted of jungle food, 5.8per cent said that it was three-fourth and 5 per cent Adivasi households said thattheir full diet on the previous day consisted of only Jungle food. This data againreinforces the previous finding that 5 per cent of Adivasis had eaten nothing butjungle food on the previous day of survey. The use, access and availability of junglefood and Minor Forest Produce (MFP) in Jharkhand (especially in West Singhbhumdistrict) is very high in comparison to that in Rajasthan. In the West Singhbhumdistrict of Jharkhand, MFP is still a major source of livelihood for many Adivasihouseholds.Protein (Pulses & animal products) eaten on previous dayAn alarming proportion of 76.6 per cent Adivasi households said that they could notafford any pulse or animal product on the previous day of the survey. Only 23.4 percent of the samples had eaten some pulses or animal products on the previous day.While 112 (22.4 per cent) samples from Rajasthan had eaten some pulses or animalproducts, 122 (24.4 per cent) samples from Jharkhand were able to secure somepulses or animal products on the previous day. While 388 (77.6 per cent) samples
  9. 9. 8from Rajasthan could not afford any pulse or animal product on the previous day ofsurvey, the corresponding figure for Jharkhand was 378 (75.6 per cent).Weekly Hunger ProfileTo assess and ascertain the weekly state of hunger and food insecurity amongAdivasi households, they were asked as to what category of food was secured bythem for how many days of the previous week. When they were asked as to whetherthey had eaten two square meals on all 7 days of the previous week, only onerespondent (0.01 per cent) replied yes. The remaining 999 (99.9 per cent)households said that they could not get two square meals even on a single day ofthe previous week. When asked as to how many of them for how many days of theprevious week could secure one square meal plus one poor/partial meal, 98.9 percent said that they could not afford this kind of food even for a single day of theprevious week. This weekly data on hunger again confirms that about 99 per cent ofAdivasi households in Rajasthan and Jharkhand were facing chronic hunger.Only 216 (21.6 percent) out of 1000 surveyed households were able to secure eventwo poor/partial meals on all seven days of the previous week.57 sample families(5.7 per cent) had secured two poor/partial meals for 6 days of the previous week,103 families (10.3 per cent) for 5 days of the week, 70 families (7 per cent) for 4days, 59 families (5.9 per cent) for 3 days, 62 families (6.2 per cent) for only 2 daysof the week and 18 sample families (1.8 per cent) for just 1 day of the previous week.Another 214 (21.4 percent) of the households had survived throughout the week onjust one poor/partial meal plus one distress meal per day. 99 sample Adivasihouseholds (9.9 per cent) had eaten one poor/partial meal plus one distress meal for5 days of the previous week, 66 families (6.6 per cent) for four days of the week, 76households (7.6 per cent) for 3 days of the week, 112 families (11.2 per cent) for 2days and 71 families (7.1 per cent) for only one day of the previous week.
  10. 10. 92.8 percent of the households had survived by eating just one poor/partial meal aday throughout the previous week. 30 sample families (3 per cent) had eaten justone poor/partial meal for 5 days of the previous week, 40 samples (4 per cent) forfour days of the week, 58 families (5.8 per cent) for 3 days of the week and 96families (9.6 per cent) for 2 days of the week. This data suggests that 25.2 percentof surveyed Adivasi households in Rajasthan and Jharkhand had eaten only onepoor/partial meal for 2-7 days of the previous week.Ten Adivasi households (1 per cent) could barely secure one distress meal- a-daythroughout the previous week. Another three families had eaten only distress foodfor 6 days of the week, 7 families for 3 days of the week and 11 families for 2 days ofthe previous week. This data suggests that 31 (3.1 per cent) Adivasi families hadeaten either for the whole previous week or for a significant part of it only onedistress meal-a-day.The data on weekly hunger clearly suggests that 28.3 per cent of sample Adivasihouseholds had survived for the whole or significant part of the previous week byeating just one distress meal-a-day or one poor/ partial meal- a- day. In other words,28.3 per cent of sample households had lived in semi-starvation condition during theprevious week of survey.Jungle food consumption during previous weekAmong the total sample Adivasi households, 62 per cent said that they did not eatany jungle food during the previous week of survey, 15.2 per cent said thatapproximately one-fourth of their diet consisted of jungle food during previous oneweek, 8.2 per cent samples said that half of their diet during the week consisted ofjungle food, 6.7 per cent said that it was up to three-fourth and 7.9 per cent samplessaid that 75-100 per cent of their previous week’s diet consisted of jungle food only.
  11. 11. 10Protein (pulses & animal products) consumption during previous week40.2 per cent of sample Adivasi households could not afford any pulse or animalproduct even for a single day of the previous week. 20.8 per cent samples couldafford these items for just one day of the week, 22 per cent for 2 days in the week,8.3 per cent for 3 days, 4.6 per cent for 4 days, 2.1 per cent for 5 days, 0.4 per centfor 6 days and only 1.6 per cent of samples had eaten some source of protein on all7 days of the previous week.Monthly Hunger Profile998 households (99.8 per cent) said that they could not secure two square mealseven for a single day of the previous month. Out of the remaining two households,one had got two square meals on just one day of the previous month and only onehousehold (0.01 per cent) had taken two square meals for the whole month. Not asingle of the 500 households surveyed in Rajasthan had eaten two square mealseven on a single day of the previous month. When asked as to how many of themfor how many days of the previous month could afford one square meal plus onepoor/partial meal a day, the answer was no less shocking. A staggering 98.4 percent of the households said that they could not secure for a single day of theprevious month even this kind of food. The data on monthly hunger profile suggeststhat since only one family had secured two square meals and another two familieshad secured one square meal plus one poor/partial meal for the full month, theremaining 997 Adivasi households (99.7 percent) were facing chronic hunger duringthe previous month of the survey.When asked as for how many days of the previous month they had secured twopoor/partial meals a day, 36 per cent said that they could not get this kind of foodeven for a single day of the previous month and only 15.2 per cent said that they hadeaten this kind of food for the whole month. 13.7 per cent of the sample householdshad eaten this category of food for 25-30 days, 11.3 per cent for 20-25 days, 7.4 per
  12. 12. 11cent for 15-20 days, 11.4 per cent for 10-15 days and 3 per cent of households hadeaten this kind of food for 5 days of the previous month.When asked as for how many days of the previous month they had eaten onepoor/partial meal plus one distress meal a day, 14.5 per cent of total samples saidthat for the whole month they had eaten only this kind of food, 11.8 per cent for 10-15 days of the month, 10.9 per cent for 15-20 days, 14 per cent had eaten for 20-25days and 3.6 per cent for 25-30 days of the previous month. While 12.4 per centAdivasi households from Rajasthan had eaten only this category of food on all daysof the previous month, 16.6 per cent samples from Jharkhand had eaten this kind offood on all days of the previous month. 5 per cent of samples from Rajasthan hadeaten this kind of food for 25-30 days, 11.2 per cent for 20-25 days, 10.6 per cent for15-20 days and 11.2 per cent for 10-15 days. The respective figures for Jharkhandare 2.2 per cent, 16.8 per cent, 11.2 per cent and 12.4 per cent.When asked as for how many days of the previous month they had survived only onone poor/partial meal, 1.9 per cent among total samples said that for the wholeprevious month they could secure only this kind of food, 1.1 per cent for 25-30 daysof the month, 3.2 per cent for 20-25 days of the month, 3.9 per cent for 15-20 daysof the month and 14 per cent of the Adivasi households had survived on this kind offood for 10-15 days of the previous month. This data suggests that 24.1 percent ofthe surveyed Adivasi households had eaten only one poor/ partial meal-a-day for 10-30 days of the previous month.Two Adivasi households among total samples had survived the full previous monthby eating only one distress meal-a-day, one sample for 25-30 days, two samples for20-25 days, 5 samples for 15-20 days, 20 samples for 10-15 days, 3 samples for 8days and another 20 samples for 5 days of the previous month. The data on thiscount suggests that 5.4 per cent of Adivasi households had survived for more than 5days of the previous month only eating this category of food. The proportion of
  13. 13. 12samples surviving only on this category of food for more than 10 days of the monthis 3.4 per cent.Three families from the total samples had no food at all for 10 days of the previousmonth, 1 sample for 8 days of the month, 5 samples for 5 days, 7 samples for 4 days,another 5 samples for 3 days, another 7 samples for 2 days and 3 samples for oneday had no food at all. It is interesting to note that all except one of these samplesare from Rajasthan. While only one family from Jharkhand could not secure any foodfor 5 days of the previous month, there were 30 families from Rajasthan who couldnot eat any food for 1-10 days of the previous month. This variation is most probablybecause of higher availability of jungle food and minor forest produce in Jharkhandin comparison to Rajasthan. Rajasthan sample villages had veryscarce jungle food.The monthly hunger profile of the sample Adivasi households clearly shows that24.1 percent of the households had eaten only one poor/ partial meal-a-day for 10-30 days of the previous month, 3.4 per cent of the households had survived byeating only one distress meal-a-day for more than 10 days and 2.8 per cent sampleshad not eaten any food for 2-10 days of the previous month. This data suggests that30.3 per cent of Adivasi households were facing semi-starvation during the previousmonth of survey.Jungle food consumption during previous month59.9 per cent of sample households said that they did not eat any jungle food duringthe previous one month of survey. 18.3 per cent said that approximately one-fourthof their diet consisted of jungle food during previous one month, 7 per cent samplessaid that half of their diet during the month consisted of jungle food, 7.9 per cent saidthat it was up to three-fourth and 6.9 per cent samples said that about 75-100 percent of their previous month’s diet consisted of jungle food only.
