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© 2015
Bluestone Heights
bluestoneheights.org
glacial terraces – fossil beaches – stream courses – springs
current stream ...
lake plain
Portage Escarpment
St Clair Terrace
Doan Brook Parks explores the
Rockefeller and Wade Parks
landscape in the h...
sandstone terrace
bluestone terrace
Portage Escarpment
Schematic view looking
southward from Lake Erie
Doan Brook Parks hi...
Portage Escarpment Timeline
sandstone terrace
© 2015
Bluestone Heights
bluestoneheights.org
bluestone terrace
Portage Esca...
sandstone terrace
Humans
bluestone terrace
Portage Escarpment
Schematic view looking
southward from Lake Erie
• Reviving t...
© 2015
Bluestone Heights
bluestoneheights.org
Two centuries of human impact
Rockefeller Park, c. 1900
North
K. Roberts
K. ...
Springs &
Small Streams
Wade Park spring
The feature lies at the head of a small Doan Brook tributary. During his land ten...
Rockefeller Park spring
June 2015, Rockefeller Park
Wade Park spring
June 2015, CBG Japanese Garden
Wade Park spring
Wade Park, man at Spring Valley Ravine,
west from new Garden Center building
WRHS 2833
"The Spring" in Wa...
Rockefeller & Wade Parks 1898
Cozad mill
Wade Park spring
Rockefeller Park spring
next slide
Spring Pond Brook
Rockefeller Park
E93rdSt
Wade Park spring
In 1881, Spring Pond Brook was a Doan Brook tributary draining...
Wade Park
north, 1881
Wade Park spring
The Wade Park spring feeds a small stream (let’s call it
Cozad Run) that flows west...
Cozad Mill
One of the pair of Cozad’s granite millstones
is on display on the east side of the lagoon.
Doan Brook millpond...
Wade Park
south, 1881
Cozad mill
preserved millstone
1876
CMP
Wade Park
Fine Arts Garden
Samuel Cozad millstone
MLK Jr Drive
Melan Arch
E 105th concrete
arch bridge
stone parapet
carriage road
Melan Arch
Historical bridges
Cozad mill©...
Rockefeller Park
Wade Park Ave
masonry arch bridge
Designed by Charles Schweinfurth
(1856-1919)
Built, 1897-1900
Partially...
Gasparini, Vermes & Conley.
Cleveland's historic bridges:
architectural and engineering
masterpieces.
Wilbur J. and Sara R...
carriage rd
Melan Arch
MLK Drive
Melan Arch
Rockefeller & Wade Parks 1912
Rockefeller Park
Minus its decorative sandstone ...
Doan Brook
Enhancement
Project
Doan Brook Enhancement Project
2013-2014 (+2-yr warranty period)
4 acres covering 1,700 lin...
Improve aquatic life habitat
stable pools, riffles and grade controls
low-flow channel along thalweg to reduce dry spell s...
Doan Brook Enhancement Project
Bio-retention basin and footbridges
Bioswale with native planting in area of the Wade carp ...
Boulder-cobble point bar reflects high velocity culvert outflow
Doan Brook Enhancement Project
emerging from the MLK – E 1...
Doan Brook Enhancement Project
Rockefeller Lagoon parking lot bioswale
parking lot outflow bioswale inflow
Doan Brook Enhancement Project
Rockefeller Lagoon segment deep riffle structure
Looking upstream
Stream bank native planti...
Doan Brook Enhancement Project
Rockefeller Lagoon segment shallow riffle structures
Structure 2
Looking downstream to Stru...
Roy Larick
Walk back in time
Look to the Future
Euclid bluestone outcrop
Doan Brook, Cleveland OH
Bluestone Heights
© 2015...
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Doan Brook Parks Nature

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Doan Brook Parks explores park landscape in the hand of natural and human forces. Find evidence for the rise of local bedrock, for bulldozing glacial ice and for Doan Brook’s cutting of a beloved ravine.Review the impacts of park development, including the outstanding Cleveland Cultural Gardens. See the recently completed Doan Brook Enhancement Project in terms of stormwater mediation and the restoration of local natural habitats.

