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An Archaeological Study Tour
Caves & Castles
Northern Spain & Southern France
212-986-3054
886-740-5130
archtours@aol.com
...
Caves and Castles, 2015
Roy Larick, Lecturer
Archaeological Tours study tour
Research news relevant to early humans in Fra...
Farming’s effect on the Homo sapiens skeleton
Gradual decline in mobility with the adoption of food production in Europe
C...
15 ka, all humans lived by foraging wild animals
and plants. Exploiting such resources worked best
when people lived in ti...
Exotic objects of the European Neolithic
Signs of Wealth: Inequalities in the Neolithic
National Museum of Prehistory, Les...
Ledi-Geraru, Ethiopia: Homo at 2.8 Ma
Early Homo at 2.8 Ma from Ledi-Geraru, Afar, Ethiopia
Villmoare et al.
Science, Marc...
Evidence for Neandertal Jewelry:
Modified White-Tailed Eagle
Claws at Krapina.
Krapina, Croatia
Radovčić, et al.
PLOS One,...
Preventative Archaeology Périgord
Chauzeys, Mussidan, Isle Valley
21st cent preventative archaeology
large spaces in new a...
Neandertal pigeon eating at Gibraltar
The earliest pigeon fanciers
Ruth Blasco, Clive Finlayson, et al.
Nature 7 August 20...
Neandertal bone tools
Un outil en os à usages multiples dans un
contexte moustérien
Luc Doyon, Geneviève Pothier Bouchard,...
Manot Cave, western Galilee: H. sapiens at 55 ka
missing connection between African
and European populations
Israel Hershk...
La Chapelle-aux-Saints burial evidence
Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at
La Chapelle-aux-Saints
Will...
Neandertal Gibraltar engraving
A rock engraving made by Neanderthals in Gibraltar
Joaquín Rodríguez-Vidal, et al.
PNAS 15 ...
Neandertal demise
Neandertal Demise: An Archaeological
Analysis of the Modern Human
Superiority Complex
Table 1. Hypothese...
Chauvet Replica opens April, 2015
Caverne du Pont-d’Arc, the Chauvet interpretive center, comprises five
buildings on eigh...
Women’s body shapes
Curvology: The Origins and Power of Female Body Shape .
David Bainbridge. Granta; 227 pages
it makes e...
An Archaeological Study Tour
Caves & Castles
Northern Spain & Southern France
212-986-3054
886-740-5130
archtours@aol.com
...
Roy Larick
Walk back in time
Look to the Future
Euclid bluestone outcrop
Doan Brook, Cleveland OH
Bluestone Heights
© 2015...
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Caves & Castles news 2015: archaeology

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Bare-bones summaries of current research papers relating to the Paleolithic in Franco-Iberia. Basic data, graphics and links only. News items to be fleshed out on the 2015 tour. Part 2 addresses new finds of fossils and artifacts and the interpretation of archaeological materials, including reports on the complex cultural activities of Neandertals. News items are presented in prehistoric chronological order.

