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This article from the Economic and Political Weekly, a peer-reviewed journal, discusses India’s various medical systems and the historical conditions under which allopathy or modern medicine (usually a synonym for ‘western’ medicine) assumed dominance. British rule in India, it says, was responsible for allopathic medicine becoming the backbone of independent India’s health services. The article adds that India’s ruling classes and upper castes advocated the cause of biomedical science because they saw it as a sign of ‘modernisation’. All of this contributed to the entrenchment of three streams of health providers in independent India. The articles lists these as: ‘qualified’ allopathic doctors (who have dominance over the other streams), ‘qualified’ ayurvedic, unani and homeopathic doctors (who have been relegated to a secondary position) and ‘unqualified’ health providers (who sometimes become the mainstay of health services in rural areas).