Change Control

Russell Taylor BEng CEng FAPM FIET
Russell Taylor BEng CEng FAPM FIETDirector, Project Manager, Chief Projects Officer at Self-employed
1 of 12
Change Control
2 of 12
What is Change Control?
Change Control is the recording, assessing, authorising and implementation of changes
Changes are anything that alters the project baseline
Changes arise from Fixing Defects or Bugs – generally funded by project contingency
New Requirements – generally requiring additional funding
A bug found during the course of delivering a project may lead to a Problem Report
The problem will typically be investigated and a solution proposed
An Issue is a problem that cannot be resolved within the project team
Issues are escalated – initially to the project Sponsor – for resolution
A problem together with a solution will often lead to a Change Request
Implemented change request(s) require a Change Note describing the change
3 of 12
Problems
During the execution of tasks problems will arise
If within the scope of the task, they are generally fixed during the course of task execution
If outside the scope of the task the task owner may raise a Problem Report
An authority then decides whether to authorise work to investigate the problem
In some cases the authority will decide not to investigate and closes the PR
The authority is usually a Team Leader or Technical Authority or Project Manager
If deciding to investigate the authority will Assign the PR to a suitable person to investigate
The investigator first makes a rough assessment of the effort required to investigate
…giving the authority a means to assess the progress of the investigation
The investigator then investigates and devises and verifies a potential solution
4 of 12
Problem Reporting
Raise PR
Schedule
Investigation
Assign PR
Estimate
Analysis Effort
Devise
Solution
Verify
Solution
Raise CR
Close PRInvestigate?
Identify
Problem
State: New
State: Assess
State: Action
State: Closed
State: New
Y
N
The process is shown
graphically, along with the
workflow States
A Problem Reporting Tool
implements these States
Tools may define alternative States
Many Problem Reporting Tools are
available with varying capabilities,
but all are essentially databases
Use the same database for problem
reporting and change control to minimise
documentation and administration effort
Most problem reporting tools can be
setup in this manner
5 of 12
Issues
An Issue is a problem that cannot be resolved by the project team
Issues are escalated – initially to the project Sponsor – for assistance
Most problems should be resolvable by the project team, so Issues should be few in number
The term Issue Tracking System is also used in place of Problem Reporting Tool
Here, the term issue is used to mean problem, defect or bug
Issues can be managed using the same tool but take care to differentiate Issues for escalation
6 of 12
Changes
State: Assess
State: Action
State: New
State: Closed
State: Action
State: Review
Y
N
Y
N
Y
N
Impact Analysis
& Estimation
Schedule
Change
Implement
Change
Raise CN
Change
Issue Status
Close CR
Contract
Change?
Revise Contract
(& PO Release)
Review
Authorise
Change?
Customer
Review
Contract
Change?
Change
Review
Once a problem and potential solution exist,
a Change Request may be raised
There does not have to be a PR first
A CR is handled in a similar manner to a PR
as shown in this process diagram, starting
with impact analysis and implementation effort estimation
If the change is outside the agreed project scope of work, the
customer may be asked to fund the change, otherwise the
change will be funded by the project contingency
CR
7 of 12
Control
The authority decision steps are important for control of budget and timing
Spend is controlled by authorising the amount of effort and who undertakes the work
Problem and change task timing is controlled to optimise both work flow and spend
Typically, it is from early in the implementation phase where the control of change along
with the historical record is beneficial and worth the effort
As the number of problem reports and change requests increases it is often worth holding a
Change Control Meeting – at a frequency to suit the volume of PRs and CRs
Change Control Meetings involve all interested parties and are decision making meetings
The decisions are: Accept or Reject, When and Who for each PR and CR
Change Control should cover all aspects of the project in a unified manner
A Change Note documents what change was implemented and can include multiple CRs
8 of 12
Classification
Classification is often used to aid decision making
Severity and Priority are typically used but often with varying definitions: examples below
Severity Name Meaning
1 Critical A significant requirement is broken or blocking product use
2 Major A requirement is not implemented
3 Minor A requirement implementation may be improved
4 Nice to Have An out of scope improvement
WIBNIF (wouldn’t it be nice if) item
Priority Name Meaning
1 Immediate As soon as possible (and before priority 2 & 3)
2 Normal As scheduled (and after priority 1 and before priority 3)
3 Low After all other tasks
Severity 1 and 2 are always fixed; Severity 3 may be fixed if budget permits
Severity 4 are usually only addressed with customer direction and additional funding
9 of 12
Reporting
A standard format for reporting should be defined to avoid confusion and nugatory work
Problem Reports and Change Requests can easily number 100’s and often 1,000’s
Graphical reporting is recommended – use trends to indicate progress and completion
Most Problem Reporting tools include analysis and reporting which can provide a
breakdown of PR assignment and area of work to aid tasking and resource management
Forecasting capability is often missing or weak and this may need additional analysis
outside of the PR tool – fortunately almost all PR tools allow the PR list to be exported
10 of 12
Reporting Example
11 of 12
Cautions
Avoid more than one problem reporting and change control database on a single project
Multiple databases will as a minimum require administration overhead
At worst, multiple databases lead to confusion, nugatory work and mismatched expectations
The best problem reporting and change control databases link to code base, drawings and
the configuration management system and should be agreed before the project starts
Adopt the same definitions for severity and priority across all projects
and with all customers if possible
Don’t over complicate Change Control – a tool may offer ten severity levels and eight
priority levels but you probably do not need them all
Take care to differentiate Issues for escalation outside the project team
12 of 12
Author Profile
In my board role I led a team of 22 Project Managers and 5 Quality Engineers, and ensured Roke’s £79m
project portfolio delivered better than budget profit. I set-up and ran a virtual PMO and created REP,
the Roke Engineering Process, also managing the engineering tools to support it.
After 4 years as an electronics engineer for Siemens, achieving Chartered Engineer,
I moved into project management for 14 years, at Siemens and Roke Manor Research.
Successfully delivering Roke’s most challenging whole lifecycle product developments
on time and under budget led to a role as Director and board member for 6 years.
In 2013 I returned to hands-on project management as Programme Director at
Cambridge Consultants, founder member of the Cambridge Science Park.
Creator of the APM corporate accredited PM Excellence Programme,
I chaired a quarterly PM forum to share best practice and built a
supportive PM community. I coached seven PMs to RPP, five to PQ,
and all passed APMP.
These investments in PM professionalism led to a turn-around and
annual improvement in project results across a 400 project portfolio
and delivered an above budget performance in five consecutive years
with profits totalling £7.9m above budget.
Passionate advocate of PM professionalism, Fellow of the APM and
the IET and author of articles published in Project and PM Today.
Professional Development
Winning Project Work
Planning
Estimating
Risk Management
Earned Value Management
Change Control
Stakeholder Management
3 Steps to Professional Project Management: Case Study
ProjectManagementTopics
1 of 12