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Doan Brook Parks Nature

  1. 1. © 2015 Bluestone Heights bluestoneheights.org glacial terraces – fossil beaches – stream courses – springs current stream enhancement Doan Brook Parks Nature Portage Escarpment, St Clair Terrace, Lake Erie Plain June 6, 2015 Hiking Rockefeller Park south & Wade Park north Roy Larick Doan Brook Watershed Partnership Sponsored by the
  2. 2. lake plain Portage Escarpment St Clair Terrace Doan Brook Parks explores the Rockefeller and Wade Parks landscape in the hand of natural and human forces. On the hike, we will find evidence for the rise of local bedrock, for bulldozing glacial ice and for Doan Brook’s cutting of a beloved ravine. We will also review the historic weave of nature and culture in park development. Finally, we will view the recently completed Doan Brook Enhancement Project. The work is designed to reduce stormwater flows and restore local natural habitat. © 2015 Bluestone Heights bluestoneheights.org “Rockefeller Park contains a total area of 273 acres and consists of three sections: Brookway, Cedar and Fairmount. It contains 12 miles of beautiful driveways and 5 acres of lakes. Two separate boulevards, an upper and lower, connect it with Wade Lake and Gordon Park . The ground was purchased privately by Mr. Rockefeller’s agents and later presented to the people of Cleveland.” Postcard caption, c. 1910
  3. 3. sandstone terrace bluestone terrace Portage Escarpment Schematic view looking southward from Lake Erie Doan Brook Parks hike area The Portage Escarpment is Cleveland’s major terrain feature. This ancient bedrock massif resisted the bulldozing effects of Ice Age glaciations. Below the massif, glaciers flattened the lake plain. As the last glacier retreated northward about 14 thousand years ago, rushing melt water spawned our ‘escarpment run’ streams including Doan, Blue Rock and Dugway Brooks. Wade and Rockefeller Parks straddle Doan Brook as it leaves the steepest part of the escarpment to find the lake plain. Bedrock deposition, glacial sculpting and stream cutting produced the parks landscape. © 2015 Bluestone Heights bluestoneheights.org lake plain
  4. 4. Portage Escarpment Timeline sandstone terrace © 2015 Bluestone Heights bluestoneheights.org bluestone terrace Portage Escarpment Schematic view looking southward from Lake Erie Lake Erie rises to present level Niagara River lowers Lake Erie Final glacial retreat Final glacial advance Glacial advances begin North American uplift Euclid bluestone deposited Chagrin Shale deposited 4 12.6 16 23 2.5 300 360 370 ka ka ka ka Ma Ma Ma Ma Lay down – uplift – sculpt Portage Escarpment bedrocks were laid upon the Late Devonian sea bottom, >350 Ma (million years ago). Mud built the shales (Chagrin, Cleveland and Cuyahoga). Silt built the Euclid bluestone. Sand gave Berea and Sharon sandstones. Tropical sea bottom Glacial sculpting Devonian earth LMichiganLMichigan L Huron L Huron About 300 Ma, our area uplifted from the sea. The Ohio and Saint Lawrence watersheds began to form. Much later, about 2 Ma, the earth cooled and great glaciers began mounting in northern North America. Uplift we-are-stuff pro-glacial lakes Sixteen thousand years ago, the last glacier retreated through our area. The ancestors of Lake Erie began to emerge. Just 14 ka, Doan and nearby streams cut through escarpment to create the ravines of today. Just 23 ka (thousand years ago), the last glacial advance bulldozed the rock sandwich slope (Portage Escarpment) to create two terraces: one atop the Berea Sandstone and one atop the Euclid bluestone. Doan Brook Parks hike area lake plain