  14. 14. 13Protein (pulses& animal products) consumption during previous month33.3 per cent of samples could not get any pulse or animal product even on a singleday of the previous month. 3.7 per cent could get it on just one day, 10.7 per cent fortwo days of the month, 6.5 per cent for three days, 8 per cent for four days, 10.4 percent for five days, 2.8 per cent for six days, 2.5 per cent for seven days, 5.7 per centfor eight days, 0.2 per cent for nine days, another 5.7 per cent for ten days, 6 percent for 12-15 days, and remaining 4.5 per cent samples for 16-30 days of themonth. These figures suggest that only 10.5 per cent of Adivasi households couldeat some pulses or animal products for 12-30 days of the previous month. Theremaining 89.5 per cent of samples either did not get these items at all or did not getfor more than ten days of the month.Annual Hunger ProfileA staggering 99.8 per cent of Adivasi households said that they could not get twosquare meals even for a single month of the previous year. Of the remaining twosamples, one had secured two square meals only for one month and just one (0.1per cent) had eaten two square meals for the whole previous year. Therefore, it isclear that 99.9 per cent of surveyed households were facing one or another level ofhunger and food insecurity throughout the previous year. Moreover, out of 500sample Adivasi households surveyed in Rajasthan, not a single had secured twosquare meals for the whole previous year. Therefore, it is extremely distressing tonote that 100 per cent of sample Adivasi households in Rajasthan were facingchronic hunger throughout the previous year. When asked as for how many monthsof the previous year they could secure one square meal plus one poor/partial meal aday, 99 per cent of the samples said that they did not get this kind of food even for asingle month of the previous year. Two samples had secured this category of foodfor 11-12 months, one for 10 months, one for 8 months, one for 6 months, one for 5months, one for 4 months and three samples had secured this kind of food for just 1month of the previous year.
  15. 15. 14When asked as for how many months of the previous year they did manage to gettwo poor/partial meals-a-day, only 8.1 per cent of total samples said that they couldafford this kind of food for all months of the previous year. 27 per cent of therespondents said that they did not get this kind of food even for a single month of theprevious year. 2.2 per cent of the respondents had secured this kind of food just for1 month of the year, 8.7 per cent for 2 months, 4.2 per cent for 3 months, 19.2 percent for 4 months, 7.7 per cent for 6 months, 7.4 per cent for 8 months, 6.1 per centfor 10 months and just 8.1 per cent of the Adivasi households had secured this kindof food for 12 months of the previous year.When asked as for how many months of the previous year they did get one poor/partial meal plus one distress meal-a-day, only 2.7 per cent said that they hadsecured this kind of food throughout the year, 21.7 per cent of the samples could notget this kind of food even for a single month of the year. 7.7 per cent of thehouseholds had eaten this kind of food for 2 months of the previous year, 15.7 percent for 4 months, 17.9 per cent for 6 months, 14.1 per cent for 8 months and 3.1per cent had eaten this kind of food for 10 months of the previous year.When asked as for how many months of the previous year they had to survive onjust one poor/partial meal–a-day, 1.3 per cent said that they could get only this kindof food for the whole year, 3 per cent had to survive on this kind of food for 8 monthsof the previous year, 2.7 per cent for 6 months of the year, 15.6 per cent for 4months, 23.8 per cent for 2 months and 10.8 per cent of Adivasis had to make doonly with this kind of food for 1 month of the previous year. This data implies that22.6 per cent of Adivasi households in these sample states had to survive only onthis kind of food for 4-12 months of the previous year.There were 11 (1.1 per cent) Adivasi households who had survived by eating onlydistress food for 5-11 months of the previous year. Another 39 (3.9 per cent) familiescould eat only this kind of food for 4 months, 50 (5 per cent) families for 3 months,102 (10.2 per cent) families for 2 months and 77 (7.7 per cent) families for 1 month
  16. 16. 15of the previous year. This data implies that 10 per cent of sample Adivasihouseholds had to survive only on distress food for 3-11 months of theprevious year. If this figure is combined with 22.6 per cent of samples who hadsurvived for 4-12 months only on one poor/ partial meal, we get a verydisturbing figure of 32.6 per cent of sample Adivasi households living in semi-starvation during the previous one year of survey.There were 3 (0.3 per cent) Adivasi households who had survived on only junglefood for 2 months and 26 (2.6 per cent) samples for 1 month of the previous year. All3 samples who had survived on jungle food for 2 months were from Rajasthan. Outof the 26 samples who could get only jungle food for 1 month of the previous year, 9(0.9 per cent) were from Rajasthan and 17 (1.7 per cent) were from Jharkhand.There were 57 (5.7 per cent) Adivasi households who had not eaten any foodwhatsoever for one month of the previous year. However, this state of hunger wasnot suffered at a single stretch but was spread over the whole year. Therefore, itdoes not necessarily cause “starvation deaths”. But this is definitely a firm indicatorof the state of semi-starvation prevailing in this group of Adivasi households. Out ofthese 57 samples, 42 (4.2 per cent) were from Rajasthan and only 15 (1.5 per cent)from Jharkhand.Jungle food consumption during previous one year51.4 per cent of households said that they did not eat any jungle food during theprevious one year of survey. 23.2 per cent said that approximately one-fourth of theirdiet consisted of jungle food during previous one year, 7.9 per cent samples saidthat half of their diet during the year consisted of jungle food, 9.1 per cent said that itwas up to three-fourth and 8.4 per cent samples said that 75-100 per cent of theirprevious year’s diet consisted of jungle food.
  17. 17. 16Protein (pulses & animal products) consumption during previous year30.8 per cent of sample households in Rajasthan and Jharkhand could not secureany pulse or animal product even for one month of the previous year. Less than 1per cent of sample households were able to eat some pulses or animal productsduring the whole previous year. 3.8 per cent could secure these items for 7-11months, 8 per cent of samples had eaten these protein sources between 4-6 months,7.3 per cent for three months, 19.4 per cent households had eaten these items fortwo months and 29.2 per cent households were able to eat these sources of proteinhardly for one month in the previous year. To put these figures differently, 86.7 percent of Adivasi households in Rajasthan and Jharkhand either could not eat anypulse & animal product or did eat for hardly three months during the year. Therefore,these figures clearly suggest that at least 86.7 per cent of Adivasi households weresuffering from severe protein deficiency and were vulnerable to many opportunisticdiseases. Severe protein deficiency among Adivasi children is responsible for veryhigh infant mortality rate in these areas and this problem has now assumed alarmingproportions in Adivasi areas of India.Food Stocks at HomeTo assess and understand the immediate level of hunger and food security of theAdivasi households, they were asked as to how much of food stock they had athome. 4.7 per cent of the households had no food stock at all on the day of survey,18.7 per cent had less than 10 kg of food grains at home, 45.9 per cent of them hadless than 50 kg, 15.9 per cent had less than 100 kg, 13 per cent had between 100-150kg, 3.4 per cent 150-200 kg, 6.5 per cent had 200-250 kg, 1.3 per cent between250-300 kg, 4 per cent between 300-350 kg, 0.4 per cent had between 350-400 kgand there were only 9.7 per cent of households who had more than 400 kg of foodgrains at their home on the day of survey.
  18. 18. 17Adivasis’ own perception about their state of food securityTo get Adivasis’ own perception about their current state of food security incomparison to that 2-3 decades ago, they were asked as to whether their householdfood security had improved or weakened in last 25 years. A staggering 90.6 percentof total samples said that their food security had weakened.Reasons for decline in food securityTo know Adivasis’ views about the processes and main reasons behind the declinein their household food security in recent past, they were asked to identify threemain reasons for the same out of a list of 9 probable reasons (1. Land alienation;2.Decline in MFP/deforestation/degradation; 3.Decline in livestock; 4.Decline inactual wages; 5.Decline in work availability; 6. Growth in family size; 7. Developmentprojects; 8.Conservation of forests/wildlife; 9.Others) given to them. 54.9 per cent ofthe respondents identified decline in availability of minor forest produce (MFP) dueto deforestation and degradation of forests as the most important reason forweakening of their food security.Access & availability of PDSWhile Rajasthan and Jharkhand had a combined proportion of 74 per cent of samplehouseholds possessing ration cards and only 26 per cent without ration cards, thesegregated data of both these sample states gives a strikingly different picture.While only 6.2 per cent of Rajasthan households were without ration cards, 45.8 percent of Jharkhand Adivasi households did not possess any ration card.Out of the combined proportion of 74 per cent of households in possession of rationcards in two sample States, 40.5 per cent of households possessed APL (abovepoverty line) cards, 50.1 per cent had got BPL (below poverty line) cards, 9.2 percent had Antyodaya cards and only 0.1 per cent possessed Annapoorna cards. Out
  19. 19. 18of 50.1 per cent card holding samples who had BPL cards, only a tiny 9.2 per centhouseholds said that they were getting their regular quota of ration. Remaining 90.8per cent samples were taking either partial or no ration at all. While 13.1 per cent ofBPL samples from Rajasthan said that they were availing their regular quota ofration, only 3.8 per cent of Jharkhand samples could say so.PDS supplier’s refusal to give full quota was the biggest reason for Adivasis’ inabilityto avail their full ration entitlement; because the highest proportion of samples (28.2per cent) identified this as reason for the same. An overwhelming 80.9 percent ofAdivasi households were not satisfied with the functioning of PDS shops andbehaviour of PDS dealers. Our data has revealed slightly better functioning of PDSshops in Rajasthan in comparison to Jharkhand. While the proportion of dissatisfiedhouseholds was 75.7 per cent in Rajasthan, that proportion in Jharkhand was ashigh as 87.9 percent.
  20. 20. 19Background information about sample states and districtsAdivasis constitute 8% (83,580,63 in the Census, 2001) of the total population ofIndia, consisting of 461 groups. Among them about eighty percent live in the ‘centralbelt’, extending from Gujarat and Rajasthan in the west to West Bengal and Tripurain the east, and across the states of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh,Bihar, Jharkhand and Orissa. Most of the remaining twenty percent live in the NorthEastern States of Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkimand in the Island Union territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Andaman and Nicobar,and Lakshadweep. A few of them live in the southern states of Kerala, Tamil Naduand Karnataka. Andhra Pradesh has the largest concentration of tribal populationamong the southern states of India. About 95% of Adivasis live in rural areas, lessthan 10% are itinerant hunter-gatherers but more than half depend upon forestproduce for their livelihood.According to the 1991 Census figures, 42.02 percent of the Scheduled Tribepopulations were main workers; of whom 54.50 percent were cultivators and 32.69per cent agricultural laborers. Thus, about 87 percent of the main workers fromthese communities were engaged in primary sector activities. The literacy rate ofScheduled Tribes is around 29.60 percent, as against the national average of 52percent. More than three-quarters of Scheduled Tribe women are illiterate. Thesedisparities are compounded by higher dropout rates in formal education resulting indisproportionately low representation in higher education. Not surprisingly, thecumulative effect has been that the proportion of Scheduled Tribes below thepoverty line is substantially higher than the national average. The estimate ofpoverty made by Planning Commission for the year 1993-94 shows that 51.92percent rural and 41.4 percent urban Scheduled Tribes were still living below thepoverty line.
