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# 39 Parameter with Definitions

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These are the 39 parameters in better detail than you would find elsewhere.

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### 39 Parameter with Definitions

1. 1. The Strategy + Innovation Group Richard Platt Managing Partner [39 PARAMETERS - DEFINITIONS] The 39 Parameters are the defining characteristics of components that you will find in engineering systems that are in conflict with one another inside or between different components of an engineering system or with super-system components that are interacting with the system
2. 2. 39 Parameter Definitions Special Note: This document contains information that was pulled from Darrell Mann’s book’s, specifically the Matrix 2003, that can be purchased from the www.systematic-innovation.com website, although we admit the Matrix 2010 is an even better version of this. o More importantly there are many great books on Systematic Innovation that can be found on the website, and we strongly recommend to the reader to look at the Hands On Systematic Innovation (HOSI) for technical applications as well as the TRIZ Companion handbook for quick carrying around. We at the Strategy + Innovation Group are big fans of Darrell’s authorship and we think you too will be as well. Parameter: #1 - Weight of Moving Object Meaning: The mass of or gravitational force exerted by a moving or mobile object. 'Moving' includes any situations where there is any degree of relative motion or mobility between two or more parts related to the problem. This may be linear or rotational, a few microns or a considerable distance. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: burden, bulk, load, lightness Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 31, 35, 40 Parameter: #2 - Weight of Stationary Object 2|P a g e
3. 3. Meaning: The mass of or gravitational force exerted by a stationary object. 'Stationary' includes any situations where there is no form of relative motion between two or more parts related to the problem. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: burden, load, lightness Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 31 Parameter: #3 – Length (or Angle) of Moving Object Meaning: Any linear or angular dimension relating to a moving or mobile object. 'Moving' includes any situations where there is any degree of relative motion or mobility between two or more parts related to the problem. This may be linear or rotational, a few microns or a considerable distance. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: width, height, depth, distance, range, span, separation, tolerance, (e.g. inside or outside a tolerance on an engineering drawing), surface finish, (roughness) Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 4, 14, 15, 17 Parameter: #4 – Length (or Angle) of Stationary Object Meaning: Any linear or angular dimension relating to a stationary object. 'Stationary' includes any situations where there is no form of relative motion between two or more parts related to the problem. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: width, height, depth, distance, range, span, separation, tolerance, (e.g. inside or outside a tolerance on an engineering drawing), surface finish, (roughness) Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 3, 14, 15, 17 Parameter: #5 – Area of a Moving Object Meaning: Any dimension related to surfaces or surface area. These may be internal or external. They may also include contact area as well as actual surface area. 'Moving' includes any situations where there is any degree of relative motion or mobility between two or more parts related to the problem. The relative motion may be a few microns or considerable amounts. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: region, space, zone, point-contact. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 3, 4, 14, 15, 17 Parameter: #6 – Area of Stationary Object 3|P a g e
4. 4. Meaning: Any dimension relating to surfaces or surface area. These may be internal or external. They may also include contact area as well as actual surface area. 'Stationary' includes any situations where there is no form of relative motion between two or more parts related to the problem. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: region, space, zone, point contact. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 3, 4, 14, 17 Parameter: #7 – Volume of Moving Object Meaning: Anything related to the cubic measure of space occupied by an object or the space around it. 'Moving' includes any situations where there is any degree of relative motion or mobility between two or more parts related to the problem. This relative motion may be a few microns or a considerable distance. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: capacity, space, room, size, bulk, compactness. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 1, 7, 30, 31 Parameter: #8 – Volume of Stationary Object Meaning: Anything related to the cubic measure of space occupied by an object or the space around it. 'Stationary' includes any situations where there is no form of relative motion between two or more parts related to the problem. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: capacity, space, room, size, bulk, compactness. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 7, 31 Parameter: #9 – Speed Meaning: The velocity or speed of an object or the rate of any kind of process or action. The speed may be relative or absolute, linear or rotational. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: pace, haste, rate, rush, rapidity, acceleration, slowness tardiness. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 19 Parameter: #10 – Force (a.k.a. Torque) 4|P a g e
