Advanced Ic engines unit 2

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Advanced Ic engines unit 2

  1. 1. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering• Combustion in CI Engines• Combustion in CI engines differ from SI engine due to the basic fact that CIengine combustion is unassisted combustion occurring on its’ own.• In CI engine the fuel is injected into combustion space after the compressionof air is completed.• Due to excessively high temperature and pressure of air the fuel wheninjected in atomised form gets burnt on its’ own and burning of fuel iscontinued till the fuel is injected.• Theoretically this injection of fuel and its’ burning should occursimultaneously up to the cut-off point, but this does not occur in actual CIengine. Different significant phases of combustion are explained as under.
  2. 2. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering• Injection of fuel in atomized form is initiated into the combustion spacecontaining compressed air.• Fuel upon injection does not get burnt immediately instead some time isrequired for preparation before start of combustion.• Fuel droplet injected into high temperature air first gets transformed intovapour (gaseous form) and then gets enveloped around by suitableamount of oxygen present so as to form combustible mixture.• Subsequently, if temperature inside is greater than self ignitiontemperature at respective pressure then ignition gets set.• Thus, the delay in start of ignition may be said to occur due to ‘physicaldelay’ i.e. time consumed in transformation from liquid droplet intogaseous form, and‘chemical delay’ i.e. time consumed in preparation forsetting up of chemical reaction (combustion).• Stages of Combustion in CI Engines(i) Ignition Delay Period
  3. 3. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering• Stages of Combustion in CI Engines• The duration of ignition delay depends upon fuel characteristic,compression ratio (i.e. pressure and temperature after compression),fuel injection, ambient air temperature, speed of engine, and geometryof combustion chamber etc.• Ignition delay is inevitable stage and in order to accommodate it, the fuelinjection is advanced by about 20º before TDC. Ignition delay is shownby a – b in Fig . , sho wing pressure rise during combustion.• Fuel injection begins at ‘a’ and ig nitio n be g ins at ‘b’. The o re tically, thisignition delay should be as small as possible.(i) Ignition Delay Period
  4. 4. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering• Stages of Combustion in CI Engines
  5. 5. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering• Stages of Combustion in CI Engines• During the ignition delay period also the injection of fuel is continued as ithas begun at point ‘a’ and shall continue upto the point of cut-off.• For the duration in which preparation for ignition is made, the continuousfuel injection results in accumulation of fuel in combustion space.• The moment when ignition just begins, if the sustainable flame front isestablished then this accumulated fuel also gets burnt rapidly.• This burning of accumulated fuel occurs in such a manner that combustionprocess becomes uncontrolled resulting into steep pressure rise as shownfrom ‘b’ to ‘c’.• The unco ntro lle d burning continues till the collected fuel gets burnt.• During this ‘uncontrolled combustion’ phase if the pressure rise is veryabrupt then combustion is termed as ‘abnormal combustion’ and may evenlead to damage of engine parts in extreme conditions.(ii) Uncontrolled Combustion
  6. 6. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering• Stages of Combustion in CI Engines• Thus, it is obvious that ‘uncontrolled combustion’ depends upon the ‘ignitiondelay’ period as during ignition delay itself the accumulation of unburnt fueloccurs and its’ burning results in steep pressure rise.• Hence in order to have minimum uncontrolled combustion the ignition delayshould be as small as possible.• During this uncontrolled combustion phase about one-third of total fuel heatis released.(ii) Uncontrolled Combustion
  7. 7. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering• Stages of Combustion in CI Engines• After the ‘uncontrolled combustion’ is over then the rate of burning matcheswith rate of fuel injection and the combustion is termed as ‘controlledcombustion’.• Controlled combustion is shown between ‘c’ to ‘d’ and during this phasem axim um o f he at g e ts e vo lve d in co ntro lle d m anne r.• In co ntro lle d combustion phase rate of combustion can be directlyregulated by the rate of fuel injection i.e. through fuel injector.• Controlled combustion phase has smooth pressure variation and maximumtemperature is attained during this period.• It is seen that about two-third of total fuel heat is released during thisphase.(iii) Controlled Combustion
  8. 8. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering• Stages of Combustion in CI Engines• After controlled combustion, the residual if any gets burnt and thecombustion is termed as ‘after burning’.• This after burning may be there due to fuel particles residing in remoteposition in combustion space where flame front could not reach.• ‘After burning’ is spread over 60 – 70º of crank angle rotation and occurseven during expansion stroke.(iv) After Burning