  21. 21. 20RajasthanAccording to 1991 Census, Adivasis consititute 12.4 Per cent (31,25,506) ofRajasthan’s total population. However, the southern districts of Udaipur, Banswara,Dungarpur, Chittorgarh, Rajsamand and Sirohi have a tribal population which is over70% of the total population. Two prominent scheduled Tribes of Rajasthan are theBhils and the Meenas. The Bhils are mostly concentrated in the hill-locked districtsof Udaipur, Dungarpur and Banswara while the Meenas are settled mainly in Jaipur,Sawai- Madhopur and Udaipur districts. Other Scheduled Tribes of Rajasthan areGarasias and the Sahrias. The Garasias are concentrated inPali and Sirohi districts,while Sahrias are limited to a pocket of two tehsils in Baran district. Bhils form themost significant tribal group in the State. Saharias are the most undeveloped tribesof Rajasthan.Adivasi dominated southern Rajasthan is rich in forests, forest wealth, mines,minerals and stone quarries, fertile lands and rivers, with a high average rainfallwhich sets it apart from the rest of arid Rajasthan, used to be one of the most lushand wealthy areas of Rajasthan. Fifty eight years of ‘independence’ and ‘freedom’have left it naked and deforested, covered with the open sores of indiscriminatemining. All its forest and mineral wealth have been drained to enrich the non-tribalpopulations. The tribals, through a process of ‘internal colonisation’, have beenmarginalised over the years and have yet to understand how centrally-made rules,regulations and laws in faraway Delhi and Jaipur have deprived them of all theirnatural resources and wealth.UdaipurOut of total 11 Panchayat Samittees in Udaipur district, 7 are in Tribal and 4 are ingeneral area. Because of this reason the Udaipur district is regarded as Tribaldominated. Only 17% of the total geographical area of district is under cultivation.The main Kharif crop of the district is Maize, which is staple food of the farmers ofthis region. The average annual Rain-Fall of the district is 673 mm. The Adivasipopulation in Udaipur district is 963712 (1991 census).
  22. 22. 21List of sample villagesVillage Panchayat TehsilSamoli Samoli KotraRajpur Gura KotraSada Sada KotraTibarni Ka Khet Dang KotraSirval Malwa Ka Chaura KotraVarela Gudail SalumbarBicchri Bicchri GirwaParei Kharbar SaradaKharbar Kharbar SaradaKyari Kyari SaradaDungarpurDungarpur district is situated in southern most part of Rajasthan. In East and North itborders on Banswara and Udaipur districts respectively while it adjoins the State ofGujrat in South & West. Dungarpur is the smallest district of the state covering385592 hacts only, which is 1.13% of the total area of Rajasthan. Most parts of thedistrict are hilly. The over all land productivity is rated to be low for the whole districtwith somewhat better conditions found in its southern & western corners. Theaverage rainfall of the district is 710mm.According to 2001 census, the totalpopulation of the district is 1107037, just 1.967% of the total population of State. Thepercentage of ST population in the district as per 1991 census is 65.84.Most of thedistrict is inhabited byBhil Adivasis who live in widely dispersed villages.As per 2001 census, the percentage of working, marginal and non- workingpopulation is 24.63, 23.75 and 51.62 respectively. The main occupation of workingpopulation is agriculture. The total geographical area of district is 385592 hects asper land records. Out of this 186784 hects is cultivable and 134786 hect. isuncultivable. During 2001-2002 the gross cultivated area was 150904 hect. while net
  23. 23. 22area sown was 121005 hect. and 61241 hect. was forest land. The percentage ofarea sown against total geographical area was 31.38 while percentage of netirrigated area to net area sown was 14.15% only.List of sample villagesVillage Panchayat TehsilPalbada Palbada BichhiwadaBhovali Palbada DungarpurTalaiya Talaiya BichhiwadaBijuda Shishodh BichhiwadaVed Jhalukuan BhichhiwadaNareli Mewar BhichhiwadaRajpur Gadapattapeeth SeemalwadaGudawada Seemalwada SeemalwadaNanoda Dhambola SeemalwadaGadabateshwar Nagariya seemalwada
  24. 24. 23JharkhandIn the state of Jharkhand, the Adivasi population has dropped from around 60% in1911 to 27.67% in 1991District Wise Population Details of JharkhandSl.No.Name of District Area inSq. kmTotalPopulationSTPopulationSCPopulation1 Ranchi 7573.68 2214088 964422 1232392 Lohardagga 1490.80 288886 162964 109193 Gumla 5320.94 707555 493563 256084 Simdega 3756.19 446421 323425 356915 Palamu 4015.16 1182770 106254 3242236 Latehar 3660.47 467071 211580 995077 Garhwa 4044.22 801350 125432 1908308 West Singhbhum 5290.21 1080780 717708 493859 SaraikelaKharsawan2724.55 707175 260361 4011110 East singhbhum 3533.35 1613088 466572 7719411 Dumka 3716.36 950853 443285 5276312 Jamtara 1801.98 544856 178199 5133113 Sahebganj 1705.98 736835 228990 4930414 Pakur 1805.59 564253 278331 2148415 Godda 2110.45 861182 216047 7289316 Hazaribagh 5965.35 1836068 223571 28070017 Chatra 3706.22 612713 23487 19866818 Koderma 1311.63 394763 3528 5778919 Giridih 4887.05 1496189 148342 20208420 Dhanbad 2074.68 1949526 171741 31246721 Bokaro 2860.82 1454416 177123 19736522 Deoghar 2478.61 933113 119085 115697(Source: http://Jharkhand.nic.in)
  25. 25. 24Adivasis of JharkhandTRIBES POPULATION % in Tribalpopulationliteracy withinTribeAsur 7783 0.13 10.62Baiga 3553 0.06 4.22Banjara 412 Lowest 12.38Bathaudi 1595 0.03 16.93Bedia 60445 1.04 10.82Bhumij 136110 2.35 16.45Binjhia 10009 0.17 14.52Birhor 4057 0.07 5.74Birjia 4057 0.07 10.50Chero 52210 0.09 17.30Chick Baraik 40339 0.69 20.17Gond 96574 1.66 20.00Gorait 5206 0.09 16.61Ho 536524 9.23 17.71Karmali 38652 0.66 13.30Kharia 141771 2.44 24.86Kharwar 222758 3.83 17.22Khond 1263 0.02 15.99Kisan 23420 0.40 13.41Kora 33951 0.58 9.28Korba 21940 0.38 6.14Lohar 169090 2.91 12.71Mahli 91868 1.59 12.74Mal Paharia 79322 1.37 7.58Munda 845887 14.56 22.16Oraon 1048064 18.05 23.28Parhaiya 24012 0.41 15.30Santhal 2060732 35.47 12.55Sauria Paharia 30269 0.68 6.87Savar 3014 0.05 9.55Unspecified 6660 0.1 3.94TOTAL 5810867 100.00 16.99(Source: http://Jharkhand.nic.in)West SinghbhumWest Singhbhum district came into existence when the old Singhbhum districtbifurcated in 1990. At present West Singhbhum has 15 blocks and twoadministrative Sub-divisions. The district is full of hills alternating with valleys, steep
  26. 26. 25mountains, and deep forests on the mountain slopes. The district contains one of thebest Sal forests and its SARANDA (seven hundred hills) forest area is known worldover. West Singhbhum district forms the Southern part of the newly createdJharkhand State and is the largest district in the State. The annual average rainfall inthe district is about 1422 mm. The greater part of West Singhbhum district iscovered by the iron-ore series. The minerals found in the district include: 1.Chromites 2. Magnetite 3. Manganese 4. Kainite 5. Lime Stone 6. Iron Ore 7.Asbestos 8. Soap-stone.West Singhbhum district is rich in natural resources. With about 55 per cent of totalpopulation of the district, Adivasis constitute majority of population in WestSinghbhum district. The tribes found in the district are -1. Asur 2. Baiga 3. Banjara 4.Bathudi 5. Bedia 6. Binjhia 7. Birhor 8. Gond 9. Gorait 10. Ho 11. Kurmali 12. Kharia13. Kharwar 14. Khond 15. Kisen 16. Chero 16. Chik Baraik 17. Lohara 18. Mahli 19.Munda 20. Oraon 21. Parhaiya 22. Kora 23. Korwa 24. Santhal 25. Sawar 26.BhumijList of sample villagesVillage Panchayat BlockOtadiri Ikshakuti SonuaKupui Otadiri ChakradharpurAaita Dumardiha Sadar BlockMaudi Dumardiha Sadar BlockBaipe Otadiri ChakradharpurNungadi Kadamdiha GoelkeraBamiabasa Bamiabasa TontoMauda Bamiabasa TontoRamsai Bara Jhinkpani TontoSaransia Bara Jhinkpani Tonto
  27. 27. 26Gumla DistrictGumla district is covered by dense forests, hills and rivers. It is situated in thesouthwest portion of the Jharkhand State. This district was carved out of Ranchidistrict in 1983. Previously it was a sub-division of old Ranchi district. Till 30thApril2001, Gumla district consisted on 2 sub-divisions viz Gumla and Simdega. But afterthe creation of Jharkhand State, a new district of Simdega was carved out of Gumladistrict in 2001. Now, Gumla district consists of only one sub-division namely Gumla.Total area of the district is about 5327 sq. km. The total population of district as per1991 census is 706489. With 68 per cent of the total population of the district,Adivasis constitute majority of Gumla’s population.80% of the district population depends on agriculture. Farmers practise traditionalagriculture and are fully dependent on monsoon. They use traditional ploughs andox or buffaloes to plough their lands. In Gumla district the cultivable land is 329686hectares. Irrigation facilities available (as per 1981 census) were only 2.62%, whichhas now increased to 22056 hectare i.e. 6.69%. The remaining 307630 hectares ofland is un-irrigated. The main crop of this district is paddy. Beside this, maize, pulses& oil seeds are also grown in different areas of Gumla district.The forest cover of the district is 1.35 lakh hectares out of the total 5.21 lakhhectares of land i.e. around 27% of the total area of the district. Important forestproducts are Saal seeds, Kokun, Lac, Tendu leaves, Karanj, Chiraunji etc. Themajor trees are Sal Bija, Gamhar, Kathal, Jamun, Mango, Bamboo, Neem etc.Sisai, Bharno and Kamdara blocks have plain lands while other areas are mostlyundulating in nature. There is a hill range named as ‘Ghera-pahar’, which starts fromPalkot block area and continues up to Bishunpur block area. These elevated plateauareas of Bishunpur and Ghaghra blocks are locally known as ‘PAT’ area. These PATareas are made-up of volcanic rocks. Earlier the average annual rainfall in thedistrict was 1400-1600 mm, but the recent statistics has shown a decline in theaverage annual rainfall to about 1000-1100 mm.
