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Facilitating Busines Interoperability from the Semantic Web


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Most approaches to B2B interoperability are based on language syntax standardisation, usually by XML Schemas. However, due to XML expressivity limitations, they are difficult to put into practice because language semantics are not available for computerised means. Therefore, there are many attempts to use formal semantics for B2B based on ontologies. However, this is a difficult jump as there is already a huge XML-based B2B framework and ontology-based approaches lack momentum. Our approach to solve this impasse is based on a di-rect and transparent transfer of existing XML Schemas and XML data to the semantic world. This process is based on a XML Schema to web ontology mapping combined with an XML data to semantic web data one. Once in the semantic space, it is easier to integrate different business standards using ontology alignment tools and to develop business information systems thanks to semantics-aware tools.

Published in: Business, Education
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Facilitating Busines Interoperability from the Semantic Web

  1. 1. Facilitating Business Interoperability from the Semantic Web Roberto García, Rosa Gil Universitat de Lleida, Spain
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Ontological framework </li></ul><ul><li>Integration framework </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Future Work </li></ul>
  3. 3. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Ontological framework </li></ul><ul><li>Integration framework </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Future Work </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Networked Business to Business </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Standardisation approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define common lingua </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually based on an XML Schema formalisation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No one-fits-all solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proliferation: Biztalk, RosettaNet, ebXML, UML, BPEL… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sofistication: domain complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Complexity + Heterogeneity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Busines Information Systems difficult to manage and integrate </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Some existing standards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OASIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ebXML , Electronic Business using eXtensible Markup Language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CPPA ( Collaboration Protocol Profile and Agreement ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BP (Business Process) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BPEL-WS , Web Services Business Process Execution Language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UBL , Universal Business Language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft BizTalk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RosettaNet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common aspects: non formal semantics and XML -based </li></ul>
  6. 6. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Ontological framework </li></ul><ul><li>Integration framework </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Future Work </li></ul>
  7. 7. Proposal <ul><li>Semantic Metadata and Ontology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>facilitate management and integration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semantic Approach to BIS </li></ul><ul><li>Related work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Enterprise Ontology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eCl@ss OWL (Web Ontology) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EDI Ontology (OWL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RosettaNet Ontology (OWL) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Proposal <ul><li>Limitations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whole effort for each XML standard formalised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Break with existing XML based BIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack momentum, ontological framework but no data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alternative: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automate XML formalisation (at least to some extent) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep links to existing XML based BIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also map existing data </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Ontological framework </li></ul><ul><li>Integration framework </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Future Work </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ontological Framework <ul><li>ebXML, WSBPEL, UBL, RosettaNet,… </li></ul><ul><li>XML  Semantic Web </li></ul><ul><li>“ XML Semantics Reuse Methodology” ReDeFer implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>XSD2OWL : schema to ontology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XML2RDF : XML instance data to RDF instances </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Ontological Framework <ul><li>ReDeFer XSD2OWL Mappings: </li></ul>owl:intersectionOf owl:unionOf sequence choice owl:maxCardinality owl:minCardinality @maxOccurs @minOccurs rdfs:subClassOf extension@base|restriction@base owl:Restriction complexType//element owl:Class complexType|group|attributeGroup rdfs:range [email_address] rdfs:subPropertyOf [email_address] rdf:Property owl:DatatypeProperty owl:ObjectProperty element|attribute OWL XML Schema