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Caves & Castles news 2015: archaeology

  1. 1. An Archaeological Study Tour Caves & Castles Northern Spain & Southern France 212-986-3054 886-740-5130 archtours@aol.com Niaux Sept 6-20, 2015 Research news (2014-2015) relevant to early humans in Franco-Iberia Roy Larick, Lecturer 15 Days © 2015 Bluestone Heights Part 2: fossils and artifacts
  2. 2. Caves and Castles, 2015 Roy Larick, Lecturer Archaeological Tours study tour Research news relevant to early humans in Franco-Iberia Part 2 addresses new finds of fossils and artifacts and the interpretation of archaeological materials, including reports on the complex cultural activities of Neandertals. News items are presented in general prehistoric chronological order. Bare-bones summaries of current research papers. Basic data, graphics and links only. News items to be fleshed out on tour. Includes links to the original abstracts--the online papers usually lie behind a paywall. © 2015 Bluestone Heights
  3. 3. Farming’s effect on the Homo sapiens skeleton Gradual decline in mobility with the adoption of food production in Europe Christopher Ruff et al. PNAS, July, 2015 (Vol. 112, pg. 7147) 1,842 European skeletons spanning 33 kyr, Upper Paleolithic to 20th century Decreased bending strength implies a decline of mobility as agriculture came to dominate how people produced food. The original decline in mobility was more important than subsequent changes in farming technology. http://www.pnas.org/content/112/23/7147.abstract Decreased bending strength of leg bones accompanied the shift. The trend was not apparent during the last 2 ka, as agriculture became more mechanized. From the Neolithic to Roman eras (7- 2 ka) humans shifted from mobile to an increasingly sedentary lifestyles. © 2015 Bluestone Heights The study measured the strength of the tibia, femur, and humerus. The authors found little change in mediolateral, or side-to-side, bending strength in all the bones over time, but a decline in anteroposterior, or front-to-back, bending strength of the tibia and femur beginning in the Neolithic Period (7 ka), and continuing through the Iron/Roman Period (2 ka). The results suggest that mild changes in activity levels may be insufficient to stimulate changes in bone mass and that vigorous exercise may be required to increase bone strength. Temporal trends in bending strength relative to body size [mm3/(kg·mm)·104]. (A) Femoral A–P strength. (B) Tibial A–P strength. (C) Humeral A–P strength. (D) Femoral M–L strength. (E)Tibial M–L strength. (F) Humeral M–L strength. Males: blue; females: red.
  4. 4. 15 ka, all humans lived by foraging wild animals and plants. Exploiting such resources worked best when people lived in tiny bands and moved around a lot. Individual foragers could not build much wealth or power. They tended to be very poor but very equal. SoL: $1.10 per day (1990 values) 12 ka, foragers numbered 6 million 11 ka, population exploded with farming 2 ka, farmers numbered 250 million By 1800 AD, foraging was almost extinct With farming, big social groups stayed in one place working their fields. They flourished at the expense of smaller, less sedentary ones. Farmers were typically richer than foragers SoL: $1.50-$2.20 per day Farming’s effect on wealth distribution To each age its inequality Ian Morris New York Times, July 9, 2015 Farming needed more complicated divisions of labor than foraging. Some people became aristocrats or godlike kings; others became peasants or slaves. Economic inequality surged.
  5. 5. Exotic objects of the European Neolithic Signs of Wealth: Inequalities in the Neolithic National Museum of Prehistory, Les Eyzies June 27 to November 15, 2015 As Neolithic communities dispersed into Europe, 8-4.2 ka, they brought new techniques for making and ornamenting material culture. Intricate manufacturing could produce very beautiful pieces. High-value items usually signified wealth and distinction for the owner. Some were hoarded to be used in relations between the elites or with supernatural powers. High-value items often featured exotic raw materials, some traveling hundreds of kilometers from quarry to workshop. Likewise, finished pieces, including necklaces, daggers, axes, bracelets, could circulate for long distances and times. Signs of Wealth features "object sign" artifacts in exotic materials still valuable in our day (jade, gold, turquoise, jet, etc). (Larick’s paraphrase)
  6. 6. Ledi-Geraru, Ethiopia: Homo at 2.8 Ma Early Homo at 2.8 Ma from Ledi-Geraru, Afar, Ethiopia Villmoare et al. Science, March 4 2015 Sudan S. Sudan Uganda Kenya Tanzania Somalia Ethiopia Yemen Uganda Olduvai Hominid 7 Homo habilis Afar Triangle Olduvai Gorge Ledi-Geraru mandible http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/05/world/jawbones-discovery-fills-barren-evolutionary-period.html Ledi-Geraru early Homo 2.8 Ma Rift Valley aridity commences ~3.0 Ma © 2015 Bluestone Heights L-G may represent the basal lineage for four groups