  28. 28. 27Gumla district is a backward district as compared to other districts of the State. Thedistrict has a total population of 706489 and total families of 133131. Out of 133131families 99512 families live below poverty line i.e. they are BPL families, as persurvey conducted in the year 1997. It shows that the poverty ratio is 74.75%. Thereare only 1929 skilled workers in the district.List of sample villagesVillage Panchayat BlockGhaghara Redawa SeesaiChailitoli Murgu SeesaiSupali Murgu SeesaiBirkera Redawa SeesaiJoriya Karanj BharnoOmesera Karanj BharnoChatakpur Pandariya SeesaiKhartanga Turiamba BharnoMarasilly Bharno BharnoMuhgaon Bharno Bharno
  29. 29. 28Key Findings of the Survey Research on Hunger and Povertyin Adivasi Areas of Rajasthan and JharkhandThe findings of a survey research on hunger in Adivasi areas of Rajasthan andJharkhand carried out by New Delhi-based Centre for Environment and FoodSecurity (CEFS) are revealing but shocking. It is distressful to note that out of total1000 Adivasi households from 40 sample villages in Rajasthan and Jharkhandsurveyed for this study, a staggering 99 per cent were facing chronic hunger. Thedata gathered during this survey suggests that 25.2 percent of surveyed Adivasihouseholds had faced semi-starvation during the previous week of the survey. Thedata also suggests that 24.1 percent of the surveyed Adivasi households had lived insemi-starvation condition throughout the previous month of the survey. Over 99 percent of the Adivasi households had lived with one or another level of endemichunger and food insecurity during the whole previous year. Moreover, out of 500sample Adivasi households surveyed in Rajasthan, not a single had secured twosquare meals for the whole previous year.Sample Size and MethodologyThe Field survey for this research was carried out during March-June 2004 in fortyAdivasi villages of four Adivasi-dominated districts, two each from Rajasthan andJharkhand. Udaipur & Dungarpur districts of Rajasthan, and West Singhbhum &Gumla districts from Jharkhand were purposively selected for a household surveyamong 1000 Adivasi households. From every sample district 10 sample Adivasivillages and from every sample village 25 Adivasi households were purposivelyselected for the household survey. The total sample size of Adivasi households was1000, 500 samples each from Rajasthan and Jharkhand. Only villages with over 75per cent of Adivasi population were selected for sample survey. Another criteriafollowed in the selection of sample villages was that it should not be located within adistance of 20 kilometers from the district headquarters to avoid the urban bias in
  30. 30. 29those villages. In the selection of household samples, only one category ofhouseholds were excluded, i.e.- those with regular salaried income.Socio-economic profile of sample Adivasi householdsOut of the total sample size of 1000 Adivasi households surveyed, 60.1 per cent ofrespondents were male and 39.9 per cent female, 68.75 percent of respondentswere illiterate, 95.1 per cent lived in thatched and mud houses, 96.4 per cent werewithout electricity, 84.7 per cent without water availability within 1000 meters of theirhouse, 99.7 per cent were without toilet and a horrifying 99 per cent of Adivasis werefacing chronic hunger. On the basis of these socio-economic indicators, itwould be only logical to conclude that these Adivasis are living in appalingconditions, grinding poverty and their depth of deprivation defies allimaginations of a deprived human life.Household AssetsTo get an elementary assessment of the level of poverty and deprivation amongsample Adivasi households in Rajasthan and Jharkhand, they were asked as to howmany of ten listed household assets (1.Blanket, 2.Pair of shoes, 3.Bicycle, 4.cooker,5.Kerosene stove, 6.Radio, 7. T.V, 8. Torch, 9. Clock/Watch, 10.Others) wereavailable in their homes. We were shocked to find that 10.4 per cent of Adivasihouseholds did not have any of these listed items in their homes. Moreover, therewas not even a single Adivasi household from the 1000 samples which possessedmore than 4 household items from this list. 32.2 per cent of samples possessedblanket and pair of shoes. While 44 per cent of households from Rajasthanpossessed blanket and a pair of shoes, only 20.4 per cent of Jharkhand samplespossessed these two items. Only 8.8 per cent of the samples were in possession of4 items from the given list. Proportion of samples possessing any 4 listed householdassets was only 4 per cent in Rajasthan and 13.6 per cent in Jharkhand.
  31. 31. 30Occupation of Adivasi HouseholdsOut of the total 1000 sample Adivasi households, a staggering 82 per cent wereagriculturists, 14.8 per cent daily wagers, 1.8 per cent MFP (minor forest produce)gatherers, 0.6 per cent were either handicaps or too old to earn and 2 per centbelonged to other occupations. State-wise segregation of the data suggests that87.2 per cent of samples from Rajasthan were agriculturists, 12 per cent dailywagers, 0.2 per cent handicaps or too old and 0.6 per cent belonged to otheroccupations. Among the Jharkhand samples, 76.8 per cent were agriculturists, 17.6per cent daily wagers, 1.8 per cent MFP gatherers, 0.4 per cent handicaps & agedand 3.4 per cent belonged to other occupations.Nature of HouseAmongst the total sample households, only a tiny 0.7 per cent had pucca houses,4.2 per cent samples had semi-pucca houses, a staggering 90.5 per cent had mud-houses and remaining 4.6 per cent were living under thatched roofs. In the state ofRajasthan, 1 per cent samples were living in pucca houses, 5.2 per cent in semi-pucca, 91.2 per cent in mud houses and 2.6 per cent were living under thatchedroofs. Among Jharkhand samples, 0.4 per cent had pucca house, 3.2 per cent semi-pucca, 89.8 per cent had mud-houses and 6.6 per cent were living under thatchedroofs. It is interesting to note that while only 13 samples from Rajasthan were livingunder thatched roofs, there were 33 samples from Jharkhand living under thatchedroofs. This data suggests that 95.1 per cent of sample Adivasis in Rajasthan andJharkhand were living in either thatched or mud houses.96.4 per cent of the sample Adivasi households had no electricity connection. While92.8 per cent of Rajasthan households were without electricity, not a single sampleAdivasi household in Jharkhand had any power connection whatsoever. It is one ofthe most cruel ironies of Indian development process that native inhabitants ofJharkhand which supplies coal to most thermal power plants of the country are still
  32. 32. 31condemned to live without any electricity in their homes. It seems to be theproverbial case of darkness under the lamp. 84.7 per cent of sample households inthe two states had no source of water either in their house or within visible distance.The proportion of households without water availability was 98.8 per cent inRajasthan and 70.6 per cent in Jharkhand. 99.7 per cent of sample households werewithout toilet. All the 500 sample households from Rajasthan were without toilet. But3 samples from Jharkhand had toilets in their house.Gender of RespondentsOut of 1000 sample households surveyed, 60.1 per cent of the respondents weremale and 39.9 per cent female. In Rajasthan samples, 53.6 per cent of respondentswere male and 46.4 per cent female. In Jharkhand, 66.6 per cent respondents weremale and only 33.4 per cent female.Education level of RespondentsEducational Level of respondentsIlliterate69%Barely literate4%Up to primary school9%Up to middle school10%Up to high school6%Up to college2%IlliterateBarely literateUp to primary schoolUp to middle schoolUp to high schoolUp to college
  33. 33. 32Among the total sample Adivasi respondents, 68.7 per cent were illiterate, 4.4 percent barely-literate, 8.8 per cent had received primary schooling, 10.3 per cent hadmiddle schooling, 6.1 per cent had received education up to high school and only 1.7per cent of Adivasi respondents had studied in college.Among 500 Rajasthan respondents, 76.2 per cent were illiterate, 5 per cent barely-literate, 9 per cent had received primary schooling, 7.4 per cent had middleschooling, 2 per cent had received education up to high school and only 0.4 per centof Adivasi respondents had studied in college.Among 500 Jharkhand respondents, 61.2 per cent were illiterate, 3.8 per centbarely-literate, 8.6 per cent had received primary schooling, 13.2 per cent hadmiddle schooling, 10.2 per cent had received education up to high school and 3 percent of Jharkhand respondents had received college education.It is interesting to note here that level of education among Jharkhand samples wasmuch higher than that in Rajasthan. While 76.2 per cent of Rajasthan respondentswere illiterate, only 61.2 per cent among Jharkhand respondents were illiterate.While only 7.4 per cent of Rajasthan respondents had enjoyed schooling up tomiddle school, 13.2 per cent of Jharkhand samples had this level of schooling. Asagainst a low 2 per cent of Rajasthan respondents who had received education up tohigh school and 0.4 per cent up to college, among Jharkhand samples, 10.2 per centhad studied up to high school and 3 per cent up to college level.Migration26.2 per cent of surveyed householdssaid that at least one member fromeach family had migrated to sometown or city in search of livelihood.73.8 per cent samples said that noneProportion of MigrationNo74%Yes26%YesNo
  34. 34. 33of their family members had gone anywhere in search of livelihood. While 27.4 percent of Rajasthan samples said that their family members had migrated to cities andtowns in search of work, 25 per cent among Jharkhand samples did say so.Hunger among Adivasi HouseholdsDaily hunger ProfileIt is distressful to note that out of total 1000 Adivasi households from 40 samplevillages spread over four districts of Rajasthan and Jharkhand surveyed for thisstudy, a staggering and shocking over 99 per cent were facing chronic hunger.Out of the total 1000 households asked as to whether they had eaten twosquare meals1on the previous day of the survey, only four respondents (0.4per cent), two each from Rajasthan & Jharkhand said that they had eaten twosquare meals on the previous day. When they were asked whether they could getone square meal plus one poor/partial meal 2on the previous day, only fivehouseholds (0.5 per cent) replied yes. Out of the remaining households, 47.9 percent had eaten two poor/partial meals, 34.7 per cent got one poor/partial meal plusone distress meal3, 11.3 per cent could get just one poor/partial meal, 0.2 per centhad eaten only one distress meal and 5 per cent of the surveyed Adivasis could eatonly jungle food on the previous day of the survey. It means that at least 5 per centof sample Adivasi families were unable to secure any of the above sixcategories of food on the previous day of the survey and it would not be anexaggeration to suggest that they were on the verge of starvation.This data suggests that at least 16.5 percent of the surveyed Adivasi householdshad eaten either just one poor/partial meal or one distress meal or only jungle foodon the previous day of the survey. In other words, at least 16.5 per cent of1Square meal : Meal consisting of adequate cereals + at least one source of protein (pulses oranimal products) + some vegetable.2Poor/partial meal : Inadequate cereals with hardly any vegetables or protein sources.3Distress meal : Hardly one-fourth quantity of required cereals. Broth (Rabari) made of water andwheat flour is a typical distress/famine food in Adivasi area of Rajasthan and rice brew(Handiya) inJharkhand.