  9. 9. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering• Combustion in CI Engines• Thus, it is seen that the complete combustion in CI engines may becomprising of four distinct phases i.e. ‘ignition delay’ followed by‘uncontrolled combustion,’ ‘controlled combustion’ and ‘after burning’.• Combustion generally becomes abnormal combustion in CI engines whenthe ignition delay is too large resulting into large uncontrolled combustionand zig-zag pressure rise.• Abnormal combustion in CI engines may also be termed as ‘knocking’ inengines and can be felt by excessive vibrations, excessive noise, excessiveheat release, pitting of cylinder head and piston head etc.• In order to control the knocking some additives are put in CI engine fuel soas to reduce its’ self ignition temperature and accelerate ignition process.• Also, the combustion chambers are properly designed so as to havereduced physical and chemical delay.Abnormal Combustion
  10. 10. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering• Factors affecting Delay Period in CI Engines• Compression RatioIncrease in CR increases the temperature of air. Autoignition temperature decreaseswith increased density. Both these reduce the delay period(DP).• Engine Power OutputWith an Increase in engine power, the operating temperature increases. A/F ratiodecreases and DP decreases• Engine SpeedDP decreases with increasing engine speed, as the temperature and pressure ofcompressed air rises at high engine speeds.• Injection TimingThe temperature and pressure of air at the beginning of injection are lower for higherinjection advance. The DP increases with increase in injection advance or longerinjection timing. The optimum angle of injection is 20° BTDC• Atomization of fuelHigher fuel injection pressures increase the degree of atomization. The fineness ofatomization reduces the DP due to higher A/V ratio of the spray droplets.
  11. 11. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering• Factors affecting Delay Period in CI Engines• Injection PressureIncrease injection pressure reduces the auto ignition temperature and hencedecreases DP.• Fuel PropertiesLow SIT reduces DP. Other fuel properties which affect DP are volatility, surfacetension, latent heat and viscosity.• Intake TemperatureHigh intake temperature increase the air temperature after compression , whichreduces DP.• Engine SizeLarge engines operate at lower speeds, thus increasing the DP in terms of crankangle.• Cetane No.Fuels with high cetane no. Have lower DP.• F/A ratioWith increasing F/A ratio, operating temperature increases and thus DP decreases.• Combustion Chamber ShapeEngines with precombustion chambers will have low DP.• Injection DurationIncrease in injection duration, results in higher quantity of fuel injected which reducesDP.
  12. 12. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering• Comparison of Knocking in SI and CI EnginesParameter SI Engines CI EnginesTiming Occurs at the end ofcombustionOccurs at the beginning ofcombustionMajor Cause Auto ignition of endchargeIgnition of accumulatedfresh chargePre-Ignition Possible as the fuel airmixture is compressedNot possible as only air iscompressed
  13. 13. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering• Parameters which reduce knocking in SI and CIEnginesS.No. Parameter SIEnginesCIEngines1 Self Ignition Temperature of fuel High Low2 Ignition Delay Long Short3 Inlet Temperature Low High4 Inlet Pressure Low High5 Compression Ratio Low High6 Speed Low High7 Combustion Chamber WallTemperatureLow High8 Cylinder Size Small Large
  14. 14. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering• The proper design of a combustion chamber is very important.• In a Cl engine the fuel is injected during a period of some 20to 35 degrees of crank angle.• In this short period of time an efficient preparation of the fuel-air charge is required, which means:• An even distribution of the injected fuel throughout thecombustion space, for which it requires a directed flow orswirl of the air.• A thorough mixing of the fuel with the air to ensurecomplete combustion with the minimum excess air, forwhich it requires an air swirl or squish of high intensity.COMBUSTION CHAMBER FOR Cl ENGINESCombustion Chamber Characteristics
  15. 15. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of EngineeringAn efficient smooth combustion depends upon:•A sufficiently high temperature to initiate ignition; it is controlled by theselection of the proper compression ratio.•A small delay period or ignition lag.•A moderate rate of pressure rise during the second stage of combustion.•A controlled, even burning during the third stage; it is governed by the rate ofinjection.•A minimum of afterburning.•Minimum heat losses to the walls. These losses can be controlled by reducingthe surface- to-volume ratio.The main characteristics of an injection system that link it with a givencombustion chamber are atomization, penetration, fuel distribution, and theshape of the fuel spray.COMBUSTION CHAMBER FOR Cl ENGINESCombustion Chamber Characteristics
  16. 16. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of EngineeringClassification of Cl Engine Combustion Chambers(a) direct-injection (DI) engines, which have a single open combustion chamberinto which fuel is injected directly;(b) (b) indirect-injection (IDI) engines, where the chamber is divided into tworegions and the fuel is injected into the pre-chamber which is situated abovethe piston crown and is connected to the main chamber via a nozzle or one ormore orifices.