Recommended

SCRUM – Agile Methodology by
SCRUM – Agile MethodologySCRUM – Agile Methodology
SCRUM – Agile MethodologyAchchuthan Seetharan
7.8K views29 slides
Information Technology Project Management by
Information Technology Project ManagementInformation Technology Project Management
Information Technology Project ManagementGoutama Bachtiar
4.9K views67 slides
Software Project Management: Change Control by
Software Project Management: Change ControlSoftware Project Management: Change Control
Software Project Management: Change ControlMinhas Kamal
1.5K views6 slides
Software Engineering (Project Scheduling) by
Software Engineering (Project Scheduling)Software Engineering (Project Scheduling)
Software Engineering (Project Scheduling)ShudipPal
6.2K views29 slides
Lecture6 by
Lecture6Lecture6
Lecture6soloeng
2.1K views27 slides
Software Risk Management by
Software Risk ManagementSoftware Risk Management
Software Risk ManagementGunjan Patel
24.6K views32 slides

More Related Content

What's hot

Software project management 3 by
Software project management 3Software project management 3
Software project management 3Indu Sharma Bhardwaj
2.9K views84 slides
Risk management(software engineering) by
Risk management(software engineering)Risk management(software engineering)
Risk management(software engineering)Priya Tomar
35.8K views25 slides
Risk management in software engineering by
Risk management in software engineeringRisk management in software engineering
Risk management in software engineeringdeep sharma
48.4K views16 slides
Managing Project Resources by
Managing Project ResourcesManaging Project Resources
Managing Project ResourcesToyin Osunlaja
66.6K views38 slides
Preliminary Scope Statement New by
Preliminary Scope Statement NewPreliminary Scope Statement New
Preliminary Scope Statement NewMelanieRos
27.2K views2 slides
Resource Allocation In Software Project Management by
Resource Allocation In Software Project ManagementResource Allocation In Software Project Management
Resource Allocation In Software Project ManagementSyed Hassan Ali
6.4K views25 slides