  35. 35. 34sample Adivasi households were facing either starvation or semi-starvation onthe previous day of the survey. It is interesting to note here that while only ninefamilies (1.8 per cent) in Rajasthan had survived on Jungle food, 41 Adivasihouseholds (8.2 per cent) in Jharkhand had to make do with only jungle food on theprevious day of the survey.Hunger profile of previous day1.80.4 0.838.218.208.247.957.635.24.4 0.40.20.434.234.711.30.2 50.50.4010203040506070Two squaremealsOne squaremeal+ onepoor/partialmealTwopoor/partialmealsOne poor/partialmealsOne poor/partialmeal+ onedistressmealOnly onedistressmealOnly junglefoodCategory of foodsPercentageRajasthanJharkhandBothRajasthan:Out of 500 Adivasi households surveyed in Rajasthan, only two households (0.4percent) had eaten two square meals on the previous day of the survey. There wasonly one Adivasi household (0.2 percent) which had secured the second–bestcategory of food enlisted in survey schedule (one square meal plus one poor/partialmeal) on the previous day of survey. Out of 500 sample households surveyed inRajasthan, 288 households (57.6 per cent) had to make do with only two poor/partialmeals (third-best enlisted category of food). The fourth-best enlisted category of food(one poor/partial meal plus one distress meal) was secured by 176 families (35.2percent) of Adivasis on the previous day of the survey. Twenty two Adivasi
  36. 36. 35households (4.4 per cent) had eaten only one poor/partial meal on the previous dayand two families (0.4 per cent) had survived only on one distress meal. Theremaining 9 Adivasi households (1.8 per cent) from 500 Rajasthan samples wereunable to secure any of the above six categories of food on the previous day of thesurvey and had to survive only on jungle food (wild roots, leaves, grass, fruits,vegetables etc collected from forest).Jharkhand:Out of 500 Adivasi households surveyed in the state of Jharkhand, only two families(0.4 per cent) had eaten two square meals on the previous day of the survey. Fourfamilies (0.8 per cent) had secured one square meal plus one poor/partial meal. 191samples (38.2 per cent) had eaten two poor/partial meals, 171 samples (34.2 percent) could eat only one poor/partial meal plus one distress meal and a staggering91 households (18.2 per cent) had to make do with only one poor/partial meal on theprevious day of the survey. It is shocking to note that 41(8.2 per cent) Adivasihouseholds in Jharkhand had eaten only jungle food and nothing else on theprevious day of the survey. This data suggests that 26.4 per cent of Jharkhandsamples had eaten either only jungle food or just one poor/partial meal on theprevious day.
  37. 37. 36Proportion of Jungle food in total food intake on previous dayProportion of Jungle food in total food intake on previous day91.260.8 0.2 1.833.627.81911.48.262.416.99.95.8 50102030405060708090100Zero One forth Half Three fourth FullProportionPercentagesRajasthanJharkhandBothTo assess the proportion and understand the role of jungle food in Adivasis’ presentfood basket, they were asked as to what was the proportion of jungle food in theirdiet of the previous day. 62.4 per cent of sample Adivasi households said that theproportion of jungle food in their previous day’s diet was zero, 16.9 per cent samplessaid that one-fourth of their diet on the previous day consisted of jungle food,9.9 percent families said that half of their diet on the previous day consisted of jungle food,5.8 per cent said that it was three-fourth and 5 per cent Adivasi households said thattheir full diet on the previous day consisted of only Jungle food. This data againreinforces the previous finding that 5 per cent of Adivasis had eaten nothing butjungle food on the previous day of survey.The state-wise segregation of this data suggests that the role and proportion ofjungle food in the food security of Jharkhand Adivasis is much larger than in thecase of Rajasthan. While 456 (91.2 per cent) samples from Rajasthan said thatproportion of jungle food in their previous day’s diet was zero, only 168 (33.6 percent) samples from Jharkhand had not eaten any jungle food on the previous day of
  38. 38. 37survey. As against only 30(6 per cent) samples from Rajasthan whose previousday’s one-fourth diet consisted of jungle food, 139 (27.8 per cent) households fromJharkhand said that one-fourth of their diet on the previous day consisted of junglefood. While only 4 (0.8 per cent) samples from Rajasthan said that half of their dieton the previous day consisted of jungle food, this proportion for Jharkhand was 95(19 per cent). Again, only 1 (0.2 per cent) sample from Rajasthan said that theirprevious day’s three-fourth diet consisted of jungle food, 57 (11.4 per cent) Adivasihouseholds from Jharkhand said that three-fourth of their previous day’s dietconsisted of jungle food. While only 9 (1.8 per cent) of families from Rajasthan saidthat their full diet on the previous day consisted of jungle food, 41 (8.2 per cent)families from Jharkhand said that their full diet on the previous day of surveyconsisted of only jungle food.The use, access and availability of jungle food and Minor Forest Produce (MFP) inJharkhand (especially in West Singhbhum district) is very high in comparison to thatin Rajasthan. In the West Singhbhum district of Jharkhand, MFP is still a majorsource of livelihood for many Adivasi households. Dozens of head-loads and cycle-loads of fuelwood and other MFP being carried by groups of Adivasis is still a verycommon sight on all the roads leading to Chaibasa (district headquarters of WestSinghbhum). It was interesting to find a young Graduate Adivasi in one village ofWest Singhbhum district earning his livelihood by just cutting and selling fuelwood.Protein consumption on previous dayMost of the available literature on hunger in Adivasi areas of India suggests thatlarge number of Adivasis suffer from protein-energy-nutrition deficiency (PENsyndrome). This PEN syndrome is believed to be responsible for very high infantmortality rates among Adivasi communities. To assess and ascertain the level ofprotein availability or protein deficiency in Adivasis’ diet, sample Adivasi householdswere asked as to whether they had eaten any pulse or animal product on theprevious day of the survey. An alarming proportion of 76.6 per cent Adivasi
  39. 39. 38households said that they could not afford any pulse or animal product on theprevious day of the survey. Only 23.4 per cent of the samples had eaten somepulses or animal products on the previous day of the survey. While 112 (22.4 percent) samples from Rajasthan had eaten some pulses or animal products, 122 (24.4per cent) samples from Jharkhand were able to secure some pulses or animalproducts on the previous day. While 388 (77.6 per cent) samples from Rajasthancould not afford any pulse or animal product on the previous day of survey, thecorresponding figure for Jharkhand was 378 (75.6 per cent).Pulses or animal products eaten on previous day22.424.4 23.477.675.6 76.60102030405060708090Rajasthan Jharkhand BothPercentagesofYes/NoYesNoWeekly Hunger ProfileTo assess and ascertain the weekly state of hunger and food insecurity amongAdivasi households, they were asked as to what category of food was secured bythem for how many days of the previous week. When they were asked as to whetherthey had eaten two square meals on all 7 days of the previous week, only onerespondent (0.01 per cent) replied yes. The remaining 999 (99.9 per cent)households said that they could not get two square meals even on a singleday of the previous week. When asked as to how many of them for how many
  40. 40. 39days of the previous week could secure one square meal plus one poor/partial meal,98.9 percent said that they could not afford this kind of food even for a single day ofthe previous week. This weekly data on hunger again confirms that about 99 percent of Adivasi households in Rajasthan and Jharkhand were facing chronic hunger.Only 216 (21.6 percent)out of 1000 surveyed households were able to secure eventwo poor/partial meals on all seven days of the previous week.57 sample families(5.7 per cent) had secured two poor/partial meals for 6 days of the previous week,103 families (10.3 per cent) for 5 days of the week, 70 families (7 per cent) for 4days, 59 families (5.9 per cent) for 3 days, 62 families (6.2 per cent) for only 2 daysof the week and 18 sample families (1.8 per cent) for just 1 day of the previous week.Another 214 (21.4 percent) of the households had survived throughout the week onjust one poor/partial meal plus one distress meal per day. 99 sample Adivasihouseholds (9.9 per cent) had eaten one poor/partial meal plus one distress meal for5 days of the previous week, 66 families (6.6 per cent) for 4 days of the week, 76households (7.6 per cent) for 3 days of the week, 112 families (11.2 per cent) for 2days and 71 families (7.1 per cent) for only one day of the previous week.2.8 percent of the households had survived by eating just one poor/partial meal aday throughout the previous week.30 sample families (3 per cent) had eaten just onepoor/partial meal for 5 days of the previous week, 40 samples (4 per cent) for fourdays of the week, 58 families (5.8 per cent) for 3 days of the week and 96 families(9.6 per cent) for 2 days of the week. This data suggests that 25.2 percent ofsurveyed Adivasi households in Rajasthan and Jharkhand had eaten only onepoor/partial meal for 2-7 days of the previous week.Ten Adivasi households (1 percent) out of the total samples could barely secure onedistress meal- a-day throughout the previous week. Another three families had eatenonly distress food for 6 days of the week, 7 families for 3 days of the week and 11families for 2 days of the previous week. This data suggests that 31(3.1 per cent)
  41. 41. 40Adivasi families had eaten either for the whole previous week or for a significant partof it only one distress meal-a-day.The data on weekly hunger clearly suggests that 28.3 per cent of sample Adivasihouseholds had survived for the whole or significant part of the previous week byeating just one distress meal-a-day or one poor/ partial meal- a- day. In other words,28.3 per cent of sample households had lived in semi-starvation conditionduring the previous week of survey.Jungle food consumption during previous weekAmong the total 1000 sample Adivasi households, 62 per cent said that they did noteat any jungle food during the previous week of survey, 15.2 per cent said thatapproximately one-fourth of their diet consisted of jungle food during previous oneweek, 8.2 per cent samples said that half of their diet during the week consisted ofjungle food, 6.7 per cent said that it was up to three-fourth and 7.9 per cent samplessaid that 75-100 per cent of their previous week’s diet consisted of jungle food only.State-wise segregation of data about proportion of jungle food in the diet of previousweek clearly suggests that consumption of jungle food in Jharkhand was muchhigher than that in Rajasthan. While only 32 per cent of Jharkhand samples had notconsumed any jungle food, a huge 92 per cent of Rajasthan households had noteaten any jungle food during previous week. Against 23.4 per cent of Jharkhandhouseholds whose one –fourth of diet consisted of jungle food, only 7 per cent ofRajasthan samples said that one –fourth of their diet consisted of jungle food. Whileonly one sample (0.2 per cent) from Rajasthan could say that half of his family’s dietconsisted of jungle food, 81 samples (16.2 per cent) from Jharkhand said that abouthalf of their diet during the week consisted of jungle food. Again, while 13.4 per centof samples from Jharkhand said that three-fourth of their diet was made of junglefood, not a single sample from Rajasthan did say so. While only 4 samples (0.8 percent) from Rajasthan said that 75-100 per cent of their diet during previous week
