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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES-II CI Combustion Chambers 
University of Petroleum & Energy Studies 
Dehradun
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
CI combustion chamber : 
- provide proper mixing of fuel and air in short time 
- An organized air movement ; 
swirl, turbulence,squish 
- produce high relative velocity between fuel droplets and air 
- Shape of combustion chamber control air motion 
- CI engines classified as ; 
Direct- Injection (DI) & Indirect- Injection (IDI)
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
Direct- Injection (DI) 
- entire volume of combustion chamber located in 
main cylinder where fuel is injected. Also called 
open combustion chamber. 
Indirect- Injection (IDI) 
- Combustion space divided into two parts ; 
• one part main cylinder 
• other part in cylinder head
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
 Indirect- Injection (IDI) 
- Classified as : 
1. Swirl chamber ; 
compression swirl generated 
2. Precombustion chamber ; 
combustion swirl induced 
3. Air cell chamber ; 
compression & combustion swirl induced
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
 Direct- Injection (DI) Chambers 
- open comb. Chamber, single cavity w/o 
restrictions 
- no large press. difference within the chamber 
- induction swirl obtained by intake; passage, 
valves or ports 
- chambers consists of space between a flat 
cylinder head and a cavity in piston crown 
- fuel injected with multihole injectors at high pres
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
Direct- Injection (DI) Chambers 
Some of the Open Combustion Chamber Designs
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
 Direct- Injection (DI) Chambers 
- Shallow Depth Chambers: depth of cavity in piston is 
quite small, usually adopted to low speed - large 
engine,cavity dia. being very large squish is negligible. 
- Hemispherical Chamber: depth to diameter ratio can 
be varied to give desired squish which is generally 
small. 
- Cylindrical Chamber: modification of cylindrical 
chamber in the form of a truncated cone with base
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
Direct- Injection (DI) Chambers 
angle of 30º. The swirl produced by masking the 
intake valve for nearly 180º of circumference. Squish 
can be varied by varying the depth. 
- Toroidal Chamber: This shape provides a powerful 
squish along with the air movement. Mask needed on 
inlet valve is small providing spray cone angle of 150º 
to 160º with better air utilization.
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
Direct- Injection (DI) Chambers 
Advantages : 
-Minimum heat loss during compression because of lower 
surface area to volume ratio and hence better efficiency. 
- No cold start problems. 
- Fine atomization because of multihole nozzles 
Drawbacks : 
- Complex design of fuel injection pump due to high fuel injection 
pressure requirements 
- Necessity of accurate metering of fuel by injection system , particularly for small engines
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
Indirect- Injection (IDI) Chambers 
- A divided combustion chamber space in two or more distinct compartments connected by restricted passages. 
- During combustion, considerable pressure differences are created between the compartments.
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
Indirect- Injection (IDI) Chambers 
- Swirl Chamber: It is a spherical-shaped chamber 
separated from cylinder and located in the 
cylinder head as shown
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
- About 50 % air is transferred during compression 
stroke into the swirl chamber 
- A throat connects the chamber to the cylinder 
tangentially so that air gets strong rotary movement 
inside the swirl chamber. After combustion the 
products rush back into cylinder through same throat 
at much higher velocity. 
- The heat loss to the wall of passage is high 
- applications; poor fuel quality, reliability under 
adverse conditions
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
- Precombustion Chamber: A typical precombustion 
chamber consists of an antichamber connected to 
main chamber through a number of small holes is as 
shown :
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
- The precombustion chamber located in cylinderhead 
accounts for 40 % volume of total combustion space 
- During compression piston forces air into precomb. 
chamber, fuel injected and combustion initiated in it 
-The flaming droplets together with air & combustion 
products rush into main chamber at high velocity 
through the holes 
-Thus it creates turbulence and distribution of flaming 
droplets all over the main chamber where bulk of 
combustion take place amounting to about 80% 
release of energy
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
- The rate of press. rise and max. press. are lower 
than the open type chambers 
- Initial shock of combustion limited to prechamber 
and because of high temp. it has multi-fuel capability 
w/o modification in injection system. 