  17. 17. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of EngineeringDIRECT INJECTION (Dl) ENGINES OR OPEN COMBUSTION CHAMBERENGINESAn open chamber has the entire compression volume in which the combustiontakes place in one chamber formed between the piston and the cylinder head.The shape of the combustion chamber may create swirl or turbulence to assistfuel and air.•Swirl denotes a rotary motion of the gases in the chamber more or less about thechamber axis.•Turbulence denotes a haphazard motion of the gases.In this combustion chamber, the mixing of fuel and air depends entirely on thespray charac-teristics and on air motion, and it is not essentially affected by thecombustion process. In this type of engine, the spray characteristics must becarefully arranged to obtain rapid mixing.Fuel is injected at high injection pressure and mixing is usually assissted by aswirl, induced by directing the inlet air tangentially, or by a squish which is the airmotion caused by a small clearance space over part of the piston.
  18. 18. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of EngineeringThe open chamber design can be classified as follows:•Semiquiescent or low swirl open chamber•Medium swirl open chamber•High swirl open chamber (‘M’ type).DIRECT INJECTION (Dl) ENGINES OR OPEN COMBUSTION CHAMBERENGINES
  19. 19. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of EngineeringSEMIQUIESCENT OR LOW SWIRL OPEN CHAMBERFuel jets• In this type of engine, mixing the fuel and airand controlling the rate of combustion mainlydepend upon the injection system.• The nozzle is usually located at the centre ofthe chamber.• It has a number of orifices, usually six ormore, which provide a multiple-spray pattern.• Each jet or spray pattern covers most of thecombustion chamber without impinging onthe walls or piston.• The contour of the inlet passage way does not encourage or induce a swirlor turbulence, so the chamber is called quiescent chamber.• However, the air movement in the chamber is never quiescent, so it isbetter to call the chamber a semi-quiescent chamber.
  20. 20. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of EngineeringME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesSEMIQUIESCENT OR LOW SWIRL OPEN CHAMBER• In the largest size engines where the mixingrate require-ments are least important, thesemi-quiescent direct injection systems of thetype shown in Figure are used. The momentumand energy of the injected fuel jets are sufficientto achieve adequate fuel distribution and ratesof mixing with air.• Any additional organized air motion is notrequired.• The chamber shape is usually a shallow bowl inthe crown of the piston.• If the engine is run at low speeds, the possibility of knock is remote, since thefuel can be burned more or less in time with the injection. Hence cheaperfuels can be burned and low com-bustion pressures can be held. Lowcombustion temperatures, and low turbulence and swirl reduce heat loss tothe coolant.
  21. 21. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of EngineeringThe advantages of the open chamber design with a slow speed engine are as follows:1. The specific fuel consumption is less, because of the following reasons:The fuel is burned close to TDC because the time in degree crank angle is long.It is an approach towards achieving the Otto cycle efficiency.The air/fuel ratio is high, therefore, combustion should be relatively complete with anapproach towards the air standard efficiency.Percentage heat loss is reduced. It is an approach towards adiabatic combustion.Following are the possible reasons:Either low swirl or low turbulenceLow surface-to-volume ratio of an undivided chamberLow overall combustion temperatures.2. Starting is relatively easier. It is because of low heat losses.3. Less heat is rejected to the coolant and to the exhaust gases. It requires smallerradiator and pumps. The life of the exhaust valve is increased.For small for high f systems h divided4. The engine is quiet and provides relative freedom from combustion noise.5. The residual fuels can be burned. It favours the operation of two-stroke engines.