  42. 42. 41consisted of jungle food, 75 samples (15 per cent) in Jharkhand said that 75-100 percent of their diet during the week consisted of jungle food.Protein (pulses & animal products) consumption during previous week40.2 per cent of sample Adivasi households in Rajasthan and Jharkhand couldnot afford any pulse or animal product even for a single day of the previousweek. 20.8 per cent samples could afford these items for just one day of the week,22 per cent for 2 days in the week, 8.3 per cent for 3 days, 4.6 per cent for 4 days,2.1 per cent for 5 days, 0.4 per cent for 6 days and only 1.6 per cent of sampleshad eaten some source of protein on all 7 days of the previous week.While 41 per cent among Rajasthan samples could not get any pulse or animalproduct even for a single day during the week, 14.4 per cent had eaten some pulsesor animal products on just one day of the week,25 per cent for two days of the week,9.8 per cent for three days, 5.2 per cent for four days, 2.4 per cent for five days, 0.2per cent for six days and only 2 per cent throughout the week. In Jharkhand, 39.4per cent of Adivasi households could not eat any source of protein during theprevious week, 27.2 per cent could get it only on one day of the week, 19 per centfor just two days, 6.8 per cent for three days,4 per cent for four days, 1.8 per cent forfive days, 0.6 per cent for six days and only 1.2 per cent households on all sevendays of the previous week.Monthly Hunger ProfileTo understand the level of hunger and food insecurity among 1000 sample Adivasihouseholds during the previous one month of the survey, they were asked as to howmany days of the previous month they had eaten two square meals. 998households (99.8 per cent) said that they could not secure two square mealseven for a single day of the previous month. Out of the remaining twohouseholds, one had got two square meals on just one day of the previous month
  43. 43. 42and only one household (0.01 per cent) had taken two square meals for the wholemonth. It is important to note here that not a single of the 500 householdssurveyed in Rajasthan had eaten two square meals even on a single day of theprevious month. When asked as to how many of them for how many days of theprevious month could afford one square meal plus one poor/partial meal a day, theanswer was no less shocking. A staggering 98.4 per cent of the households said thatthey could not secure for a single day of the previous month even this kind of food.The data on monthly hunger profile suggests that since only one family had securedtwo square meals and another two families had secured one square meal plus onepoor/partial meal for the full month, the remaining 997 Adivasi households (99.7percent) were facing chronic hunger during the previous month of the survey.When asked as for how many days of the previous month they had secured twopoor/partial meals a day, 36 per cent said that they could not get this kind of foodeven for a single day of the previous month and only 15.2 per cent said that they hadeaten this kind of food for the whole month. 13.7 per cent of the sample householdshad eaten this category of food for 25-30 days, 11.3 per cent for 20-25 days, 7.4 percent for 15-20 days, 11.4 per cent for 10-15 days and 3 per cent of households hadeaten this kind of food for 5 days of the previous month.It is interesting to note here that there is striking variation between Rajasthan andJharkand data on this count. While 104 Adivasi families (20.8 per cent) fromRajasthan had eaten two poor/partial meals on all days of the previous month, only48 households (9.6 per cent) from Jharkhand had eaten two poor/partial meals on alldays of the previous month. While only 144 households (28.8 per cent) fromRajasthan could not get this kind of food even for a single day of the previous month,216 households (43.2 per cent) from Jharkhand could not secure this kind of foodeven for a single day of the previous month. While 76(15.2 per cent) samples fromRajasthan had eaten this kind of food for 25-30 days of the previous month, thatfigure for Jharkhand is only 61(12.2 per cent) families. While 69 samples (13.8 percent) from Rajasthan had eaten this kind of food for 20-25 days, 49(9.8 per cent)
  44. 44. 43families for 15-20 days and 34(6.8 per cent) families for 10-15 days of the previousmonth, these figures for Jharkhand are respectively 44(8.8 per cent), 25(5 per cent)and 80 samples (16 per cent).When asked as for how many days of the previous month they had eaten onepoor/partial meal plus one distress meal a day, 14.5 per cent of total samples saidthat for the whole month they had eaten only this kind of food, 11.8 per cent for 10-15 days of the month, 10.9 per cent for 15-20 days, 14 per cent had eaten for 20-25days and 3.6 per cent for 25-30 days of the previous month. While 12.4 per centAdivasi households from Rajasthan had eaten only this category of food on all daysof the previous month, 16.6 per cent samples from Jharkhand had eaten this kind offood on all days of the previous month. 5 per cent of samples from Rajasthan hadeaten this kind of food for 25-30 days, 11.2 per cent for 20-25 days, 10.6 per cent for15-20 days and 11.2 per cent for 10-15 days. The respective figures for Jharkhandare 2.2 per cent, 16.8 per cent, 11.2 per cent and 12.4 per centWhen asked as for how many days of the previous month they had survived only onone poor/partial meal,1.9 per cent among total samples said that for the wholeprevious month they could secure only this kind of food, 1.1 per cent for 25-30 daysof the month,3.2 per cent for 20-25 days of the month,3.9 per cent for 15-20 days ofthe month and 14 per cent of the Adivasi households had survived on this kind offood for 10-15 days of the previous month. This data suggests that 24.1 percent ofthe surveyed Adivasi households had eaten only one poor/ partial meal-a-day for 10-30 days of the previous month.State-wise segregation of this data once again shows very striking differencebetween Rajasthan and Jharkhand. While only 0.8 per cent of sample families fromRajasthan had to survive on only this category of food for all 30 days of the previousmonth, 3 per cent of Jharkhand samples had eaten only this kind of food for all 30days of the previous month. 1.4 per cent of Rajasthan samples had survived only onthis kind of food for 20-25 days, 1.8 per cent for 15-20 days, 6.2 per cent for 10-15
  45. 45. 44days and 8.8 per cent for 5 days of the previous month. The corresponding figuresfor the state of Jharkhand are 5 per cent, 6 per cent, 21.8 per cent and 4.4 per cent.Two Adivasi households among total samples had survived the full previous monthby eating only one distress meal-a-day, one sample for 25-30 days, two samples for20-25 days, 5 samples for 15-20 days, 20 samples for 10-15 days, 3 samples for 8days and another 20 samples for 5 days of the previous month. The data on thiscount suggests that 5.4 per cent of Adivasi households had survived for more than 5days of the previous month eating only this category of food. The proportion ofsamples surviving only on this category of food for more than 10 days of the monthis 3.4 per cent.Three families from the total samples had no food at all for 10 days of the previousmonth, 1 sample for 8 days of the month, 5 samples for 5 days, 7 samples for 4 days,5 samples for 3 days, 7 samples for 2 days and 3 samples for one day had no foodat all. It is interesting to note that all except one of these samples are from Rajasthan.While only one family from Jharkhand could not secure any food for 5 days of theprevious month, there were 30 families from Rajasthan who could not eat any foodfor 1-10 days of the previous month. This variation is most probably because ofhigher availability of jungle food and minor forest produce in Jharkhand incomparison to Rajasthan. Rajasthan sample villages had very scarce jungle food.This underscores the importance of forests in providing livelihood and food securityto tribals especially during distress and drought conditions. Forests used to functionas buffer between Adivasis and hunger. Forests used to provide insurance againsthunger and starvation in traditional tribal economy. With rampant destruction,depletion, degradation and diversion of forests, that traditional cushion hasdisappeared in most parts of Adivasi areas of India.The monthly hunger profile of the sample Adivasi households clearly shows that24.1 percent of the households had eaten only one poor/ partial meal-a-day for 10-30 days of the previous month, 3.4 per cent of the households had survived by
  46. 46. 45eating only one distress meal-a-day for more than 10 days and 2.8 per cent sampleshad not eaten any food for 2-10 days of the previous month. This data suggeststhat 30.3per cent of Adivasi households were facing semi-starvation duringthe previous month of survey.Jungle food consumption during previous month59.9 per cent of sample households in Rajasthan & Jharkhand said that they did noteat any jungle food during the previous one month of survey. 18.3 per cent said thatapproximately one-fourth of their diet consisted of jungle food during previous onemonth, 7 per cent samples said that half of their diet during the month consisted ofjungle food, 7.9 per cent said that it was up to three-fourth and 6.9 per cent samplessaid that about 75-100 per cent of their previous month’s diet consisted of junglefood only.State-wise segregation of data about proportion of jungle food in the diet of previousmonth again suggests that proportion of jungle food consumption in Jharkhand ismuch higher than that in Rajasthan. While only 31.6 per cent of Jharkhand sampleshad not consumed any jungle food during previous one month, a huge 88.2 per centof Rajasthan households had not eaten any jungle food during previous month.Against 25.6 per cent of Jharkhand households whose one –fourth of diet consistedof jungle food, only 11 per cent of Rajasthan samples said that one –fourth of theirdiet consisted of jungle food. While only one sample (0.2 per cent) from Rajasthancould say that half of his family’s diet consisted of jungle food, 69 samples (13.8 percent) from Jharkhand said that about half of their diet during the previous monthconsisted of jungle food. Again, while 15.8 per cent of samples from Jharkhand saidthat three-fourth of their diet consisted of jungle food, not a single sample fromRajasthan did say so. While only 3 samples (0.6 per cent) from Rajasthan said that75-100 per cent of their diet during previous month consisted of only jungle food, 66samples (13.2 per cent) from Jharkhand said that 75-100 per cent of their diet duringthe previous one month consisted of jungle food.
