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How to connect with people across borders? Fundamental of Hofstede's method.

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How far could NVC go in connecting people across borders?
How much of cultural differences should be taken into account to adapt itself to be acceptable, ear-able, applicable by culture far from "us" (and from "U.S")?

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How to connect with people across borders? Fundamental of Hofstede's method.

  1. 1. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture How to help people To connect across borders ?
  2. 2. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture Programme   •  What  is  culture?   •  Prof  Geert  HOFSTEDE  story?         •  What  are  his  findings?               •  Q&A     •   My  request  :              Do  you  think  I  can  “blend”  the  NVC  with  this  tool,                  to  help  managers  to  better  communication  cross  border?                                       2  
  3. 3. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture « We don’t see others as they are, we see them as we are » Anaïs Nin (1903 – 1977)
  4. 4. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture Universal   level   Inherited   Human   nature   Collective   level   Learned   National   culture   Corporate   culture   Individual   level   Inherited  +   learned   Culture  &   personality     Human being constitution
  5. 5. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture Symbols   Hero's   Rituals   Values   To understand a national culture, we must go beyond the visible layers of culture experiences  
  6. 6. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture Symbols Heroes Values / Dimensions VALUES: The implicit part of culture… Symbols Hero’s Rituals
  7. 7. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture The 4D / 5D / 6D Model© Professor  Geert  Hofstede       Starting  point  :  IBM  Surveys  1967  to  1979   •  116.000  questionnaires,  72  countries,  20   languages   •  4  dimensions     Continuing  researches  up  to  now   •  Over  60  repeated  surveys,  confirmed  the     values   •  +  2  dimensions    
  8. 8. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture The 5D model A navigation tool which explains cultural differences between countries through 5 dimensions 1 2 3 4 5 RELATIONSHIP TO POWER PDI RELATIONSHIP TO THE GROUP IDV MOTIVATION ROOTS MAS RELATIONSHIP TO UNCERTAINTY UAI RELATIONSHIP TO TIME LTO ©
  9. 9. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture The 5D model A navigation tool which explains cultural differences between countries through 5 dimensions 1 2 3 4 5 © RELATIONSHIP TO POWER PDI RELATIONSHIP TO THE GROUP IDV MOTIVATION ROOTS MAS RELATIONSHIP TO UNCERTAINTY UAI RELATIONSHIP TO TIME PRA
  10. 10. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture PDI Power Distance Index The extend to which the less powerful members of society accept that power is distributed unequally
  11. 11. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture PDI (Relationship to power) Illustrations
  12. 12. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture
  13. 13. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture
  14. 14. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture
  15. 15. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture
  16. 16. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture
  17. 17. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture
  18. 18. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture
  19. 19. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture PDI (Relationship to power) Scores France   68   US   40   UK   Costa  Rica   35   Spain   57   Arab   Emirates   90   Israel   13   Russia   93   Japan   54   New  Zealand   22   India   77   Medium  area  Extreme  area   0   100  75  50  25   EGALITARIAN countries HIERARCHICAL countries China   80   Extreme  area   Italy   50   Norway   31   Belgium   65  
  20. 20. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture PDI (Relationship to power) The impacts of dimension 1 in your daily work PAYS EGALITAIRES 0   100  50   EGALITARIAN countries HIERARCHICAL countries COMMUNICATION   INFORMATION  FLOW   DECISION  MAKING   DELEGATION   TAKING  INITIATIVES   CONTROL   Directe   Fluid   Decentralized   Natural   Encouraged   Disliked   Indirecte   Selective   Centralized   Under  control   Sanctioned   Expected  
  21. 21. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture 1 2 3 4 5 ©The 5D model A navigation tool which explains cultural differences RELATIONSHIP TO POWER PDI RELATIONSHIP TO THE GROUP IDV MOTIVATION ROOTS MAS RELATIONSHIP TO UNCERTAINTY UAI RELATIONSHIP TO TIME LTO
  22. 22. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture IDV(The relationship to the group) Definitions Collectivism  :  People  belong  to  in-­‐groups  or   collectivities  which  are  supposed  to  look  after   them  in  exchange  for  loyalty.       Individualism  :  People  are  supposed  to  look  after   themselves  and  their  immediate  family  only.   No  group  is  supposed  to  intervene  in     individuals’  choices.    
  23. 23. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture Individualism China (PDI 80 / IDV 20)
  24. 24. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture IDV (Relationship to the group) Illustrations : extremes coexist
  25. 25. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture IDV : example Another side of collectivism…
  26. 26. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture IDV(The relationship to the group) KEY IDEAS COLLECTIVIST countries INDIVIDUALISTIC countries 0   100  50   «  We  »  consciousness   Limited  private  life   Group  opinion  prevails   Preference  for  harmony   Loss  of  face  (shame)   «  I  »  consciousness   Private  life  is  respected   Personal  opinion  prevails   Preference  for  freedom   Loss  of  self-­‐respect  (guilt)   Relationships  before  task   Task  before  relationships  