5. 5. Meaning: Any interaction that is intended to change an objects condition. Can be linear or rotational; the term applies equally well to torque. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: action, reaction, push, pull, twist, load, inertia, acceleration, momentum, change of momentum, intensity, lift, drag, thrust, moment, friction, stiction, shear, grip, voltage. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 3, 35 Parameter: #11 – Stress / Pressure Meaning: Force exercised on a unit area. Stress is the effect of forces on an object. Stresses can be tensile or compressive, static or dynamic. Parameter also includes strain – provided length is not the main issue, in which case Parameters 3 or 4 should be used. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: compression, tension, creep, fatigue, thermal fatigue, chemical fatigue elasticity, plasticity, stiffness, vacuum. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 3, 9, 12, 35 Parameter: #12 – Shape Meaning: The internal or external contour or profile of a component or system as required for ergonomic and function rather than aesthetic reasons. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: pattern, profile, silhouette, form, outline, geometry, curvature, line, hand-shaped, head-shaped. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 4, 7, 17 Parameter: #13 – Stability of the Object's Composition Meaning: The integrity of a system; the relationship of a system's constituent elements. The parameter can be applied at the macro (component) or micro (atomic) level. Chemical decomposition, dissociation, and increasing entropy should all be interpreted as issues concerning 'stability'. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: inertness, deformation, droop, tipping (over), distortion, oxidation, rusting, homogeneity, consistency, delamination. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 3, 11, 24, 35, 39 Parameter: #14 – Strength 5|P a g e
6. 6. Meaning: The extent to which an object is able to resist changing in response to force. Resistance to breaking. Can mean elastic limit, plastic limit, or ultimate strength; tensile or compressive; linear or rotational. Also includes toughness and hardness. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: fatigue, creep, bond, join, muscle, droop, distortion, stillness and rigidity. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 35, 40 Parameter: #15 – Duration of Action by Moving Object Meaning: The time that an object or system takes to perform an action. The action may take place over a few milliseconds, or over several years or more. The parameter is different from 'reliability' (Parameter 35) which is connected to the idea of the time to failure of a system – here it is specifically only the time duration aspect that is at issue. 'Moving' includes any situation where there is any degree of relative motion between two or more parts related to the problem. The relative motion may be a few microns or considerable distances. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: rate, period, frequency, natural frequency, mode, interval, phase, count, response-time, reaction-time, time-span, life, delay. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 10, 19, 35 Parameter: #16 – Duration of Action by Stationary Object Meaning: The time that an object or system takes to perform an action. The action may take place over a few milliseconds, or over several years or more. The parameter is different from 'reliability' (Parameter 35) which is connected to the idea of the time to failure of a system – here it is specifically only the time duration aspect that is at issue. 'Stationary' includes any situation where there is no form of relative motion between two or more parts related to the problem. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: period, mode, interval, response-time, reaction-time, time-span, length, life, delay. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 35 Parameter: #17 – Temperature Meaning: Measured or perceived thermal condition of an object or system. Includes other thermal parameters, such as heat capacity, conductivity, radiation and convection. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: conduction, convection, radiation, insulation, freezing/melting point, boiling point, heating, warmth, cooling, overheating. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 3, 32 (emissivity), 35, 36 6|P a g e
7. 7. Parameter: #18 – Illumination Intensity Meaning: Light flux per unit area, also any other related characteristics of the system such as color, brightness, light quality, etc. The parameter applies to both the brightness of a source and illumination of an object. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: transmission, absorption, reflection, reflectivity, frequency, shade, tone, luster, matt, shiny, surface finish, color, infra-red, ultraviolet, visibility, camouflage, emissivity. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 19, 24, 32, 35 Parameter: #19 – Use of Energy by Moving Object Meaning: The measure of an object's capacity for doing work. This parameter focuses on the actual amount of energy (rather than the efficiency of its use, see 27). 'Moving' includes any situation where there is any degree of relative motion between two or more parts related to the problem. The relative motion may be a few microns or larger amounts. