Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Schmalleger ch06 lecture

3,330 views

Published on

ADJ 100 6

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Schmalleger ch06 lecture

  1. 1. Criminal JusticeCriminal Justice A Brief IntroductionA Brief Introduction CHAPTER Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger ELEVENTH EDITION Policing: Issues and Challenges 6
  2. 2. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Police CulturePolice Culture • Police subculture  A particular set of values, beliefs, and acceptable forms of behavior with which the police profession strives to imbue new recruits  This process of informal socialization plays a bigger role than the formal police academy training.
  3. 3. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Police PersonalityPolice Personality • Police working personality  All aspects of the traditional values and patterns of behavior evidenced by police officers who have been effectively socialized in the police subculture continued on next slide
  4. 4. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Police PersonalityPolice Personality • There are at least two sources of police personality:  A component of the police personality already exists in some people and draws them toward police work.  Conservative background, view themselves as defenders of middle-class morality
  5. 5. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Corruption and IntegrityCorruption and Integrity • Police corruption  The abuse of police authority for personal or organizational gain • Slippery slope  Even a small thank-you accepted by a member of the public can lead to a more ready acceptance of larger bribes. continued on next slide
  6. 6. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Corruption and IntegrityCorruption and Integrity • Knapp Commission  Committee that investigated corruption in New York City in the early 1970s
  7. 7. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger FIGURE 6-1 Types and Examples of Police Corruption
  8. 8. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Building Police IntegrityBuilding Police Integrity • Difficult to control corruption  Reluctance of officers to report corrupt activities  Reluctance of administrators to acknowledge the existence of corruption continued on next slide
  9. 9. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Building Police IntegrityBuilding Police Integrity • Internal affairs  The branch of a police organization tasked with investigating charges of wrongdoings
  10. 10. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Drug Testing of Police EmployeesDrug Testing of Police Employees • Drug and alcohol addictions are "handicaps" protected by the Federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973. • Today, many departments require all officers to submit to routine drug testing. • The courts have supported drug testing based on a reasonable suspicion that drug abuse has been or is occurring.
  11. 11. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Violence in the Line of DutyViolence in the Line of Duty • According to an FBI study  Slain officers appeared to be good- natured and conservative in the use of force.  They were also perceived as well-liked by the community and department, friendly to everyone, laid-back, and easygoing.  Most officers who were killed failed to wear protective vests.
  12. 12. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger FIGURE 6-2 U.S. Law Enforcement Officers Killed in the Line of Duty, 2012 Source: Based on data from the Officer Down Memorial Page website, http://www.odmp.org (accessed June 1, 2013).
  13. 13. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Risk of Disease and InfectedRisk of Disease and Infected EvidenceEvidence • Biological weapon  A biological agent used to threaten human life • Areas of concern  The need to educate officers about AIDS, anthrax, and other serious infectious diseases continued on next slide
  14. 14. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Risk of Disease and InfectedRisk of Disease and Infected EvidenceEvidence • Areas of concern  Departments' responsibilities to prevent the spread of AIDS and diseases in lockups
  15. 15. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger FIGURE 6-3 Stress and Fatigue among Police Officers
  16. 16. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Stress ReductionStress Reduction • The amount of stress an officer experiences is directly related to his or her reactions to potentially stressful situations. • Useful techniques for stress reduction  Humor  Exercise  Mmeditation  Deep breathing continued on next slide
  17. 17. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Stress ReductionStress Reduction • Useful techniques for stress reduction  Biofeedback  Self-hypnosis  Induced relaxation  Music  Prayer  Diet
  18. 18. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Terrorism's Impact on PolicingTerrorism's Impact on Policing • Law enforcement agencies at all levels now devote an increased amount of time and other resources to preparing for possible terrorist attacks and gathering intelligence necessary to thwart them. continued on next slide
  19. 19. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Terrorism's Impact on PolicingTerrorism's Impact on Policing • FBI-sponsored Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTFs) facilitate this by bringing together federal and local law enforcement personnel to focus on specific threats.
  20. 20. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Intelligence-Led Policing andIntelligence-Led Policing and AntiterrorismAntiterrorism • Intelligence-Led Policing  Collecting and analyzing information to produce an intelligence end product designed to inform police decision- making at both the tactical and strategic levels continued on next slide
  21. 21. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Intelligence-Led Policing andIntelligence-Led Policing and AntiterrorismAntiterrorism • Criminal Intelligence  The information compiled, analyzed, and/or disseminated in an effort to anticipate, prevent, or monitor criminal activity continued on next slide
  22. 22. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Intelligence-Led Policing andIntelligence-Led Policing and AntiterrorismAntiterrorism • Law enforcement intelligence consists of two types.  Tactical • Gaining or developing information related to threats of terrorism or crime and using this information to apprehend offenders, harden targets, and use strategies that will eliminate or mitigate the threat continued on next slide
  23. 23. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Intelligence-Led Policing andIntelligence-Led Policing and AntiterrorismAntiterrorism • Law enforcement intelligence consists of two types.  Strategic • Providing information to decision-makers about the changing nature of threats for the purpose of "developing response strategies and reallocating resources" to accomplish effective prevention
  24. 24. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Information Sharing andInformation Sharing and AntiterrorismAntiterrorism • Law Enforcement Online (LEO)  National interactive computer communications system and information service continued on next slide
