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Introduction to Operational Technology 0.1

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Introduction to Operational Technology 0.1

  1. 1. Considerations for Operational Technology and open source as IoT enablers ARCHITECTING FOR INTEROPERABILITY 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 1 Author: Richard Hudson https://nz.linkedin.com/in/richard-hudson-6aa81511a
  2. 2. Contents What is operational technology anyway?  So what’s the problem? …. we’ve been doing M2M for decades  Three enablers for interoperability …. Data models, application interfaces and protocol stacks  Open source frameworks as the solution for device integration … designed for interoperability  Operational Technology enablement using open source frameworks … getting practical 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 2
  3. 3. What is Operational Technology anyway? IOT MEANS DIFFERENT THINGS TO DIFFERENT PEOPLE 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 3
  4. 4. End-to-end IoT Solution FlowCloud Gateway 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 4 management telemetry data Devices & networks Cloud IoT Backend Cloud applications & enterprise
  5. 5. Traditional automation pyramid 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 5 Field/process equipment/devices Local control systems (PLC, gateway) Operational services Analytics ERP Data acquisition Informational technology (IT) Operational technology (OT) Enterprise technology Supports value creation and manufacturing processes Concerned with business planning & information processing and value creation Concerned with commercial activities & product development
  6. 6. IoT business view 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 6 FlowCloud IoT • Provisioning • Monitoring • Notifications • Alarms • Upgrades • Historians • Assets • Backups Operational Technology Informational Technology Enterprise Technology  = • Data transformations • Analytics & insights • Event processing • ERP • MRP
  7. 7. But where’s the problem? WE’VE BEEN DOING M2M FOR DECADES 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 7
  8. 8. So what’s the problem? 1 •“3rd platform” has opened up a new generation of technologies • driving rapid competition, integration and application composition 2 •Historically IT & OT are siloed activities • OT based on outdated equipment, not suited to Internet connectivity • difficult to adapt OT to Internet based services and efficiency gains 3 •Changing value chains • multiple vendors needed to implement a complete value chain 4 •Competing standards and solutions • Makes operational technology challenging 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 8
  9. 9. Operational Technology challenges How to cope with a range of device connectivity standards? How to support a range of management protocols? How to protect investment in tooling and development? How to keep up with competition but not get locked in to a vendor? problem becomes one of moving from closed systems to open systems 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 9 Closed Systems Open Systems
  10. 10. Three enablers for interoperability DATA MODELS, APPLICATION INTERFACES AND PROTOCOL STACKS 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 10
  11. 11. Operational technology drilldown and where does open source best fit? Operational Technology Informational Technology Enterprise Technology  devices & networks operational servicesdevice integration Device management Device dataDevice discovery   = =   6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 11 IoT Protocols (incl connectivity, network, transport) IoT Application Enablement APIs Data models requires for interoperability
  12. 12. Device stacks and interoperability 3 key stack layers: Data models, application enablement and connectivity protocols Increasinginteroperability 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 12 Data interoperability IoT (M2M) protocol interoperability Transport protocol (e.g UDP/TCP) Network protocol (e.g. 6lowpan, IPV4) Connectivity protocol (e.g WiFi, 802.15.4) Application protocol (e.g CoAP, HTTP) Model definitions Things/machines Application enablement APIs IoT and fieldbus connectivity Data models Data models Business logic/application
  13. 13. Provide agreed abstract model of “things” • object representation, data types, operations, content formats • build composite models Defined by organisations including IPSO & OCF • complete with tools for defining models: eg Eclipse Vorto Data models make it much easier to: • deploy new things and applications using data models • write once, run anywhere software • connect any app to any thing via any IOT protocol of choice • use-case appropriate M2M Data models 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 13
  14. 14. Application enablement– what is it? Manufacture •Configure device identity •Bootstrap server certificate Bootstrap •Connect to network •Establish mutual trust Provision •Authenticate installer •Register device •Assign device owner •Provision device Operation •OTA upgrades •Monitor •Control •Audit & compliance •Access control •Data transfer Decommission •Revoke access •Device wipe •Reassign device standard interfaces for interacting with devices 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 14 A set of interfaces to support the operation of devices over their lifetime
  15. 15. Application enablement standards Lightweight M2M (LWM2M) • from the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) • based on CoAP • interfaces for management and application data handling • based on an extensible object model and registry open to whole industry • supports device management lifecycle • addresses security needs for software updates and device reconfiguration • created to service the IoT market with a focus on low power, low memory devices • applicable to a range of radio connectivity networks • reuses existing IETF specifications 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 15
  16. 16. LWM2M lifecycle interfaces Bootstrap Interfaces • configure servers, keys and ACLs • pre-configured, smartcard or server initiated bootstrap Registration interface • resource directory Management interface • based on objects and resources Reporting interface • object instances and resources • async notifications LWM2M client LWM2M server client initiated bootstrap server initiated bootstrap Smart card Flash LWM2M client LWM2M server register, update, de-register LWM2M client LWM2M server read, write, execute, create, delete LWM2M client LWM2M server observe, cancel observation notify 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 16