What's hot(20)

Risk management(software engineering) by Priya Tomar
Risk management(software engineering)Risk management(software engineering)
Risk management(software engineering)
Priya Tomar35.8K views
Risk management in software engineering by deep sharma
Risk management in software engineeringRisk management in software engineering
Risk management in software engineering
deep sharma48.4K views
Managing Project Resources by Toyin Osunlaja
Managing Project ResourcesManaging Project Resources
Managing Project Resources
Toyin Osunlaja66.6K views
Preliminary Scope Statement New by MelanieRos
Preliminary Scope Statement NewPreliminary Scope Statement New
Preliminary Scope Statement New
MelanieRos27.2K views
Resource Allocation In Software Project Management by Syed Hassan Ali
Resource Allocation In Software Project ManagementResource Allocation In Software Project Management
Resource Allocation In Software Project Management
Syed Hassan Ali6.4K views
Software Project Management: Project Charter by Minhas Kamal
Software Project Management: Project CharterSoftware Project Management: Project Charter
Software Project Management: Project Charter
Minhas Kamal14.4K views
Project management IT Project Management by Amanda Haddad
Project management IT Project Management Project management IT Project Management
Project management IT Project Management
Amanda Haddad1.3K views
Project Planning in Software Engineering by Fáber D. Giraldo
Project Planning in Software EngineeringProject Planning in Software Engineering
Project Planning in Software Engineering
Fáber D. Giraldo57.3K views
Software Project Management: Risk Management by Minhas Kamal
Software Project Management: Risk ManagementSoftware Project Management: Risk Management
Software Project Management: Risk Management
Minhas Kamal4.3K views
Ignore Project Scope & WBS At Your Own Peril by Praveen Malik, PMP
Ignore Project Scope & WBS At Your Own PerilIgnore Project Scope & WBS At Your Own Peril
Ignore Project Scope & WBS At Your Own Peril
Praveen Malik, PMP2.1K views
Project Time Management - PMBOK 5th Edition by pankajsh10
Project  Time Management - PMBOK 5th EditionProject  Time Management - PMBOK 5th Edition
Project Time Management - PMBOK 5th Edition
pankajsh1022.2K views
Agile Methodology PPT by Mohit Kumar
Agile Methodology PPTAgile Methodology PPT
Agile Methodology PPT
Mohit Kumar69.7K views

Similar to Change Control

Jason uyderv pmi 2 16 12 by
Jason uyderv pmi 2 16 12Jason uyderv pmi 2 16 12
Jason uyderv pmi 2 16 12Jason Uyder
295 views21 slides
Sas Presentation by
Sas PresentationSas Presentation
Sas Presentationpats384888
235 views12 slides
Project Management Overview by
Project Management OverviewProject Management Overview
Project Management Overviewcford1973
1.1K views36 slides
Execution process1Execution process group sectio.docx by
Execution process1Execution process group sectio.docxExecution process1Execution process group sectio.docx
Execution process1Execution process group sectio.docxSANSKAR20
2 views4 slides
Executing Successful Projects by
Executing  Successful  ProjectsExecuting  Successful  Projects
Executing Successful ProjectsGlobal Indian Technology Solutions
347 views22 slides

Similar to Change Control(20)