  25. 25. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Information Sharing andInformation Sharing and AntiterrorismAntiterrorism • International Justice and Public Safety Information Sharing Network (NLETS)  State criminal histories, homeland alert messages, immigration databases, AMBER alerts, hazardous materials notifications and regulations
  26. 26. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Common Sources of Civil SuitsCommon Sources of Civil Suits • The most common sources of civil liability are assault, battery, false imprisonment, and malicious prosecution.  Biscoe v. Arlington County (1984)  City of Canton, Ohio v. Harris (1989)  Board of the County Commissioners of Bryan County, Oklahoma v. Brown (1997)
  27. 27. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Federal LawsuitsFederal Lawsuits • 1983 lawsuit  A civil suit brought under Title 42, Section 1983 of the U. S. Code against anyone who denies others their constitutional right to life, liberty, or property without due process of law continued on next slide
  28. 28. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Federal LawsuitsFederal Lawsuits • Bivens Action  A civil suit brought against federal government officials for denying the constitutional rights of others continued on next slide
  29. 29. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Federal LawsuitsFederal Lawsuits • In the past, the doctrine of sovereign immunity barred legal actions against state and local governments. • Qualified immunity  Hunter v. Bryant (1991)  Saucier v. Katz (2001)  Pearson et al v. Callahan (2009)  Scott v. Harris (2007)  Idaho v. Horiuchi (2001)
  30. 30. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Racial Profiling and Biased PolicingRacial Profiling and Biased Policing • Racial profiling  Any police-initiated action that relies on the race, ethnicity, or national origin rather than the behavior of an individual or on information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being engaged in criminal activity continued on next slide
  31. 31. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Racial Profiling and Biased PolicingRacial Profiling and Biased Policing • Examples  Being in the wrong car  Being in the wrong neighborhood
  32. 32. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger FIGURE 6-5 States That Have Banned Racial Profiling Source: Amnesty International USA, Threat and Humiliation: Racial Profiling, Domestic Security, and Human Rights in the United States (New York: Amnesty International USA Publications, 2004), p. 6. http:// www.amnestyusa.org. © Amnesty International USA. Reprinted with permission.
  33. 33. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Racially Biased PolicingRacially Biased Policing • Recommendation from the 2001 PERF report  Supervisors should monitor activity reports.  Conduct spot checks and regular sampling of in-car videotapes and radio transmissions  Determine if formal and informal communications are professional and free from bias
  34. 34. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Police Use of ForcePolice Use of Force • Use of force  The use of physical restraint by a police officer when dealing with a member of the public continued on next slide
  35. 35. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Police Use of ForcePolice Use of Force • NIJ estimates that more than 43.5 million people nationwide have face-to- face contact with the police over a typical 12-month period.  Nearly 18 million as a result of traffic stops  Approximately 1.6% become subject to the use of force or the threat of force.
  36. 36. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger FIGURE 6-7 Police Use-of-Force Continuum
  37. 37. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Police Use of ForcePolice Use of Force • Problem police officer  An officer who exhibits problem behavior, as indicated by high rates of citizen complaints and use-of-force incidents and by other evidence • Recent studies have found that problem police officers do not differ significantly in race or ethnicity from other officers. continued on next slide
  38. 38. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Police Use of ForcePolice Use of Force • Female officers found to be less likely to use physical force and firearms, but more likely to use chemical weapons. • Excessive force  The application of an amount or frequency of force greater than that required to compel compliance from a willing or unwilling subject
  39. 39. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Deadly ForceDeadly Force • Deadly force  The force likely to cause death or great bodily harm  Tennessee v. Garner (1985)  Graham v. Connor (1989) continued on next slide
  40. 40. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Deadly ForceDeadly Force • Suicide by cop  Direct confrontations  Disturbed interventions  Criminal interventions
  41. 41. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Less-Lethal WeaponsLess-Lethal Weapons • Less-lethal weapon  A weapon that is designed to disable, capture, or immobilize – but not kill – a suspect
  42. 42. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Professionalism and EthicsProfessionalism and Ethics • Police Professionalism  The increasing formalization of police work and the accompanying rise in public acceptance of the police • Police Ethics  The special responsibility to adhere to moral duty and obligation that is inherent in
  43. 43. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Education and TrainingEducation and Training • Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST) Program  The official program of a state or legislative jurisdiction that sets standards for the training of law enforcement officers continued on next slide
  44. 44. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Education and TrainingEducation and Training • Federal law enforcement agents receive schooling at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) in Georgia. • Davis v. Dallas (1985)
  45. 45. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Recruitment and SelectionRecruitment and Selection • A large majority use the following methods:  Basic skills tests  Physical agility measurements  Medical exams  Drug tests  Psychological evaluations  Background investigations
  46. 46. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Gender Diversity in PolicingGender Diversity in Policing • Women as effective police officers  Female officers often underutilized.  Departments hesitate to assign women to patrol.  Women experience frustration and lack of satisfaction with their jobs. continued on next slide
  47. 47. Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, 11e Frank Schmalleger Gender Diversity in PolicingGender Diversity in Policing • Benefits of women officers  Tend to use less physical force than male officers and are less likely to be accused of using excessive force  Better at defusing and de-escalating potentially violent confrontations with citizens  Often respond more effectively to incidents of violence against women

×