  17. 17. Introducing LWM2M components RTOS LWM2M Constrained Device IoT Edge IoT backend OS Device Management services 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 17 cloud platform server client LWM2M server LWM2M client bootstrap bootstrap Application Application Secondary server
  18. 18. A complete interoperability stack example incorporating data models, application interfaces and IoT protocols HW & Security RTOS/OS CoAP LWM2MApplication enablement Application layer HTTP Transport layer DTLS/UDP TLS/TCP Network layer IPV4/66LowPAN Connectivity layer 802.15.4 WiFi IPSOData Models RPL 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 18 interoperability data interoperability IoT protocol interoperability security
  19. 19. Open source frameworks as the solution for device integration DESIGNED FOR INTEROPERABILITY 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 19
  20. 20. automation pyramid revisited 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 20 Field/process equipment/devices Local control systems (PLC, gateway) Operational services Analytics ERP Device integration & Data acquisition Local deployments for real-time operation using fieldbus protocols and wireless IoT protocols. Cloud/on-premises deployments leveraging IP connectivity and 3rd party integrations IoT Cloud backend integration layer decouples IT & OT services from underlying devices and things
  21. 21. A unified end-to-end integration framework Cloud platform framework • IoT Connector with distinct north and south bound interfaces • abstracts cloud based OT and IT services from the underlying device network • support a range of device protocol adaptors • for streaming telemetry data and device management and control Device integration framework • high level data models (ontologies) for interoperability • IoT Application APIs for interoperability • IoT protocol stacks for interoperability • loosely coupled stacks, enabling stacks from different suppliers to interoperate • modular stacks, allowing stack components to be swapped out 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 21
  22. 22. End-to-end interoperability concepts incorporating data models, application enablement, IoT protocols and device abstraction 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 22 IoT Connector north south Services Devices & networks Cloud IoT Backend IT, OT & enterprise services Device Data Models Data Models Application enablement Connectivity Gateway Data Models Application enablement Connectivity << protocol adaptor>> Application enablement Connectivity
  23. 23. management architecture Constrained Devices Gateway or smart devices 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 23 Cloud platform Hardware abstraction connectivity Field protocols IoT protocols RTOS RemoteManagement App runtime connectivity Field protocols IoT protocols RTOS RemoteManagement connectivity Messagerouting Service APIs Device registry Data management & messaging Local business logic Local business logic CoAP/DTLS/UDP HTTP/TLS/TCP Profibus Profinet Modbus Application enablement Cloud IoT Backend Operational services Upgrades provisioning monitoringAnalytics Event Mgt UI IoT Application Application enablement Application enablement
  24. 24. Operation Technology enablement using open source GETTING PRACTICAL 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 24
  25. 25. Open source implementations Open source solutions traditionally piecemeal • individual projects • more maker/hobbyist than commercial Now starting to see some maturing of Open Source communities • end-to-end frameworks and projects • best practice • and commercial ecosystems evolving around them IoT Eclipse • defines 3 stacks for building IoT solutions • blueprint and projects for cloud application integrations horizontal frameworks becoming mainstream? 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 25
  26. 26. Open source components Constrained device • Complete Protocol stacks: ARM mbed, Imagination Awa LWM2M • RTOS: RIOT, Contiki, Zephyr, FreeRTOS, Mynewt Gateway, Smart Device • Eclipse: Kura, 4diac, Wakaama, Paho • OpenWRT • Imagination Awa LWM2M Cloud IoT Backend • Eclipse: Kapua, Hawkbit, Mosquito, Hono, Leshan • Imagination LWM2M device server for an end-to-end solution 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 26
  27. 27. End-to-end IoT using open source projects blueprint for cloud based applications (https://wiki.eclipse.org/IoT/IoTServerPlatform) 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 27 Device Server Application Enablement Connectivity CoAP Gateway Data models Application enablement Connectivity Connectivity CoAP AWA Sensor node Data models Application enablement Connectivity AWA IoT Connector north south Upgrades and Provisioning <<protocol adaptor>> MQTT Sensor node
  28. 28. Conclusion 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 28
  29. 29. Key points End-to-end open source components and architectures becoming available • provide interfaces for abstraction in the face of continuous change Commercial companies contributing Data models and IoT protocol standards are critical enablers • consensus now building and implementations available Open source the only real way to avoid lockin Will need several partners to implement a commercial solution 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 29
  30. 30. Backup 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 30
  31. 31. IoT Ecosystems: confusion or evolution? 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 31
  32. 32. Leverage a broader ecosystem Provide protection in a rapidly evolving industry • Hard for a single vendor to keep adapting and protect their investments Community support for a large range of device manufacturers • device interoperability with many difficult vendors can’t be done by a single vendor Extensibility • Open source implementations are extendable to meet individual requirements Large developer communities • Get the benefit of a large number of experts working for you! • More and more enterprises seeing the value and now contributing their commercial expertise The benefits of open source 6/12/2016 RICHARD HUDSON - INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL TECHNOLOGY V 0.7 32

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