  47. 47. 46Protein (pulses& animal products) consumption during previous month33.3 per cent of samples out of 1000 Adivasi households from Rajasthan andJharkhand could not get any pulse or animal product even on a single day ofthe previous month. 3.7 per cent could get it on just one day, 10.7 per cent for twodays of the month, 6.5 per cent for three days, 8 per cent for four days, 10.4 per centfor five days, 2.8 per cent for six days, 2.5 per cent for seven days, 5.7 per cent foreight days, 0.2 per cent for nine days, another 5.7 per cent for ten days, 6 per centfor 12-15 days, and remaining 4.5 per cent samples for 16-30 days of the month.These figures suggest that only 10.5 per cent of Adivasi households could eat somepulses or animal products for 12-30 days of the previous month. The remaining 89.5per cent of samples either did not get these items at all or did not get for more thanten days of the month.In Rajasthan, 33.6 per cent households could not eat any pulse or animal productduring the previous month of the survey, 2.6 per cent could get it on just oneday,11.2 per cent for only two days, 4.6 per cent for three days, 7.4 per cent for fourdays, 6.8 per cent for five days,1.8 per cent for six days, 2.8 per cent for seven days,another 7.4 per cent for eight days, 0.2 per cent for 9 days and 6.6 per cent for tendays of the month. 8.2 per cent of Rajasthan Adivasis did get it for 12-15 days andremaining 6.8 per cent for 16-30 days of the month. To put these figures differently,while only 15 per cent of Rajasthan samples could secure some pulses or animalproducts for 12-30 days of the previous month, a huge 85 per cent of samples eitherdid not get it at all or did not get for more than ten days of the month.33 per cent of Jharkhand households had not eaten any pulse or animal productduring previous month, 4.8 per cent had secured it for just one day, 10.2 per cent fortwo days,8.4 per cent for three days, 8.6 per cent for four days, 14 per cent for fivedays, 3.8 per cent for six days, 2.2 per cent for seven days, 4 per cent for eight days,0.2 per cent for nine days, 4.8 per cent for ten days, 3.8 per cent for 12-15 days andremaining 2.2 per cent for 16-30 days of the month. In other words, only a tiny 6 per
  48. 48. 47cent of Adivasis in Jharkhand had eaten some pulses or animal products for morethan 15 days of the previous month. The remaining 94 per cent either did not eatthese items on any day or did not eat for more than 15 days of the month.It is interesting to note here that while 6.8 per cent of Rajasthan households hadsecured these products for 16-30 days of the previous month, only an abysmal 2.2per cent of Jharkhand samples could get these items for the same period. Moreover,while 1.6 per cent of Rajasthan samples had secured these sources of protein forthe full month, only 0.6 per cent of Jharkhand households had secured some pulsesor animal products throughout previous month. These figures clearly suggest thatconsumption of pulses and animal products was slightly better in Rajasthan incomparison of Jharkhand. However, it must be remembered that consumption ofjungle food is much higher in the case of Jharkhand.Annual Hunger ProfileTo assess and understand the level of hunger and food insecurity among these1000 Adivasi households of Rajasthan and Jharkhand during previous one year ofthe survey, they were asked as for how many months of the previous year theycould secure two square meals-a-day. A staggering 99.8 per cent of Adivasihouseholds said that they could not get two square meals even for a singlemonth of the previous year. Of the remaining two samples, one had securedtwo square meals only for one month and just one (0.1 per cent) had eaten twosquare meals for the whole previous year. Therefore, it is clear that out of 1000Adivasi households surveyed, 99.9 per cent of them were facing one oranother level of hunger and food insecurity throughout the previous year.Moreover, out of 500 sample Adivasi households surveyed in Rajasthan, not asingle had secured two square meals for the whole previous year. Therefore, itis extremely distressing to note that 100 per cent of sample Adivasihouseholds in Rajasthan were facing chronic hunger throughout the previousyear.
  49. 49. 48When asked as for how many months of the previous year they could secure onesquare meal plus one poor/partial meal-a-day, 99 per cent of the samples said thatthey did not get this kind of food even for a single month of the previous year. Twosamples had secured this category of food for 11-12 months, one for 10 months, onefor 8 months, one for 6 months, one for 5 months, one for 4 months and threesamples had secured this kind of food for just 1 month of the previous year.While one sample from Rajasthan had secured for 11 months of the previous yearthis kind of food, one could get for 8 months and one another did get just for 6months of the year. In Jharkhand, one had secured this kind of food for 11months,one for 10 months, 1 for 5 months, 1 for 4 months and 3 had secured this kind offood for 1 month of the previous year.When asked as for how many months of the previous year they did manage to gettwo poor/partial meals-a-day, only 8.1 per cent of total samples said that they couldafford this kind of food for all months of the previous year. 27 per cent of therespondents said that they did not get this kind of food even for a single month of theprevious year. 2.2 per cent of the respondents had secured this kind of food just for1 month of the year, 8.7 per cent for 2 months,4.2 per cent for 3 months,19.2 percent for 4 months, 7.7 per cent for 6 months, 7.4 per cent for 8 months, 6.1 per centfor 10 months and just 8.1 per cent of the Adivasi households had secured this kindof food for 12 months of the previous year.While 116 (23.2 per cent) samples from Rajasthan did not get this kind of food evenfor a single month of the previous year, that figure for Jharkhand is 154 (30.8 percent). 57 (11.4 per cent) samples from Rajasthan had secured this kind of food for12 months,12 (2.4 per cent) for 11 months, 33 (6.6 per cent) for 10 months, 14 (2.8per cent) for 9 months, 46 (9.2 per cent) for 8 months, 10(2 per cent) for 7 months,45 (9 per cent) for 6 months, 17 (3.4 per cent) for 5 months, 68 (13.6 per cent) for 4months, 33 (6.6 per cent) for 3 months, 35 (7 per cent) for 2 months and 14 (2.8 percent) samples for just 1 month. The corresponding figures for Jharkhand are 24 (4.8
  50. 50. 49per cent) samples for 12 months, 17 (3.4 per cent) for 11 months, 28(5.6 per cent)for 10 months, 18(3.6 per cent) for 9 months, 28 (5.6 per cent) for 8 months, 4 (0.8per cent) for 7 months, 32(6.4 per cent) for 6 months, 2 (0.4 per cent) for 5months,124 (24.8 per cent) for 4 months, 9 (1.8 per cent) for 3 months, 52 (10.4 percent) for 2 months and 8 (1.6 per cent) samples for just 1 month.When asked as for how many months of the previous year they did get one poor/partial meal plus one distress meal-a-day, only 2.7 per cent said that they hadsecured this kind of food throughout the year. 21.7 per cent of the samples could notget this kind of food even for a single month of the year. 7.7 per cent of thehouseholds had eaten this kind of food for 2 months of the previous year, 15.7 percent for 4 months, 17.9 per cent for 6 months, 14.1 per cent for 8 months and 3.1per cent had eaten this kind of food for 10 months of the previous year.While 131 (26.2 per cent) samples from Rajasthan could not secure this category offood even for a single month, that figure for Jharkhand is 86 (17.2 per cent). 6 (1.2per cent) samples from Rajasthan had eaten this kind of food for 1 month,35 (7 percent) for 2 months, 25(5 per cent) for 3 months,66 (13.2 per cent) for 4 months,36(7.2 per cent) for 5 months,86 (17.2 per cent) for 6 months,22 (4.4 per cent) for 7months, 51 (10.2 per cent) for 8 months, 1 (0.2 per cent) for 9 months, 20 (4 per cent)for 10 months, 7 (1.4 per cent) for 11 months and only 14 (2.8 per cent) samplesfrom Rajasthan had eaten this kind of food for 12 months.The corresponding figures for the state of Jharkhand are 27 (5.4 per cent) samplesfor 1 month, 42 (8.4 per cent) for 2 months,17 (3.4 per cent) for 3 months,91 (18.2per cent) for 4 months,14 (2.4 per cent) samples for 5 months,93 (18.6 per cent) for6 months,8(1.6 per cent) for 7 months,90 (18 per cent) for 8 months,8(1.6 per cent)for 9 months, 11 (2.2 per cent) for 10 months and only 13 (2.6 per cent) householdshad secured this kind of food for 12 months.