-Air-Cell Chamber : The clearence volume is divided 
into the main and the other called the energy cell 
which is further divided into two parts; major & minor 
connected to each other & main chamber by orifices
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
Air-Cell Chamber :
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
- A pintle type of nozzle injects fuel across main chamber towards the energy (air ) cell. 
- During compression, press. in main is higher than 
energy cell due to restricted passage. At TDC, air will 
be forced into the cell and fuel injection also begins 
-Combustion initially begins in main where temp. is 
high but rate of burning low due to absence of air 
motion. In energy cell fuel is well mixed with air and 
high pressure forces hot burning gases blow out in 
main . 
-The high velocity jet produces swirling motion in main thereby 
thoroughly mixes fuel with air resulting in complete combustion
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
- Design is not suitable for variable speeds due to 
combustion induced swirl . 
- Energy cell is designed to run hot to reduce ignition lag. 
Advantages : 
- Low injection pressure requirements 
- Injection spray direction is not important 
Drawbacks : 
- Poor cold starting performance require heater plugs 
- High specific fuel consumption because of pressure loss due to air 
motion through the ducts and heat loss due to large heat transfer 
area.
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
Methods of Mixture Formation in DI Engines 
Volumetric Method 
- Fuel injected directly into combustion chamber space 
- Fuel composition is non-uniform distribution in spray 
- Macro and Micro mixing attained using; 
- Energy of fuel jet (atomization) 
- Energy of moving air charge (swirl)
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
- Drop in load or speed reduces fuel delivery per cycle 
and also the atomizing energy 
- Leads to poorer combustion & higher fuel consumption 
- It may be noted that when mixture is formed in DI engines with combustion chamber in piston, some of the fuel gets onto the chamber walls 
•
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
Film Method of Mixture Formation 
- Underlying idea is to allow the minimum amount of fuel to evaporate and mix with air during ignition delay 
- With this aim the fuel is directed to the wall of Combustion chamber at an acute angle so that the droplets are not reflected but spread over the surface in the form of thin film
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
Film Method of Mixture Formation 
- Injection pressure should be sufficiently high for 
# film to be formed rapidly, and 
# fine droplets and fuel vapors formed move towards 
hottest place – centre of chamber where mixture 
ignites and burns 
- Heat needed to evaporate fuel is supplied by piston 
- Intensive motion of air promote rapid evaporation of fuel film and carries away the vaporized fuel
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
Film Method of Mixture Formation 
- Improved performance ; 
•minimum SFC lower 
•high bmep (air utilization), 
•high power with lower Pmax and Rate of Press. Rise ( smooth engine operation), 
• wider range of fuels including gasoline may be 
used 
- Such a combustion ( M- process ) employed in 
MAN combustion chamber
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
MAN Type Combustion Chamber 
- Combustion Chamber developed for small high 
speed engine 
- Direct injection with single-hole nozzle, in spherical 
bowl-in-piston chamber with high swirl 
- It differs DI open comb. chambers in respect to ; 
fuel spray impinges tangentially and spreads over 
the surface of spherical space in piston
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
MAN Type Combustion Chamber 
- Basic theory of MAN system is that ; 
# enough spray will ignite before impingement so that 
delay remains normal while most of spray evaporate 
prior to combustion 
# Thus second stage of combustion is slowed down 
avoiding excessive rate of pressure rise 