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: fuel-burn, consumption, heat-input, heating, cooling, calories, calorific value, current. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 12, 19, 35 Parameter: #20 – Use of Energy by Stationary Object Meaning: The measure of an object's capacity for doing work. This parameter focuses on the actual amount of energy (rather than the efficiency of its use, see 27). 'Stationary' includes any situation where there is no form of relative motion between two or more parts related to the problem. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: fuel-burn, consumption, heat-input, heating, cooling, calories, calorific value, current. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 12, 19, 24 Parameter: #21 – Power Meaning: The rate at which work is performed. The rate of use of energy. Rate of energy output. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: Wattage, current, impulse, peak, steady, horse-power, shaft horse-power, action intensity. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 1, 19, 28 7|P a g e
8. 8. Parameter: #22 – Loss of Energy Meaning: Loss of waste of energy that does not contribute to any of the useful functions being performed. Inefficiency. Can be partial or complete, permanent or temporary. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: friction, stiction, dissipation, turbulence, wake, interference, damping. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 10, 12, 19, 34 Parameter: #23 – Loss of Substance Meaning: Loss or waste of elements of a system or its surroundings – substances, materials, sub-systems, products, fields, etc. Can be partial or complete, permanent or temporary. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: leak, wear, waste, abrasion, seal, absorption, desorption, deposition. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 3, 12, 34 Parameter: #24 – Loss of Information Meaning: Loss or waste of data or to a system. Also inability to access data, includes data associated with any of the 5 senses – visual, auditory, kinesthetic, olfactory, or gustatory (VAKOG). Can be partial or complete, permanent or temporary. Can also mean the amount, quantity or number of a system's resources. This is a derivative of the 'loss of information' definition above, the focus however is on "Amount of Information" should be interpreted in its most generic form to include ay form of information that might be passed between two or more objects or systems. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: misunderstanding, interference, distortion, filter, corruption, knowledge. ("Amount of Information" – data, knowledge, memory, properties, message, communication capacity.) Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 23, 24, 25, 32 ("Amount of Information" – 7, 32) Parameter: #25 – Loss of Time Meaning: Time inefficiencies – waiting periods, slack time, etc. Can be partial or complete, always or occasional. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: cost, delay, duplication of effort, time lost on redundant or unnecessary activities. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 8|P a g e
9. 9. 5, 10, 16, 20 Parameter: #26 – Quantity of Substance Meaning: The amount, quantity or number of a system's materials, substances, parts, fields or sub-systems. 'Substance' is used in its most generic form in the TRIZ context to include any physical or temporal 'thing'. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: flesh, body, matter, stuff, density, particle count. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 3, 31, 35 Parameter: #27 – Reliability (Robustness) Meaning: A system's ability to perform its intended functions in predictable ways and conditions. Also includes durability and issues related to the performance or degradation in performance of an object or system over prolonged periods. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: life, life-cycle, through-life-cost, in-service, Mean-Time-Between-Failure (MTBF), Mean-Time-Between-Overhaul (MTBO), integrity, maintenance, failure, failure-rate, durability. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 5, 28, 35 Parameter: #28 – Measurement Accuracy Meaning: Degree of precision or accuracy. The closeness of a measured value to an actual value of a property of a system. Measurement error. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: tolerance, go/no-go, error, repeatability, consistency, standard deviation, mean, median, mode. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 3, 4, 24, 32, 37 Parameter: #29 – Manufacturing Precision (Consistency) Meaning: The degree to which the actual characteristics of a system or object match in specified or required characteristics. Accuracy. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: tolerance, go/no-go, repeatability, standard deviation, sigma level, quality assurance, surface finish, parallelism, perpendicularity, accuracy. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 16 9|P a g e