  5. 5. sandstone terrace Humans bluestone terrace Portage Escarpment Schematic view looking southward from Lake Erie • Reviving the natural regulation of stormwater at low cost and high community benefit. • Reconnecting fragmented natural habitat areas as a means to build local biodiversity. In learning natural history and the ways in which natural & human forces interweave, we can better address two crucial local environmental issues: We have buried our streams and flattened our features. With development, environment is degraded and biodiversity is reduced. Doan Brook Parks hike area © 2015 Bluestone Heights bluestoneheights.org lake plain
  6. 6. © 2015 Bluestone Heights bluestoneheights.org Two centuries of human impact Rockefeller Park, c. 1900 North K. Roberts K. Roberts USGS LiDAR underlay Google Earth aerial viewer Stream culvert data courtesy of NEORSD R. Larick Blue Rock spring, c. 1900 Rockefeller Park, 1897 R. Larick Rockefeller Park Spring, 1911 Parks-on-Doan Cleveland Heights Cleveland The Nature-Culture Weave Ambler spring, near Fairhill Rd Wade Park Spring. 1900 CMP CMP: Cleveland Memory Project ceveland.about.com Wade Oval, 1874 Rockefeller Park Rockefeller Park CMP CMP CMP CMP WRHS East Cleveland Early settlers valued clear (Wade, Rockefeller). Victorian water cure valued mineral (Ambler, Blue Rock). Eddy gristmill, 1809 Cozad gristmill Crawford sawmill Springs Mills E105th Wade Park Euclid D.J. Lake hike pathway Wade Park bridge, 1911
  7. 7. Springs & Small Streams Wade Park spring The feature lies at the head of a small Doan Brook tributary. During his land tenure, 1872-1882, Jeptha Wade assembled boulders and a rustic sandstone staircase. Some of the physical components are still present at the Cleveland Botanical Garden’s Japanese Garden. Rockefeller Park spring Little has been recorded about this feature which was improved with J.D Rockefeller’s bequest of 1896. A boulder assemblage lies on the east bank of the Doan Brook ravine opposite the Rockefeller Park lagoon. In a nearby low spot, a sewer grate may indicate the spring outflow. Cleveland lies on a sandwich of alternating porous and impervious rocks. Such conditions breed springs. Springs provided drinking water and social gathering places. They also played into the Victorian era hydrotherapy movement. Private springs were thus commercialized. At public springs, the settings were often ‘improved’ by assembling glacial erratic boulders around the outflow. Wade Park Spring. 1900 Doan Brook cuts through an area where fossil beaches (porous) lie over glacial clay (impervious). Early settlers here found numerous springs.
  8. 8. Rockefeller Park spring June 2015, Rockefeller Park
  9. 9. Wade Park spring June 2015, CBG Japanese Garden
  10. 10. Wade Park spring Wade Park, man at Spring Valley Ravine, west from new Garden Center building WRHS 2833 "The Spring" in Wade Park WRHS 2800
  11. 11. Rockefeller & Wade Parks 1898 Cozad mill Wade Park spring Rockefeller Park spring next slide
  12. 12. Spring Pond Brook Rockefeller Park E93rdSt Wade Park spring In 1881, Spring Pond Brook was a Doan Brook tributary draining an area now covered by the Cleveland Clinic and Fairfax. The name derives from spring –fed wetlands in the Amesbury-E 93rd- Lamont area. The stream is now entirely buried with outflow near the Rockefeller Park lagoon. lagoon Lamont Ave
  13. 13. Wade Park north, 1881 Wade Park spring The Wade Park spring feeds a small stream (let’s call it Cozad Run) that flows westward to Doan Brook. Jeptha Wade ‘improved’ the land with several features. Cleveland Museum of Natural History now sits on the stream course, including the area of Wade’s ‘iron bridge’. In the mouth area, Wade’s carp pond now holds the Cancer Survivors memorial and the new bioswale. carp pond CMP