  7. 7. Evidence for Neandertal Jewelry: Modified White-Tailed Eagle Claws at Krapina. Krapina, Croatia Radovčić, et al. PLOS One, March 2015 http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/17/science/neanderthal-jewelry-the-eagle-talon-line.html?rref=science&module=Ribbon&version=origin&region=Header&action=click&contentCollection=Science&pgtype=article 130 ka © 2015 Bluestone Heights
  8. 8. Preventative Archaeology Périgord Chauzeys, Mussidan, Isle Valley 21st cent preventative archaeology large spaces in new areas floodplains and terraces done with fast mechanical earth-moving expands the concept of site and spatial analysis Stratigraphy Dark clay layer: 12th cent silos, ditches & bread ovens Lighter silt layer: Aurignacian (in 2 levels), one with large foyer Manganese-encrusted limestone pebble layer reflect humid conditions (Mousterian) Cobble layer Eem gravels with Mousterian flakes Riss levels Cobble layer was the object of exploitation. Has Cretaceous flint clasts mixed with crystalline rocks (origin in Central Mountains) Neandertals and Hs tested the cobbles and then reduced them in place. Azinian (mini-Mousterian) presence; levallois flakes of thumbnail size Some presence of Jonzac (Charente) flint Aurignacian made carinated scrapers and bladelets; Brought a few blades of exotic materials, including Bergeracois Jean-Pierre Chadelle, Dept. de la Dordogne Chauzeys © 2015 Bluestone Heights Chauzeys sits on a terrace lobe of at least Riss age Wurm terrace (lower) to north Terrace has a full Wurm accumulation on top of Eem
  9. 9. Neandertal pigeon eating at Gibraltar The earliest pigeon fanciers Ruth Blasco, Clive Finlayson, et al. Nature 7 August 2014 Rock Dove, is a species of rocky habitats. At Gorham's Cave, Neanderthals butchered Rock Doves, beginning at least 67 ka, for a period of more than 40 kyr. http://www.nature.com/srep/2014/140807/srep05971/full/srep05971.html © 2015 Bluestone Heights http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-28967746 Cut-marked bones of Rock Dove specimens from Gorham's Cave: sternum (A), ulna (B, E) and humerus (C, D) from level IV, and tibiotarsus from LBSmcf.2 (F).
  10. 10. Neandertal bone tools Un outil en os à usages multiples dans un contexte moustérien Luc Doyon, Geneviève Pothier Bouchard, and Maurice Hardy Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française 15 Dec 2014 Discovered June 2014 at the Grotte du Bison at Arcy-sur-Cure in Burgundy, France. from the left femur of an adult reindeer 60-55 ka. Evidence of meat butchering and bone fracturing to extract marrow are evident on the tool. Percussion marks suggest the use of the bone fragment for carved sharpening the cutting edges of stone tools. Chipping and a significant polish show the use of the bone as a scraper http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-01/uom-ydd011415.php © 2015 Bluestone Heights
  11. 11. Manot Cave, western Galilee: H. sapiens at 55 ka missing connection between African and European populations Israel Hershkovitz et al. Nature, January 28, 2015 L-R: Neanderthal, Manot cranium, modern human 55,000-year-old skull, Manot Cave The distinctive bunlike shape at the base of the skull resembles modern African and European skulls but differs from other anatomically modern humans from the Levant, and is thus a strong clue that these were among the first humans to settle Europe, Manot 1 calotte is of a fairly small adult individual, sex undetermined. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/29/science/ancient-skull-adds-new-insight-to-story-of-human- evolution.html?action=click&contentCollection=Science&module=RelatedCoverage&region=Marginalia&pgtype=article © 2015 Bluestone Heights
  12. 12. La Chapelle-aux-Saints burial evidence Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints William Rendu, et al. PNAS 15 November 2013 A Neandertal burial was recognized in 1908 in the bouffia Bonneval, at La Chapelle-aux- Saints (France). New research indicates that the body was deposited in a pit dug by other members of its group and protected by a rapid covering from any disturbance. the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed. These discoveries attest the existence of West European Neandertal burial and of the Neandertal cognitive capacity to produce it. http://www.pnas.org/content/111/1/81 © 2015 Bluestone Heights http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-28967746 Bouffia Bonneval excavation map and burial pit position. Differences in the cavity topography and in the localization of the burial pit are linked to imprecision in the Bouyssonies’ drawing.
