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Cross Culture


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culture of saudi arabia by greet hofstede

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Cross Culture

  1. 1. SAUDI ARABIA “ There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of Allah"
  2. 2. SAUDI ARABIA <ul><li>Saudi Arabia's economy is petroleum-based; roughly 75% of budget revenues and 90% of export earnings come from the oil industry . </li></ul><ul><li>Saudi Arabia is one of the few fastest growing countries in the world with a high per capita income of $20,700. </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme heat and aridity are characteristic of most of Saudi Arabia </li></ul><ul><li>The Kingdom occupies about 80 percent of the Arabian peninsula Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>Islam's two holiest sites, Mecca and Medina, are located in the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Public theatres and cinemas are prohibited. </li></ul><ul><li>Saudi Arabian dress follows strictly the principles of hijab. </li></ul>Saudi Arabia 06/07/09
  3. 3. <ul><li>Culture has been conceptualized as: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Software of the mind” culture is a guide for humans on how to think and behave; it is a problem-solving tool (Hofstede) </li></ul><ul><li>An invisible barrier… a completely different way of organizing life, of thinking, and of conceiving the underlying assumptions about the family and the state, the economic system, and even Man himself” (Hall) </li></ul><ul><li>A “thicket” (U.S. Ambassador Hodgson) </li></ul>06/07/09 Saudi Arabia Definitions and Origins of Culture Culture is the sum of the “values, rituals, symbols, beliefs, and thought processes that are learned, shared by a group of people, and transmitted from generation to generation”
  4. 4. 06/07/09 Saudi Arabia Resistance to Change Although some cultures embrace change, others are resistant to it Examples of cultures that resist change: Acceptance of genetically modified foods (or “Frankenfood”) in Europe Working women in Masculine societies like Saudi Arabia
  5. 5. CULTURE OF SAUDI ARABIA <ul><li>It is common to remove your shoes before entering a building. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol and pork are illegal. </li></ul><ul><li>The &quot;thumbs up&quot; gesture is offensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Women in Saudi Arabia are not permitted to drive vehicles. </li></ul><ul><li>Gifts are not necessary, but appreciated. Avoid admiring an item too much, your host may feel obligated to give it to you. When offered a gift, it is impolite to refuse. </li></ul><ul><li>Visitors are expected to abide by local standards of modesty however, they should not adopt native clothing. Traditional clothes on foreigners may be offensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the heat, most of the body must always remain covered. </li></ul><ul><li>Women should always wear modest clothing in public . </li></ul>Saudi Arabia 06/07/09
  6. 6. Cultural Values Dimensions (by Geert Hofstede) <ul><li>Individualism/Collective Index (IDV) </li></ul><ul><li>Power Distance Index (PDI) </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) </li></ul><ul><li>Masculinity/Femininity Index (MAS) </li></ul><ul><li>Long Term/Short Term Orientation </li></ul>Saudi Arabia 06/07/09
  7. 7. SAUDI ARABIA 06/07/09 Saudi Arabia
  8. 8. HIGH POWER DISTANCE <ul><li>High Power Distance ranking ( 80 ) indicates that inequalities of power and wealth have been allowed to grow within the society. These populations have an expectation and acceptance that leaders will separate themselves from the group and this condition is not necessarily subverted upon the population, but rather accepted by the society as their cultural heritage. </li></ul><ul><li>These societies are more likely to follow a caste system that does not allow significant upward mobility of its citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>They are also highly rule-oriented with laws, rules, regulations, and controls in order to reduce the amount of uncertainty, while inequalities of power and wealth have been allowed to grow within the society. </li></ul>Saudi Arabia 06/07/09
  9. 9. LOW INDIVIDUALISM <ul><li>Low Individualism ranking( 38) typifies societies of a more collectivist nature with close ties between individuals. These cultures reinforce extended families and collectives where everyone takes responsibility for fellow members of their group. </li></ul><ul><li>The lowest Hofstede Dimension for the Arab World is the Individualism (IDV) ranking at 38, compared to a world average ranking of 64. </li></ul><ul><li>This translates into a Collectivist society as compared to Individualist culture and is manifested in a close long-term commitment to the member 'group', that being a family, extended family, or extended relationships. Loyalty in a collectivist culture is paramount, and over-rides most other societal rules. </li></ul>Saudi Arabia 06/07/09
  10. 10. HIGH MASCULINITY <ul><li>A High Masculinity ranking( 52 ) indicates the country experiences a high degree of gender differentiation. In these cultures, males dominate a significant portion of the society and power structure, with females being controlled by male domination. </li></ul><ul><li>The Masculinity index (MAS), the third highest Hofstede Dimension is 52, only slightly higher than the 50.2 average for all the countries included in the Hofstede MAS Dimension. This would indicate that while women in the Arab World are limited in their rights, it may be due more to Muslim religion rather than a cultural paradigm. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Saudi Arabia 06/07/09