# Shrouded inlet valve used to give air swirl
I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers 
MAN Type Combustion Chamber 
Advantages 
- Low peak pressure 
- Low rate of pressure rise 
- Low smoke 
Disadvantages 
- Low volumetric efficiency 
- Cold starting ( piston surface temp. ) 
- High HC emissions at starting
IC ENGINES-II 
Course Outlines ADEG-222 LTP-3 1 1 
I: BASIC THEORY 
II: FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM 
III: AIR MOTION, COBUSTION & COMBUSTION CHAMBERS 
IV: SUPERCHARGING and TUBOCHARGING 
V: DIESEL ENGINE TESTING & PERFORMAMCE

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Combustion Chambers

  • 1. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES-II CI Combustion Chambers University of Petroleum & Energy Studies Dehradun
  • 2. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers CI combustion chamber : - provide proper mixing of fuel and air in short time - An organized air movement ; swirl, turbulence,squish - produce high relative velocity between fuel droplets and air - Shape of combustion chamber control air motion - CI engines classified as ; Direct- Injection (DI) & Indirect- Injection (IDI)
  • 3. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers Direct- Injection (DI) - entire volume of combustion chamber located in main cylinder where fuel is injected. Also called open combustion chamber. Indirect- Injection (IDI) - Combustion space divided into two parts ; • one part main cylinder • other part in cylinder head
  • 4. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers  Indirect- Injection (IDI) - Classified as : 1. Swirl chamber ; compression swirl generated 2. Precombustion chamber ; combustion swirl induced 3. Air cell chamber ; compression & combustion swirl induced
  • 5. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers  Direct- Injection (DI) Chambers - open comb. Chamber, single cavity w/o restrictions - no large press. difference within the chamber - induction swirl obtained by intake; passage, valves or ports - chambers consists of space between a flat cylinder head and a cavity in piston crown - fuel injected with multihole injectors at high pres
  • 6. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers Direct- Injection (DI) Chambers Some of the Open Combustion Chamber Designs
  • 7. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers  Direct- Injection (DI) Chambers - Shallow Depth Chambers: depth of cavity in piston is quite small, usually adopted to low speed - large engine,cavity dia. being very large squish is negligible. - Hemispherical Chamber: depth to diameter ratio can be varied to give desired squish which is generally small. - Cylindrical Chamber: modification of cylindrical chamber in the form of a truncated cone with base
  • 8. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers Direct- Injection (DI) Chambers angle of 30º. The swirl produced by masking the intake valve for nearly 180º of circumference. Squish can be varied by varying the depth. - Toroidal Chamber: This shape provides a powerful squish along with the air movement. Mask needed on inlet valve is small providing spray cone angle of 150º to 160º with better air utilization.
  • 9. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers Direct- Injection (DI) Chambers Advantages : -Minimum heat loss during compression because of lower surface area to volume ratio and hence better efficiency. - No cold start problems. - Fine atomization because of multihole nozzles Drawbacks : - Complex design of fuel injection pump due to high fuel injection pressure requirements - Necessity of accurate metering of fuel by injection system , particularly for small engines
  • 10. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers Indirect- Injection (IDI) Chambers - A divided combustion chamber space in two or more distinct compartments connected by restricted passages. - During combustion, considerable pressure differences are created between the compartments.