Jason uyderv pmi 2 16 12 by Jason Uyder
Jason uyderv pmi 2 16 12Jason uyderv pmi 2 16 12
Jason uyderv pmi 2 16 12
Jason Uyder295 views
Sas Presentation by pats384888
Sas PresentationSas Presentation
Sas Presentation
pats384888235 views
Project Management Overview by cford1973
Project Management OverviewProject Management Overview
Project Management Overview
cford19731.1K views
Execution process1Execution process group sectio.docx by SANSKAR20
Execution process1Execution process group sectio.docxExecution process1Execution process group sectio.docx
Execution process1Execution process group sectio.docx
SANSKAR202 views
12 Terms You Should Know Project Management Fundamentals by Insaf Ali Soomro PMP
12 Terms You Should Know Project Management Fundamentals12 Terms You Should Know Project Management Fundamentals
12 Terms You Should Know Project Management Fundamentals
Expanding PMO service- The ultimate Tetris challenge - Wellingtone | Future... by Wellingtone
  Expanding PMO service- The ultimate Tetris challenge - Wellingtone | Future...  Expanding PMO service- The ultimate Tetris challenge - Wellingtone | Future...
Expanding PMO service- The ultimate Tetris challenge - Wellingtone | Future...
Wellingtone64 views
Asset Finance Systems: Project Initiation "101" by David Pedreno
Asset Finance Systems: Project Initiation "101"Asset Finance Systems: Project Initiation "101"
Asset Finance Systems: Project Initiation "101"
David Pedreno44 views
Cassidy.jim by NASAPMC
Cassidy.jimCassidy.jim
Cassidy.jim
NASAPMC14K views
Asset Finance Systems: Project Initiation "101" by David Pedreno
Asset Finance Systems: Project Initiation "101"Asset Finance Systems: Project Initiation "101"
Asset Finance Systems: Project Initiation "101"
David Pedreno32 views
Project Management in Health and Human Services by Brandon Olson
Project Management in Health and Human ServicesProject Management in Health and Human Services
Project Management in Health and Human Services
Brandon Olson2.4K views
Critical success factors in effective project implementation by Sk. Mohtasim Billah
Critical success factors in effective project implementationCritical success factors in effective project implementation
Critical success factors in effective project implementation
Backup jim cassidy by NASAPMC
Backup jim cassidyBackup jim cassidy
Backup jim cassidy
NASAPMC12K views
Identifying a project in trouble and re-planning by mfarbstein
Identifying a project in trouble and re-planningIdentifying a project in trouble and re-planning
Identifying a project in trouble and re-planning
mfarbstein10.3K views
Sony Ericsson Case Study by guest8537cf
Sony Ericsson Case StudySony Ericsson Case Study
Sony Ericsson Case Study
guest8537cf4K views
Chapter 3 Lecture Slides by dotesch
Chapter 3 Lecture SlidesChapter 3 Lecture Slides
Chapter 3 Lecture Slides
dotesch13.5K views

More from Russell Taylor BEng CEng FAPM FIET

Winning Project Work by
Winning Project WorkWinning Project Work
Winning Project WorkRussell Taylor BEng CEng FAPM FIET
498 views14 slides
Stakeholder Management by
Stakeholder ManagementStakeholder Management
Stakeholder ManagementRussell Taylor BEng CEng FAPM FIET
9.4K views18 slides
Estimating by
EstimatingEstimating
EstimatingRussell Taylor BEng CEng FAPM FIET
1.6K views21 slides
Earned Value Management by
Earned Value ManagementEarned Value Management
Earned Value ManagementRussell Taylor BEng CEng FAPM FIET
9.8K views24 slides
Project Risk Management by
Project Risk ManagementProject Risk Management
Project Risk ManagementRussell Taylor BEng CEng FAPM FIET
2.9K views22 slides

Recently uploaded

What Is Psychological Safety? by
What Is Psychological Safety?What Is Psychological Safety?
What Is Psychological Safety?Alex Clapson
11 views5 slides
TAX ANALYSIS (CASE OF RWANDA).pptx by
TAX ANALYSIS (CASE  OF RWANDA).pptxTAX ANALYSIS (CASE  OF RWANDA).pptx
TAX ANALYSIS (CASE OF RWANDA).pptxSadamuFrancois
5 views29 slides
balixa.io Plan.pdf by
balixa.io Plan.pdfbalixa.io Plan.pdf
balixa.io Plan.pdftycoonone91
20 views29 slides
Workplace innovation webinar and book presentation by
Workplace innovation webinar and book presentationWorkplace innovation webinar and book presentation
Workplace innovation webinar and book presentationPeter Oeij
19 views42 slides
SpatzAI - Powering Bold Idea-sharing in Teams Spat by Spat by
SpatzAI - Powering Bold Idea-sharing in Teams Spat by SpatSpatzAI - Powering Bold Idea-sharing in Teams Spat by Spat
SpatzAI - Powering Bold Idea-sharing in Teams Spat by SpatDesmond Sherlock
18 views11 slides
TITAN SUBMARINE by
TITAN SUBMARINETITAN SUBMARINE
TITAN SUBMARINEsupiriyakithuva
17 views9 slides