10. 10. Parameter: #30 – Object Affected Harmful Factors Meaning: This parameter is designed as a catch-all for any form of action or phenomenon in or around a system that manifests itself as a harmful effect on something in the system. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: undesired effect, adhesion, sticking, contamination, weather damage, sun-damage, UV, Warpage, dust ingestion, mold impact Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 2, 12, 22, 27, 35 Parameter: #31 – Object Generated Harmful Factors Meaning: This parameter is designed as a catch-all for any form of inefficiency internal to or around a system that manifests as a harmful effect on something around the system. Can also mean any form of pollutant or environmental emission generated by a system or object. This is a derivative of the 'loss of substance' definition above, the focus however is on "harmful emissions" this aspect is on the production of chemicals, etc. that were not one of the original substances contained within the system. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: contamination, infection, abrasion, taste, mouth-feel, hand-feel, EMI, RFI, side-effect. ("Harmful Emissions" – carbon dioxide, NOx, unburned hydro-carbons, toxic substances/by-products, sulphur dioxide, ozone, CFC, odor.) Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 3, 21, 22, 35, 39 ("Harmful Emissions" – 2, 21, 24, 34, 35) Parameter: #32 – Ease of Manufacture (Manufacturability) Meaning: Issues related to manufacture, fabrication and assembly and issues associated with an object or system. Ease of manufacture. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: assembly, design-for-manufacturability, design-for-assembly, joining, machine-setting time, tool-change, convenience of manufacture. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 1, 5, 10 Parameter: #33 – Ease of Operation (Manufacturability) Meaning: The extent to which a user us able to learn how to operate, operate or control a system or object. Convenience of use. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: training, education, usability, learningcurve, familiarization-time, ease-of-use, ease of transport, transportability, move-ability. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 23, 25, 26 10 | P a g e
11. 11. Parameter: #34 – Ease of Repair (Repairability) Meaning: Quality characteristics such as convenience, comfort, simplicity, and time to repair faults, failures, or defects in a system. Includes issues associated with need for special tooling or equipment required to achieve repair. Also think about conditions associated with in-situ repair. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: maintenance, assembly, disassembly, accessibility, recoverability, removeability, cleanability, replacability, modularity, interchangeability, convenience of repair. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 1, 2, 11, 25, 27 Parameter: #35 – Adaptability or Versatility Meaning: The extent to which a system/object is able to respond to external changes. Also, relates to a system capable of being used in multiple ways or under a variety of circumstances. Flexibility of operation or use. Customizability. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: switching, modulation, variation, compliance, rigidity, tolerance, trainability, universality. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 15, 28, 29, 35 Parameter: #36 – Device Complexity Meaning: 'System' Complexity – The number and diversity of elements and element interrelationships within and across the boundaries of a system. The user may be an element if the system that increases the complexity. Includes issues like number of functions, number of interfaces and connections, excessive number of components. 'Control' Complexity – complexity of the control system – either physical components or the algorithms that it containsused to control a system in delivering useful functions. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: 'System' Complexity – part count, interfaces, device complexity, object complexity. 'Control' Complexity – PID, proportional, integral, differential, negative feedback, positive feedback. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 'System' Complexity – 5, 25, 28, 34 'Control' Complexity – 10, 23, 25 Parameter: #37 – Difficulty of Detecting and Measuring Meaning: How difficult it is to make measurements on an object or system. Complex costly, time consuming, labor-consuming inspection or analysis operations. Increasing cost of measuring to a satisfactory quality level. Also includes ease of inspection. 11 | P a g e
12. 12. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: access, location, integrity, visibility, being able to find the right parameter to measure. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 5, 24, 26, 28, 32 Parameter: #38 – Extent of Automation Meaning: The ability of a system or object to perform its functions without human interface or intervention. Level or extent of automation. Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: robot, man-in-the-loop/man- out-of-theloop, de-skilling, repeatability, quality assurance. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 10, 23, 25 Parameter: #39 – Productivity Meaning: The number of useful (value-adding) functions or operations performed by a system per unit time. The time per unit function or operation. Useful output per unit of time. Cost per unit output, or amount of useful output. (See 'Speed' – #14 – which is more focused on issues of dynamics rather than output of product.) Synonyms, Antonyms and Equivalent Meanings: output, value, operations, throughput bottlenecks. Inventive Principles that should always be considered for problems where we wish to improve this parameter: 3, 10, 25 If you are interested in learning more about what and how Systematic Innovation Methods can help you to be even more innovative, please feel free to contact us at The Strategy + Innovation Group. www.sig-hq.com info@sig-hq.com Phone: 503.421.9391 Best of luck in your Innovation Journey. Richard Platt Managing Partner 12 | P a g e