  11. 11. HIGH UNCERTAINITY <ul><li>A High Uncertainty Avoidance ranking( 68 ) indicates the country has a low tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. This creates a rule-oriented society that institutes laws, rules, regulations, and controls in order to reduce the amount of uncertainty. </li></ul><ul><li>The high Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) ranking of 68, indicates the society’s low level of tolerance for uncertainty. In an effort to minimize or reduce this level of uncertainty, strict rules, laws, policies, and regulations are adopted and implemented. The ultimate goal of these populations is to control everything in order to eliminate or avoid the unexpected. As a result of this high Uncertainty Avoidance characteristic, the society does not readily accept change and is very risk adverse. </li></ul>Saudi Arabia 06/07/09
  12. 12. HIGH LONG TERM ORIENTATION <ul><li>High Long-Term Orientation ranking indicates the country prescribes to the values of long-term commitments and respect for tradition. This is thought to support a strong work ethic where long-term rewards are expected as a result of today's hard work. However, business may take longer to develop in this society, particularly for an &quot;outsider&quot;. </li></ul>Saudi Arabia 06/07/09
  13. 13. VALUE ANALYSIS <ul><ul><li>Very high Power Distance (PDI) (80) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High level of inequality of power and wealth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expectation/Acceptance: leaders separate themselves from group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) (68) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strict rules, laws, policies, and regulations to minimize uncertainty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ultimate goal of population: control everything to avoid the unexpected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average Masculinity (MAS) (52) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limitation of women in their rights mainly due to Muslim religion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Individualism (IDV) (38). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collectivist society manifested in close lt. commitment to member group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalty is paramount, and over-rides most other societal rules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Not to be ignored: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of Religion: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Islam governs everything! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No civil code of law – Shari’ha (Islamic Law) = law! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No other religion tolerated </li></ul></ul></ul>Saudi Arabia 06/07/09
  14. 14. CULTURAL VALUE DIFFERENCES <ul><li>Main Values and Implications </li></ul><ul><li>S.A.: PDI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high level of inequality of power and wealth within the society. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectation and acceptance that leaders separate themselves from the group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>India: PDI </li></ul><ul><li>Germany: IDV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-reliance; look out for yourself & close family </li></ul></ul><ul><li>US: IDV </li></ul><ul><li>China: LTO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of persevering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overcoming obstacles with time, if not with will and strength </li></ul></ul>Saudi Arabia 06/07/09 Main Dimension PDI IDV MAS UAI LTO Saudi Arabia PDI highest very low lowest highest NV India PDI high low average low high Germany IDV lowest high highest high low US IDV low highest high low lowest China LTO highest lowest highest lowest highest
  15. 15. COMPARATIVE VALUE ANALYSIS <ul><li>Indians likely to be less anxious when faced with uncertainty compared to S.A. </li></ul><ul><li>Relative familiarity with culture in S.A. increases possibility of favorable outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, capitalize on common values & be flexible to adopt unique value differences in S.A. work culture </li></ul><ul><li>Few adjustments need to be done. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese lay no less emphasis on relationship building-GuanXi. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese get very anxious when faced with uncertainty compared to S.A. </li></ul><ul><li>Religion plays far less important role in China than in S.A. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge in Islam would ensure satisfactory outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, share most values with the S.A. people. Maintain good inter-personal relationships like in China, while adopting unique religious practices in daily life. </li></ul><ul><li>Never squirm for it is offensive to resist the personal and human touch of friendship </li></ul><ul><li>Never shake hands, touch or sit close or next to a woman </li></ul><ul><li>Communication makes the critical difference </li></ul><ul><li>Germans very direct in communication-conflicts with value of keeping face in S.A. </li></ul><ul><li>Germans have high need for structure and planning-conflicts with spontaneous meetings without appointments </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, adapt communication style, don’t criticize directly; have an open-door policy, be prepared to wait for others although you have an appointment </li></ul>
  16. 16. THANK YOU <ul><li>SMRITI SINHA-99 </li></ul><ul><li>JUGNU RANI-36 </li></ul><ul><li>PRITI SETIYA </li></ul><ul><li>NIVEDETA PAUL </li></ul>Saudi Arabia 06/07/09