Recently uploaded(9)

What Is Psychological Safety? by Alex Clapson
What Is Psychological Safety?What Is Psychological Safety?
What Is Psychological Safety?
Alex Clapson11 views
TAX ANALYSIS (CASE OF RWANDA).pptx by SadamuFrancois
TAX ANALYSIS (CASE  OF RWANDA).pptxTAX ANALYSIS (CASE  OF RWANDA).pptx
TAX ANALYSIS (CASE OF RWANDA).pptx
SadamuFrancois5 views
Workplace innovation webinar and book presentation by Peter Oeij
Workplace innovation webinar and book presentationWorkplace innovation webinar and book presentation
Workplace innovation webinar and book presentation
Peter Oeij19 views
SpatzAI - Powering Bold Idea-sharing in Teams Spat by Spat by Desmond Sherlock
SpatzAI - Powering Bold Idea-sharing in Teams Spat by SpatSpatzAI - Powering Bold Idea-sharing in Teams Spat by Spat
SpatzAI - Powering Bold Idea-sharing in Teams Spat by Spat
Desmond Sherlock18 views
The Wheel of Life - Coaching Wheel by Alex Clapson
The Wheel of Life - Coaching WheelThe Wheel of Life - Coaching Wheel
The Wheel of Life - Coaching Wheel
Alex Clapson14 views
v20231127 WHOPE BEMA Day One Sendai Framework Volunteer Workshop Session Zoom... by Andrew Networks
v20231127 WHOPE BEMA Day One Sendai Framework Volunteer Workshop Session Zoom...v20231127 WHOPE BEMA Day One Sendai Framework Volunteer Workshop Session Zoom...
v20231127 WHOPE BEMA Day One Sendai Framework Volunteer Workshop Session Zoom...
Andrew Networks38 views