  22. 22. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering• As the engine size decreases and the speedincreases, the quantity of fuel injected per cycleis reduced and the num-ber of holes in thenozzle is necessarily less (usually 4).• As a result, the injected fuel needs help infinding suffi-cient air in a short time.• Faster fuel-air mixing rates can be achieved byincreasing the amount of air swirl. Air swirl isgenerated by a suitable design of the inlet port.• The air swirl rate can be increased as the pistonapproaches TDC by forcing the air towards thecylinder axis.Figure shows a bowl-in-piston type of medium swirl open chamber with a centrally locatedmultihole injector nozzle. The amount of liquid fuel which impinges on the piston cup wallsis kept minimum. This type is used in medium size (10 to 15 cm bore) diesel engines.MEDIUM SWIRL OPEN CHAMBER
  23. 23. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of EngineeringHIGH SWIRL OPEN CHAMBER• Spiral intake ports produce a high speed rotary airmotion in the cylinder during the induction stroke.• Here, a single coarse spray is injected from a pintlenozzle in the direction of the air swirl, and tangential tothe spherical wall of the combustion chamber in thepiston.• The fuel strikes against the wall of the sphericalcombustion chamber where it spreads to form a thin filmwhich will evaporate under controlled conditions.• The air swirl in the spherically shaped combustionchamber is quite high which sweeps over the fuel film,peeling it from the wall layer by layer for progressive andcomplete combustion. The flame spirals slowly inwardsand around the bowl, with the rate of combustioncontrolled by the rate of vaporization. In practice, this engine gives good perfor-mance even with fuels of exceedingly poorignition quality. Its fuel economy appears to be extremely good for an engine of small size.Because of the vaporization and mixing processes, the ‘M’ engine is ideally suited as amulti-fuel engine.
  24. 24. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of EngineeringINDIRECT-INJECTION (IDI) ENGINES OR DIVIDED COMBUSTION CHAMBERENGINESFor small high speed diesel engines such as those used in automobiles, the inletgenerated air swirl for high fuel-air mixing rate is not sufficient.Indirect injection (IDI) or divided chamber engine systems have been used togenerate vigorous charge motion during the compression stroke.The divided combustion chamber can be classified as:a)Swirl or turbulent chamberb)Precombustion chamberc)Air and energy cells.
  25. 25. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of EngineeringThe swirl chamber design is shown in Figure. The spherically shaped swirl chambercontains about 50 per cent of the clearance volume and is connected to the mainchamber by a tangential throat offering mild restriction. Because of the tangentialpassageway, the air flowing into the chamber on the compression stroke sets up ahigh swirl.SWIRL OR TURBULENT CHAMBERDuring compression the upward movingpiston forces a flow of air from the mainchamber above the piston into the smallantechamber, called the swirl chamber,through the nozzle or orifice. Thus, towardsthe end of compression, a vigorous flow inthe antechamber is set up. The connectingpassage and chamber are shaped so thatthe air flow within the antechamber rotatesrapidly. Fuel is usually injected into theantechamber through a pintle nozzle as asingle spray.
  26. 26. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of EngineeringIn some cases sufficient air may be present in the antechamber to bum completelyall but the over-load quantities of the fuel injected.The pressure built up in the antechamber by the expanding burning gases forcesthe burning and the unburned fuel and air mixtures back into the main chamber,where the jet issuing from the nozzle entrains and mixes with the main chamber air,imparting high turbulence and therefore further assisting combustion.The glow plug shown on the right of the antechamber in Figure is a cold starting aid.Since the antechamber is small, deep penetration of the spray is not required. Sincethe swirl is high, a single hole nozzle is sufficient, although a well atomized fuelspray is desirable. A pintle type nozzle offers these qualities.SWIRL OR TURBULENT CHAMBER
  27. 27. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of EngineeringThe advantages of the indirect injection swirl chamber over the open chamber are asfollows:•Higher speed, brake mean effective pressure and power with less smoke are feasible. It isbecause of:• Higher volumetric efficiency—since the nozzle is at the side, there is more room forthe larger intake and exhaust valves.• Shorter delay period—since the antechamber is compact and the air swirl in thecham­ber is very high.•Less mechanical stress and noise. It is because of the lower rate of pressure rise and thelower maximum pressure in the main chamber due to the throttling effect of thro•Less maintenance—since the pintle nozzle is self­cleaning and the mechanical stress is less.•Wider range of fuels can be used. It can serve as a multi­fuel engine with minimal changes.•Smoother and quieter idling—since matching of small air supply with the small fuel supplyis possible. Cleaner exhaust resulting in less air pollution.