  13. 13. Neandertal Gibraltar engraving A rock engraving made by Neanderthals in Gibraltar Joaquín Rodríguez-Vidal, et al. PNAS 15 September 2014 Gorham’s Cave, Gibraltar Crosshatch cave wall engraving found under layers yielding Neanderthal tools older than 39 cal kyr BP epigenetic coating came before accumulation of archaeological layers made by repeatedly and carefully passing a pointed lithic tool into the grooves, excluding the possibility of an unintentional or utilitarian origin full engraving would have required 200-300 strokes with a stone cutting tool, taking at least an hour to create http://www.pnas.org/content/111/37/13301 © 2015 Bluestone Heights http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-28967746
  14. 14. Neandertal demise Neandertal Demise: An Archaeological Analysis of the Modern Human Superiority Complex Table 1. Hypotheses for the demise of Neandertals (Hn) and rise of modern humans (Hs) Paola Villa, Wil Roebroek PLOS One, April 2014 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0096424#pone-0096424-t002 Hn and Hs archaeological records are not different enough to explain Hn demise in terms of inferiority. Interbreeding and assimilation may have hastened the disappearance of Hn morphology. 1. Hs had complex symbolic communication systems and fully syntactic language, while Hn did not. 2. Hn had limited capacity for innovations. 3. Hn were less efficient hunters. 4. Hn weaponry was inferior to Hs projectile technology. 5. Hn had a narrow diet, unsuccessful in competition with Hs with their more diverse diets. 6. Hs exclusively used traps and snares to capture animals. 7. Hs had larger social networks. 8. Hs groups entering Europe were significantly larger than regional Hn groups. 9. Hs tool hafting is indicative of modern cognition; Hn hafting was simple (used naturally available glues). 10. Hn decline was related to cold climate ~40 ka. 11. Hn extinction was related to the eruption of the Mt. Toba volcano (Sumatra, 74 ka). © 2015 Bluestone Heights
  15. 15. Chauvet Replica opens April, 2015 Caverne du Pont-d’Arc, the Chauvet interpretive center, comprises five buildings on eight hectares at Razal, seven km from the true cave. © Agence Fabre et Speller - Atelier 3A Experienced artists have replicated Chauvet to be as faithful as possible to the original spontaneity of the work. Major paintings, etchings, and geological and archaeological components are reproduced on a scale of 1:1. The paintings are reproduced on a shotcrete structure with resin coating using natural oxide pigments and Scots pine charcoal. http://lacavernedupontdarc.org/en/la-replique/ © 2015 Bluestone Heights
  16. 16. Women’s body shapes Curvology: The Origins and Power of Female Body Shape . David Bainbridge. Granta; 227 pages it makes evolutionary sense for new couples to plump up—in comparison with when they were single—as this provides both of them with a fatty fallback for when they begin the arduous task of reproducing the species curvy bums and boobs ensure the future of humankind. They are proof that a woman was well-nourished while growing up and carries good child-feeding genes Episodes of bingeing and starvation were normal features of pre- agricultural life; some animals still reduce their intake in winter. Eating disorders, the author writes, could be “evolutionary relics of a time when our food supply was unpredictable http://www.economist.com/news/books-and-arts/21645120- why-and-wherefore-womens-curves-shape-shifting © 2015 Bluestone Heights
  17. 17. An Archaeological Study Tour Caves & Castles Northern Spain & Southern France 212-986-3054 886-740-5130 archtours@aol.com Niaux Sept 6-20, 2015 Roy Larick, Lecturer 15 Days © 2015 Bluestone Heights I look forward to meeting you on ‘Caves’ 2015
  18. 18. Roy Larick Walk back in time Look to the Future Euclid bluestone outcrop Doan Brook, Cleveland OH Bluestone Heights © 2015 Bluestone HeightsR. Larick A production by bluestoneheights.org roylarick@gmail.com

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