Change Control

  • 1. 1 of 12 Change Control
  • 2. 2 of 12 What is Change Control? Change Control is the recording, assessing, authorising and implementation of changes Changes are anything that alters the project baseline Changes arise from Fixing Defects or Bugs – generally funded by project contingency New Requirements – generally requiring additional funding A bug found during the course of delivering a project may lead to a Problem Report The problem will typically be investigated and a solution proposed An Issue is a problem that cannot be resolved within the project team Issues are escalated – initially to the project Sponsor – for resolution A problem together with a solution will often lead to a Change Request Implemented change request(s) require a Change Note describing the change
  • 3. 3 of 12 Problems During the execution of tasks problems will arise If within the scope of the task, they are generally fixed during the course of task execution If outside the scope of the task the task owner may raise a Problem Report An authority then decides whether to authorise work to investigate the problem In some cases the authority will decide not to investigate and closes the PR The authority is usually a Team Leader or Technical Authority or Project Manager If deciding to investigate the authority will Assign the PR to a suitable person to investigate The investigator first makes a rough assessment of the effort required to investigate …giving the authority a means to assess the progress of the investigation The investigator then investigates and devises and verifies a potential solution
  • 4. 4 of 12 Problem Reporting Raise PR Schedule Investigation Assign PR Estimate Analysis Effort Devise Solution Verify Solution Raise CR Close PRInvestigate? Identify Problem State: New State: Assess State: Action State: Closed State: New Y N The process is shown graphically, along with the workflow States A Problem Reporting Tool implements these States Tools may define alternative States Many Problem Reporting Tools are available with varying capabilities, but all are essentially databases Use the same database for problem reporting and change control to minimise documentation and administration effort Most problem reporting tools can be setup in this manner
  • 5. 5 of 12 Issues An Issue is a problem that cannot be resolved by the project team Issues are escalated – initially to the project Sponsor – for assistance Most problems should be resolvable by the project team, so Issues should be few in number The term Issue Tracking System is also used in place of Problem Reporting Tool Here, the term issue is used to mean problem, defect or bug Issues can be managed using the same tool but take care to differentiate Issues for escalation
  • 6. 6 of 12 Changes State: Assess State: Action State: New State: Closed State: Action State: Review Y N Y N Y N Impact Analysis & Estimation Schedule Change Implement Change Raise CN Change Issue Status Close CR Contract Change? Revise Contract (& PO Release) Review Authorise Change? Customer Review Contract Change? Change Review Once a problem and potential solution exist, a Change Request may be raised There does not have to be a PR first A CR is handled in a similar manner to a PR as shown in this process diagram, starting with impact analysis and implementation effort estimation If the change is outside the agreed project scope of work, the customer may be asked to fund the change, otherwise the change will be funded by the project contingency CR
  • 7. 7 of 12 Control The authority decision steps are important for control of budget and timing Spend is controlled by authorising the amount of effort and who undertakes the work Problem and change task timing is controlled to optimise both work flow and spend Typically, it is from early in the implementation phase where the control of change along with the historical record is beneficial and worth the effort As the number of problem reports and change requests increases it is often worth holding a Change Control Meeting – at a frequency to suit the volume of PRs and CRs Change Control Meetings involve all interested parties and are decision making meetings The decisions are: Accept or Reject, When and Who for each PR and CR Change Control should cover all aspects of the project in a unified manner A Change Note documents what change was implemented and can include multiple CRs
  • 8. 8 of 12 Classification Classification is often used to aid decision making Severity and Priority are typically used but often with varying definitions: examples below Severity Name Meaning 1 Critical A significant requirement is broken or blocking product use 2 Major A requirement is not implemented 3 Minor A requirement implementation may be improved 4 Nice to Have An out of scope improvement WIBNIF (wouldn’t it be nice if) item Priority Name Meaning 1 Immediate As soon as possible (and before priority 2 & 3) 2 Normal As scheduled (and after priority 1 and before priority 3) 3 Low After all other tasks Severity 1 and 2 are always fixed; Severity 3 may be fixed if budget permits Severity 4 are usually only addressed with customer direction and additional funding
  • 9. 9 of 12 Reporting A standard format for reporting should be defined to avoid confusion and nugatory work Problem Reports and Change Requests can easily number 100’s and often 1,000’s Graphical reporting is recommended – use trends to indicate progress and completion Most Problem Reporting tools include analysis and reporting which can provide a breakdown of PR assignment and area of work to aid tasking and resource management Forecasting capability is often missing or weak and this may need additional analysis outside of the PR tool – fortunately almost all PR tools allow the PR list to be exported
  • 11. 11 of 12 Cautions Avoid more than one problem reporting and change control database on a single project Multiple databases will as a minimum require administration overhead At worst, multiple databases lead to confusion, nugatory work and mismatched expectations The best problem reporting and change control databases link to code base, drawings and the configuration management system and should be agreed before the project starts Adopt the same definitions for severity and priority across all projects and with all customers if possible Don’t over complicate Change Control – a tool may offer ten severity levels and eight priority levels but you probably do not need them all Take care to differentiate Issues for escalation outside the project team
  • 12. 12 of 12 Author Profile In my board role I led a team of 22 Project Managers and 5 Quality Engineers, and ensured Roke’s £79m project portfolio delivered better than budget profit. I set-up and ran a virtual PMO and created REP, the Roke Engineering Process, also managing the engineering tools to support it. After 4 years as an electronics engineer for Siemens, achieving Chartered Engineer, I moved into project management for 14 years, at Siemens and Roke Manor Research. Successfully delivering Roke’s most challenging whole lifecycle product developments on time and under budget led to a role as Director and board member for 6 years. In 2013 I returned to hands-on project management as Programme Director at Cambridge Consultants, founder member of the Cambridge Science Park. Creator of the APM corporate accredited PM Excellence Programme, I chaired a quarterly PM forum to share best practice and built a supportive PM community. I coached seven PMs to RPP, five to PQ, and all passed APMP. These investments in PM professionalism led to a turn-around and annual improvement in project results across a 400 project portfolio and delivered an above budget performance in five consecutive years with profits totalling £7.9m above budget. Passionate advocate of PM professionalism, Fellow of the APM and the IET and author of articles published in Project and PM Today. Professional Development Winning Project Work Planning Estimating Risk Management Earned Value Management Change Control Stakeholder Management 3 Steps to Professional Project Management: Case Study ProjectManagementTopics