  • 11. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers Indirect- Injection (IDI) Chambers - Swirl Chamber: It is a spherical-shaped chamber separated from cylinder and located in the cylinder head as shown
  • 12. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers - About 50 % air is transferred during compression stroke into the swirl chamber - A throat connects the chamber to the cylinder tangentially so that air gets strong rotary movement inside the swirl chamber. After combustion the products rush back into cylinder through same throat at much higher velocity. - The heat loss to the wall of passage is high - applications; poor fuel quality, reliability under adverse conditions
  • 13. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers - Precombustion Chamber: A typical precombustion chamber consists of an antichamber connected to main chamber through a number of small holes is as shown :
  • 14. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers - The precombustion chamber located in cylinderhead accounts for 40 % volume of total combustion space - During compression piston forces air into precomb. chamber, fuel injected and combustion initiated in it -The flaming droplets together with air & combustion products rush into main chamber at high velocity through the holes -Thus it creates turbulence and distribution of flaming droplets all over the main chamber where bulk of combustion take place amounting to about 80% release of energy
  • 15. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers - The rate of press. rise and max. press. are lower than the open type chambers - Initial shock of combustion limited to prechamber and because of high temp. it has multi-fuel capability w/o modification in injection system. -Air-Cell Chamber : The clearence volume is divided into the main and the other called the energy cell which is further divided into two parts; major & minor connected to each other & main chamber by orifices
  • 16. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers Air-Cell Chamber :
  • 17. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers - A pintle type of nozzle injects fuel across main chamber towards the energy (air ) cell. - During compression, press. in main is higher than energy cell due to restricted passage. At TDC, air will be forced into the cell and fuel injection also begins -Combustion initially begins in main where temp. is high but rate of burning low due to absence of air motion. In energy cell fuel is well mixed with air and high pressure forces hot burning gases blow out in main . -The high velocity jet produces swirling motion in main thereby thoroughly mixes fuel with air resulting in complete combustion
  • 18. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers - Design is not suitable for variable speeds due to combustion induced swirl . - Energy cell is designed to run hot to reduce ignition lag. Advantages : - Low injection pressure requirements - Injection spray direction is not important Drawbacks : - Poor cold starting performance require heater plugs - High specific fuel consumption because of pressure loss due to air motion through the ducts and heat loss due to large heat transfer area.
  • 19. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers Methods of Mixture Formation in DI Engines Volumetric Method - Fuel injected directly into combustion chamber space - Fuel composition is non-uniform distribution in spray - Macro and Micro mixing attained using; - Energy of fuel jet (atomization) - Energy of moving air charge (swirl)
  • 20. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers - Drop in load or speed reduces fuel delivery per cycle and also the atomizing energy - Leads to poorer combustion & higher fuel consumption - It may be noted that when mixture is formed in DI engines with combustion chamber in piston, some of the fuel gets onto the chamber walls •
  • 21. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers Film Method of Mixture Formation - Underlying idea is to allow the minimum amount of fuel to evaporate and mix with air during ignition delay - With this aim the fuel is directed to the wall of Combustion chamber at an acute angle so that the droplets are not reflected but spread over the surface in the form of thin film
  • 22. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers Film Method of Mixture Formation - Injection pressure should be sufficiently high for # film to be formed rapidly, and # fine droplets and fuel vapors formed move towards hottest place – centre of chamber where mixture ignites and burns - Heat needed to evaporate fuel is supplied by piston - Intensive motion of air promote rapid evaporation of fuel film and carries away the vaporized fuel
  • 23. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers Film Method of Mixture Formation - Improved performance ; •minimum SFC lower •high bmep (air utilization), •high power with lower Pmax and Rate of Press. Rise ( smooth engine operation), • wider range of fuels including gasoline may be used - Such a combustion ( M- process ) employed in MAN combustion chamber
  • 24. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers MAN Type Combustion Chamber - Combustion Chamber developed for small high speed engine - Direct injection with single-hole nozzle, in spherical bowl-in-piston chamber with high swirl - It differs DI open comb. chambers in respect to ; fuel spray impinges tangentially and spreads over the surface of spherical space in piston
  • 25. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers MAN Type Combustion Chamber - Basic theory of MAN system is that ; # enough spray will ignite before impingement so that delay remains normal while most of spray evaporate prior to combustion # Thus second stage of combustion is slowed down avoiding excessive rate of pressure rise # Shrouded inlet valve used to give air swirl
  • 26. I C ENGINES – II : CI Combustion Chambers MAN Type Combustion Chamber Advantages - Low peak pressure - Low rate of pressure rise - Low smoke Disadvantages - Low volumetric efficiency - Cold starting ( piston surface temp. ) - High HC emissions at starting
  • 27. IC ENGINES-II Course Outlines ADEG-222 LTP-3 1 1 I: BASIC THEORY II: FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM III: AIR MOTION, COBUSTION & COMBUSTION CHAMBERS IV: SUPERCHARGING and TUBOCHARGING V: DIESEL ENGINE TESTING & PERFORMAMCE