  12. 12. Ontological Framework <ul><li>ebXML BP classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchy from XSD complex types and extension relations </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Ontological Framework <ul><li>Apply methodology to existing XML standards </li></ul><ul><li>ebXML </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration Protocol Profile and Agreement (ebCPPA) cpp-cpa-v1_0.owl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Process (ebBP) ebbp-2.0.3.owl </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BPEL-WS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WSBPEL) business-process.owl </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrate RosettaNet Ontology ( from LSDIS, Univ. of Georgia) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Ontological Framework <ul><li>A generic XML semantics reuse methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Already validated in other domains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia: MPEG-7 ontology (W3C MMSEM XG) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Rights Management: MPEG-21 ontologies (MPEG) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspapers: IPTC, NewsML and NITF ontologies </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Ontological Framework: Instances <ul><li>ReDeFer XML2RDF : XML tree  RDF graph. </li></ul><ul><li>Deduce blank node types (i.e. XSD Complex Types) from XSD2OWL ontologies restrictions. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ontological Framework: Instances <ul><li>ebXML CPP example from XML to RDF (fragment) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes XML tree but also XSD complex types </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Ontological framework </li></ul><ul><li>Integration framework </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Future Work </li></ul>
  18. 18. Integration Framework <ul><li>Load Ontological Framework </li></ul>
  19. 19. Integration Framework <ul><li>Integrate Ontologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OWL semantic relations for equivalence and inclusion: subClassOf , subPropertyOf , equivalentClass , equivalentProperty , sameIndividualAs , etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More complex mappings using Semantic Web Rules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generate mappings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OWL Ontology Aligner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User supervision </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Integration Framework <ul><li>ebXML BP to ebXML CPA mappings </li></ul>cppa:location cppa:Role cppa:type cppa:mimetype cppa:RoleType cppa:ProcessSpecificationType cppa:Start cppa:ProcessSpecification cppa:value cppa:name cppa:uri cppa:action cppa:authenticated cppa:ProcessSpecification ... ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡  ≡  ebbp:location ebbp:Role ebbp:type ebbp:mimeType ebbp:RoleType ebbp:ProcessSpecificationType ebbp:Start ebbp:ProcessSpecification ebbp:value ebbp:name ebbp:uri ebbp:BusinessAction ebbp:isAuthenticated Specification ...
  21. 21. Integration Framework <ul><li>ebXML BP to BPEL-WS mappings </li></ul>bpel:expression bpel:expressionLanguage bpel:name bpel:pattern bpel:variable bpel:condition bpel:partnerRole ... ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡  ≡ ebbp:expression ebbp:expressionLanguage ebbp:name ebbp:pattern ebbp:Variable ebbp:PreCondition ebbp:BusinessPartnerRole ...
  22. 22. Integration Framework
  23. 23. Integration Framework
  24. 24. Integration Framework <ul><li>Semantics into practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scenario : the previous ebXML CPP example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semantics formalised by ebXML CPPA Ontology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semantics connected to data through references to: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classes, and their hierarchy, for XSD complex types </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Properties, and their hierarchy/restrictions, for XSD elements </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Integration Framework <ul><li>Semantics into practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task : get all SignalEnvelope types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>XML tools : many XQueries and aware of schema structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic tools : 1 query, unaware and support changes </li></ul></ul></ul>PREFIX ebbp: <> SELECT ?r WHERE (?r <rdf:type> ebbp:SignalEnvelopeType)
  26. 26. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Ontological framework </li></ul><ul><li>Integration framework </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Future Work </li></ul>
  27. 27. Conclusions
  28. 28. Conclusions <ul><li>XSD2OWL take profit from XML Schema hidden semantics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We formalise them when building ontologies, but also implicitly when we make XML Schemas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ontologies from XSD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ebXML, BPEL-WS… and more to come (automatic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First formalisation step </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hook more detailed semantics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Map to other ontologies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Conclusions <ul><li>XML2RDF : reuse existing XML metadata to add momentum to Semantic Web BIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Model XML tree as graph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enrich with links to concepts in ontologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate implementation using Semantic Web tools (DL reasoners, rule engines, semantic queries,…) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Ontological framework </li></ul><ul><li>Integration framework </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Future Work </li></ul>
  31. 31. Future Work <ul><li>Map other Business XML Schemas to OWL </li></ul><ul><li>More detailed integration (also rules) </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced ontology alignment tools </li></ul><ul><li>Formal business ontology as hub for integration </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrator: simple semantic BIS </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
  32. 32. Thank you for your attention More at: …/redefer (mapping tools) …/ontologies/bizontos (eBiz ontologies) Contact: {rgarcia,rgil}