  14. 14. Cozad Mill One of the pair of Cozad’s granite millstones is on display on the east side of the lagoon. Doan Brook millpond Samuel Cozad’s gristmill was of the latter type. To create a millpond, Cozad dammed the north end of a large Doan Brook meander. Jeptha Wade later expanded the millpond. This is the origin of the current Fine Arts Garden lagoon. The East Side’s earliest water powered grist mills were built at bluestone waterfalls on the Portage Escarpment (Mill Creek, 1799; Dugway Brook, 1809; Euclid Creek, 1809). Later, milling moved down onto the lake plain. On the plain, a millpond had to be built to provide the necessary hydraulic head. WRHS
  15. 15. Wade Park south, 1881 Cozad mill preserved millstone 1876 CMP
  16. 16. Wade Park Fine Arts Garden Samuel Cozad millstone
  17. 17. MLK Jr Drive Melan Arch E 105th concrete arch bridge stone parapet carriage road Melan Arch Historical bridges Cozad mill© 2015 Bluestone Heights bluestoneheights.org stone parapet
  18. 18. Rockefeller Park Wade Park Ave masonry arch bridge Designed by Charles Schweinfurth (1856-1919) Built, 1897-1900 Partially funded by the J.D. Rockefeller bequest of 1896
  19. 19. Gasparini, Vermes & Conley. Cleveland's historic bridges: architectural and engineering masterpieces. Wilbur J. and Sara Ruth Watson Bridge Book Collection, CSU Special Collections. 2002. Revised, 2003. Wade Park carriage road arch (missing spandrel wall) MLK Jr arch with Berea Sandstone spandrel wall Concrete-Steel Engineering Company, ‘Successors to the Melan Arch Construction Company,’ Park Row Bldg, New York NY 1907 Wade Park Melan Arch bridges About 1900, the City of Cleveland contracted for two Melan Arch bridges in Wade Park. At an early date, the Melan Arch system combined steel truss and cast concrete construction. The bridges are now historic.
  20. 20. carriage rd Melan Arch MLK Drive Melan Arch Rockefeller & Wade Parks 1912 Rockefeller Park Minus its decorative sandstone spandrel walls, the carriage road Melan Arch is still in place as the outflow of the Doan Brook University Circle culvert. carp pond CMNH construction on Cozad Run, 1960s CMP
  21. 21. Doan Brook Enhancement Project Doan Brook Enhancement Project 2013-2014 (+2-yr warranty period) 4 acres covering 1,700 lineal ft of the DB channel upstream start: MLK Blvd culvert inflow (at Jeptha Dr) downstream end 1st MLK bridge after the lagoon $4.3M ($2.5M Cle/$1.8M NEORSD) lagoon DoanBrook North Cancer Survivors Memorial Rockefeller Park spring Wade Park Ave E105thSt CWRU Sun Farm VA Hosp Mt Sinai Dr deep riffle structure shallow riffle structures
  22. 22. Improve aquatic life habitat stable pools, riffles and grade controls low-flow channel along thalweg to reduce dry spell stagnation use terraced flood plains of re-used wall materials use plantings that fit the park setting Goals: Stabilize stream channel with dimension and profile to handle local flows reconstruct historic walls to slow slope & stream bank erosion reduce bank erosion & deteriorating walls create areas where the stream can safely access a floodplain Maintain current stream channel alignment Minimize impact to the historic Cultural Gardens Doan Brook Enhancement Project
  23. 23. Doan Brook Enhancement Project Bio-retention basin and footbridges Bioswale with native planting in area of the Wade carp pond
  24. 24. Boulder-cobble point bar reflects high velocity culvert outflow Doan Brook Enhancement Project emerging from the MLK – E 105th – Mt Sinai Dr culvert
  25. 25. Doan Brook Enhancement Project Rockefeller Lagoon parking lot bioswale parking lot outflow bioswale inflow
  26. 26. Doan Brook Enhancement Project Rockefeller Lagoon segment deep riffle structure Looking upstream Stream bank native planting in foreground mid ground Looking downstream
  27. 27. Doan Brook Enhancement Project Rockefeller Lagoon segment shallow riffle structures Structure 2 Looking downstream to Structure 1 Structure 1
  28. 28. Roy Larick Walk back in time Look to the Future Euclid bluestone outcrop Doan Brook, Cleveland OH Bluestone Heights © 2015 Bluestone Heights R. Larick A production by bluestoneheights.org roylarick@gmail.com

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