  51. 51. 50When asked as for how many months of the previous year they had to survive onjust one poor/partial meal–a-day, 1.3 per cent said that they could get only this kindof food for the whole year, 3 per cent had to survive on this kind of food for 8 monthsof the previous year, 2.7 per cent for 6 months of the year, 15.6 per cent for 4months, 23.8 per cent for 2 months and 10.8 per cent of Adivasis had to make doonly with this kind of food for 1 month of the previous year. This data implies that22.6 per cent of Adivasi households in these sample states had to survive only onthis kind of food for 4-12 months of the previous year.While 6 (1.2 per cent) samples from Rajasthan had survived only on one poor/partialmeal-a-day for all 12 months of the previous year, that figure for Jharkhand is 7 (1.4per cent). 1 (0.2 per cent) sample from Rajasthan had eaten this kind of food for 11months of the previous year, 3 (0.6 per cent) for 10 months, 2 (0.4 per cent) for 9months, 6 (1.2 per cent) for 8 months,2 (0.4 per cent) for 7 months,10(2 per cent) for6 months, 2 (0.4 per cent) for 5 months, 28 (5.6 per cent) for 4 months, 23 (4.6 percent) for 3 months, 106 (21.2 per cent) for 2 months and 66 (13.2 per cent) familiesfor 1 month. The corresponding figures for Jharkhand are 5 (1 per cent) families for11 months, 3 (0.6 per cent) families for 10 month, 7 (1.4 per cent) families for 9month, 24 (4.8 per cent) for 8 months, 2 (0.4 per cent) for 7 months, 17 (3.4 per cent)for 6 months, 5 (1 per cent) for 5 months, 128 (25.6 per cent) for 4 months, 27 (5.4per cent) for 3 months, 132 (26.4 per cent) for 2 months and 42 (8.4 per cent)families for one month.There were 11 (1.1 per cent) Adivasi households who had survived by eating onlydistress food for 5-11 months of the previous year. Another 39 (3.9 per cent) familiescould eat only this kind of food for 4 months, 50 (5 per cent) families for 3 months,102 (10.2 per cent) families for 2 months and 77 (7.7 per cent) families for 1 monthof the previous year. This data implies that 10 per cent of sample Adivasihouseholds in Rajasthan and Jharkhand had to survive only on distress foodfor 3-11 months of the previous year. If this figure is combined with 22.6 percent of samples who had survived for 4-12 months only on one poor/ partial
  52. 52. 51meal-a-day, we get a very disturbing figure of 32.6 per cent of sample Adivasihouseholds living in semi- starvation during the previous one year of survey.9 (1.8 per cent) samples from Rajasthan could eat only distress food for 5-11months, 34 (6.8 per cent) for 4 months, 50 (10 per cent) for 3 months, 56 (11.2 percent) for 2 months and 34 (6.8 per cent) for 1 month of the previous year. 2 (0.4 percent) samples from Jharkhand had eaten only distress food for 5-11 months, 5 (1per cent) for 4 months, 46 (9.2 per cent) for 2 months and 43(8.6 per cent) samplesfor 1 month of the year.There were 3 (0.3 per cent) Adivasi households who had survived on only junglefood for 2 months and 26 (2.6 per cent) samples for 1 month of the previous year. All3 samples who had survived on jungle food for 2 months were from Rajasthan. Outof the 26 samples who could get only jungle food for 1 month of the previous year, 9(0.9 per cent) were from Rajasthan and 17 (1.7 per cent) were from Jharkhand.There were 57 (5.7 per cent) Adivasi households who had not eaten any foodwhatsoever for one month of the previous year. However, this state of hunger wasnot suffered in continuation but was spread over the whole year. Therefore, it doesnot necessarily cause “starvation deaths”. But this is definitely a firm indicator of thestate of semi-starvation prevailing in this group of Adivasi households. Out of these57 samples, 42 (4.2 per cent) were from Rajasthan and only 15 (1.5 per cent) fromJharkhand.Jungle food consumption during previous one year51.4 per cent of households in Rajasthan & Jharkhand said that they did not eat anyjungle food during the previous one year of survey. 23.2 per cent said thatapproximately one-fourth of their diet consisted of jungle food during previous oneyear, 7.9 per cent samples said that half of their diet during the year consisted of
  53. 53. 52jungle food, 9.1 per cent said that it was up to three-fourth and 8.4 per cent samplessaid that 75-100 per cent of their previous year’s diet consisted of jungle food.State-wise segregation of data about proportion of jungle food in Adivasis’ diet ofprevious one year again confirms that proportion of jungle food consumption inJharkhand is much higher than in the case of Rajasthan. While only 25 per cent ofJharkhand samples had not consumed any jungle food during previous one year, anoverwhelming 77.8 per cent of Rajasthan households had not eaten any jungle foodduring previous year. Against 26.8 per cent of Jharkhand households whose one –fourth of diet consisted of jungle food, only 19.6 per cent of Rajasthan samples saidthat one –fourth of their diet consisted of jungle food. While only four samples (0.8per cent) from Rajasthan could say that half of their families’ diet consisted of junglefood,75 samples (15 per cent) from Jharkhand said that about half of their dietduring the previous year consisted of jungle food. Again, while 18.2 per cent ofsamples from Jharkhand said that three-fourth of their diet consisted of jungle food,none of the samples from Rajasthan could say so. While only 9 samples (1.8 percent) from Rajasthan said that their 75-100 per cent of diet during previous yearconsisted of jungle food, 75 samples (15 per cent) from Jharkhand said that 75-100 per cent of their diet during the previous one year consisted of jungle food.Protein (pulses& animal products) consumption during previous yearIt is shocking to note that 30.8 per cent of sample households in Rajasthan andJharkhand could not secure any pulse or animal product even for one monthof the previous year. Less than 1 per cent of sample households were able toeat some pulses or animal products during the whole previous year. 3.8 percent could secure these items for 7-11 months, 8 per cent of samples had eatenthese protein sources between 4-6 months, 7.3 per cent for three months, 19.4 percent households had eaten these items for two months and 29.2 per centhouseholds were able to eat these sources of protein hardly for one month in theprevious year. To put these figures differently, 86.7 per cent of Adivasi households in
  54. 54. 53Rajasthan and Jharkhand either could not eat any pulse & animal product or did eatfor hardly three months during the year. Therefore, these figures clearly suggest thatat least 86.7 per cent of Adivasi households were suffering from severeprotein deficiency and were vulnerable to many opportunistic diseases. Severeprotein deficiency among Adivasi children is responsible for very high infant mortalityrate in these areas and this problem has now assumed alarming proportions inAdivasi areas of the country.Among Rajasthan samples, only 1.4 per cent had secured some protein sourcethroughout previous year, 29.2 per cent could not eat any pulse or animal productduring the whole previous year, 25 per cent could get it for just one month, 17.4 percent for two months, 9.4 per cent for three months, 4.6 per cent for four months, 2.8per cent for five months, 3.4 per cent for six months and 5.4 per cent for 7-12months. These figures clearly suggest that 81 per cent of households inRajasthan either did not eat any pulse or animal product or did eat only for 1-3months during the previous one year.In Jharkhand, only two sample households (0.4 per cent) had eaten some pulse oranimal product throughout previous year. 32.4 per cent of households did not getany pulse or animal product to eat during the previous one year, 33.4 per centsamples had eaten it for just one month, 21.4 per cent for two months, 5.2 per centfor 3 months and only 7.4 per cent for 4-12 months of previous year. To put thesefigures differently, an alarming 92.4 per cent of Adivasi households inJharkhand either did not eat any pulse or animal product or did eat only for 1-3months of the previous one year.Food Stocks at HomeTo assess and understand the immediate level of hunger and food security of theAdivasi households, they were asked as to how much of food stock they had athome. 4.7 per cent of the households had no food stock at all on the day of
  55. 55. 54survey, 18.7 per cent had less than 10 kg of food grains at home, 45.9 per centof them had less than 50 kg,15.9 per cent had less than 100 kg,13 per cent hadbetween 100-150kg, 3.4 per cent 150-200 kg,6.5 per cent had 200-250 kg,1.3 percent between 250-300 kg, 4 per cent between 300-350 kg, 0.4 per cent had between350-400 kg and there were only 9.7 per cent of households who had more than 400kg of food grains at their home on the day of survey.Food stocks at home - Both States6.53.41315.945.918.74.70.61.90.601.340.40.51.73.20.20.50.10.10.2 No stockLess than 100-5050-100100-150150-200200-250250-300300-350350-400400-450450-500500-550550-600600-650650-700700-750750-800800-850850-900900-950950-1000In Rajasthan, 4.6 per cent of Adivasi households had no food stock, 17.4 per centhad less than 10 kg of food grains, 54.6 per cent had less than 50 kg, 14.4 per cent50-100 kg, 15.6 per cent had 100-150 kg, 3 per cent 150-200 kg, 5.8 per cent 200-250 kg, 0.8 per cent 250-300 kg and only 5.8 per cent had more than 300 kg of foodgrains in their homes on the day of survey. In Jharkhand, 4.8 per cent householdshad no food grains in their homes, 20 per cent had less than 10 kg, 37.2 per centless than 50 kg, 17.4 per cent 50-100 kg, 10.4 per cent 100-150 kg, 3.8 per cent150-200 kg, 7.2 per cent 200-250 kg, 1.8 per cent 250-300 kg and 22.2 per centhouseholds had more than 300 kg of food grains in their homes. It is striking to notehere that while only 5.8 per cent of Rajasthan households had more than 300 kg of
  56. 56. 55food grains in their homes, 22.2 per cent of Adivasi households in Jharkhand hadover 300 kg of food grains in their homes.Adivasis’ own perception about their state of food securityProportion of households with declined food security13.494.686.65.40102030405060708090100Rajasthan JharkhandStatesPercentagesofYes/NoYesNoTo get Adivasis’ own perception about their current state of food security incomparison to that 2-3 decades ago, they were asked as to whether their householdfood security had improved or weakened in last 25 years. A staggering 90.6percent of total samples said that their food security had weakened. Only 9.4per cent of Adivasis said that their household food security had improved incomparison to 25 years ago. State-wise segregation of the response to this questionsuggests that while 94.6 per cent of Rajasthan Adivasis think that their food securityhas weakened in last 25 years, only 86.6 per cent of Jharkhand Adivasis perceived adecline in their household food security.Reasons for decline in food securityTo know Adivasis’ perception about the main reasons for the decline in theirhousehold food security in recent past, they were asked to identify three main

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