  28. 28. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of EngineeringThe disadvantages of the IDI swirl chamber over the open chamber are as follows:Higher specific fuel consumption resulting in poorer fuel economy. It is because ofgreater heat losses and pressure losses through the throat which result in lower thermalefficiency and higher pumping losses.The flow of combustion gases through the throat leads to thermal cracks in the cylinderhead and creates sealing problems.Cylinder construction is more expensive.More thermal energy is lost to the exhaust gases. It may decrease the life of the exhaustvalve which will run hotter and increase cracking and sealing problems of the exhaustmanifold.
  29. 29. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering• Here also the chambers are divided into two parts, onebetween the piston and the cylinder head (i.e. the mainchamber) and the other, smaller one, in the cylinder head(i.e. pre-combustion cham-ber) as shown in Figure.• Comparatively small passageways, made more restrictedthan those in a swirl chamber, connects the two chambers.• Fuel is injected into the pre-combustion chamber, andunder full-load conditions sufficient air for completecombustion is not present in this chamber.• The pre-combustion chamber is used to create a highsecondary turbulence for mixing and burning the majorpart of the fuel and air.• Partial combustion of the fuel discharges the burningmixtures through small passage-ways into the air invarious parts of the main combustion chambers where thecombustion is completedPRECOMBUSTION CHAMBER
  30. 30. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of EngineeringPRECOMBUSTION CHAMBER• The pre-combustion chamber contains 20-30% ofclearance volume (Versus 50% or higher in swirlcombustion chambers) with one or more outlets leadingto main combustion chamber).• The passageways may be oriented to create primaryturbulence in the pre-combustion chambers.• Fuel is injected by a single open nozzle with one largeorifice to obtain a jet with a concentrated core.• This type of combustion chamber produces a smoothcombustion process but has high fluid friction and heattransfer losses.• The advantages and disadvantages of the pre-combustion chamber relative to open chamber type are,in general, the same as those described for the swirlchamber.
  31. 31. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering• The air cell type of combustion chamber does not depend uponthe organized air-swirl like pre-combustion chamber.• The air cell is a separate chamber used to communicate with themain chamber through a narrow restricted neck.• The air cell contains 5 to 15 per cent of the clearance volume.Fuel is injected into the main combustion space and ejects in ajet across this space to the open neck of the air cell, as shown inFigure.• Some fuel enters and ignites in the air cell.• This raises the pressure in the air cell and the burning mixtureis discharged into the main chamber.• Some combustion also takes place in the main combustionchamber. Combustion is completed on the down-stroke of thepiston while the air is discharged from the air cell into thepartly burned mixture.AIR CELLS
  32. 32. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering• The effective expansion ratio is curtailed and both theefficiency and the power output are reduced, but easy startingand reasonably smooth running are obtained with fairly lowmaximum pressures.• It is best suited for small engines of medium duty where arelatively high fuel consumption can be tolerated.• The air cell was considered unnecessary after it becamepossible to generate swirl in open chamber and therefore theair cell types of combustion chambers are now obsolete.AIR CELLS
  33. 33. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering• In the pre-combustion chamber, fuel is injected into theair-stream entering the pre-chamber during thecompression stroke.• As a result, it is not possible to inject the main body ofthe fuel spray into the most important place for burning.• In the air cells, un-bumt fuel in the main chamber maynot find enough turbulence.• These drawbacks can be overcome in the energy cells. Itis a hybrid design between the pre-combustion chamberand the air cell.• The energy cell contains about 10-15 % of the clearancevolume. It has two cells, major and minor, which areseparated from each other by a respective orifice.• The energy cell is separated from the main chamber by anarrow restricted neckENERGY CELLS
  34. 34. ME2041AdvancedInternal CombustionEnginesUnit II Department of Mechanical Engineering, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering• As the piston moves up on the compression stroke, some of theair is forced into the major and minor chambers of the energycell.• When the fuel is injected through the pintle type nozzle, part ofthe fuel passes across the main combustion chamber and entersthe minor cell, where it is mixed with the air entering duringcompression from the main chamber.• Combustion first commences in the of burning at the start, butdue to better mixing, progresses at a more rapid rate.• The pressures built up in the minor cell, create addedturbulence and produce better combustion in this chamber.• In the mean time, the pressure built up in the major cellprolongs the action of jet stream entering the main chamber,thus continuing to induce turbulence in the main chamber.ENERGY CELLS• In this type of the engine, the fuel consumption is higher and more energy is carried away in the exhaustand cooling water. Thus the life of the exhaust valve is reduced and this engine requires larger radiatorand fan.

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