  27. 27. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture IDV(Relationship to the group) Scores US   91   UK   89   India   48   Costa  Rica   15   Russia   39   Japan   46   Arab   Emirats   25   0   100  75  50  25   COLLECTIVIST countries INDIVIDUALISTIC countries China   20   Belgium   75   Norway   69   New   Zealand   79   Canada   80   Medium  area  Extreme  area   Extreme  area  
  28. 28. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture IDV (Relationship to the group) The impacts of dimension 2 of your daily work PAYS EGALITAIRES 0   100  50   COLLECTIVIST countries INDIVIDUALISTIC countries COMMUNICATION  STYLE   RELATIONSHIP  IMPORTANCE   RELATIONSHIP  based  on…   RECOGNITION   NEGOTIATION     Implicit Priority Trust Collective Explicit Secondary Individual interest Personalized What we offer!Who offers it!
  29. 29. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture IDV (Relationship to the group) Individualists represents 15% of population 0-­‐25   26-­‐45   46-­‐55   56-­‐75   76-­‐100  
  30. 30. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture IDV (Relationship to the group) Concept of solidarity 0-­‐25   26-­‐45   46-­‐55   56-­‐75   76-­‐100   GUANXI UBUNTU OUMMA KEIRETHSU CHAEBOL CLAN
  31. 31. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture Collectivism : bribery is not a sin, it is a illustration of connections
  32. 32. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture Let’ start to combine dimensions…. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EGALITARIAN INDIVIDUALISTIC HIERARCHICAL INDIVIDUALISTIC EGALITARIAN COLLECTIVIST HIERARCHICAL COLLECTIVIST INDIA FRANCE NETHERLANDS U.K. JAPAN COSTA RICA US GERMANY CHINA RUSSIA AEM SPAIN POLAND FINLAND PAKISTAN BELGIUM
  33. 33. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture Charles de Gaulle (1890 – 1970) «  Every  French  person  wants   to  benefit  from  one  or  several   privileges.  It’s  his  way  to   claim  his  passion  for  equality»     Let’ start to combine dimensions….
  34. 34. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture 1 2 3 4 5 ©The 5D model A navigation tool which explains cultural differences RELATIONSHIP TO POWER PDI RELATIONSHIP TO THE GROUP IDV MOTIVATION ROOTS MAS RELATIONSHIP TO UNCERTAINTY UAI RELATIONSHIP TO TIME LTO
  35. 35. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture MAS (Motivation roots) Definitions MASCULINE  societies  :  The  dominant  values  in   society  are  achievement,  success  and  material   goods.       FEMININE  societies  :  The  dominant  values  in   society  are  consensual  approach,  caring  for   others  and  quality  of  life.   Perceptions assertiveness – discretion arrogance - weakness
  36. 36. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture MAS (Motivation’s roots) Scores   Belgium   54   US   62   Venezuela   73   Netherlands   14   Norway   8   Russia   36   Japan   95   UK   Germany   China   66   New  Zealand   58   Spain   42   0   100  75  50  25   FEMININE countries MASCULINE countries Medium  area  Extreme  area   Extreme  area   Italy   70   Costa  Rica   21  
  37. 37. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture MAS (Motivation roots) KEY IDEAS FEMININE countries MASCULINE countries 0   100  50   Assertive  behavior  Modest  behavior   Work  in  order  to  live   Live  in  order  to  work   Concensus  first   Decision  first   Sympathy  for  the  unfortunate   Admiration  for  success   Do  your  best   Be  the  best.   Quality  of  life   Perfomance  ambition  
  38. 38. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture 1 2 3 4 5 ©The 5D model A navigation tool which explains cultural differences RELATIONSHIP TO POWER PDI RELATIONSHIP TO THE GROUP IDV MOTIVATION ROOTS MAS RELATIONSHIP TO UNCERTAINTY UAI RELATIONSHIP TO TIME LTO
  39. 39. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture UAI(Relationship to uncertainty) Definition The  extent  to  which  people  feel   threatened  by  uncertainty  and   ambiguity   and  try  to  avoid  such  situations     or  try  to  control  them    
  40. 40. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture UAI(Relationship to uncertainty) Scores Costa   Rica   86   US   46   Germany   65   UK   35   Sweden   29   Belgium   94   Japan   92   Singapore   8   Italy   75   India   40   0   100  75  50  25   RELAXED countries ANXIOUS countries China   30   Finland   59   Medium  area  Extreme  area   Extreme  area   Arab   Emirates   80   Norway   N-­‐Zealand   50  
  41. 41. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture UAI (Relationship to uncertainty) Illustration : Japan 92
  42. 42. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture EMPIRICISTS John Locke Charles Darwin Francis Bacon Descartes Kant Spinoza UAI (Relationship to uncertainty) Illustration : 2 ways of seeing the world Observe  &  try     RATIONALISTS Think  &  analyse  
  43. 43. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture UAI(Relationship to uncertainty) KEY IDEAS RELAXED countries ANXIOUS countries 0   100  50   Fewer  worries  /  health  &  worries   Emotions  are  contained   Competition  is  natural   Failure  is  natural   Flexibility  &  newness   Few  rules   More  worries  /  health  &  money   Emotions  are  expressed   Competition  is  worrying   Failure  scares   Toughness  &  continuity   Emotional  need  for  rules  
  44. 44. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture UAI The concept of failure RELAXED countries ANXIOUS countries 0   100  50   Identify the person with the action “I am what I do ” “I am my work “ “I am my offer “ “ I am my company” Disconnect the person and the action “I am who I am, and what I did is my work”
  45. 45. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture UAI (Relationship to uncertainty) The impacts of dimension 4 of your daily work PAYS EGALITAIRES 0   100  50   RELAXED countries ANXIOUS countries PROJECT  PREPARATION   EXPERTISE   CHANGE   INNOVATION   RISK  TAKING   Action  first   Nice  to  have   Accepted   Natural   Favored   Reflexion  first   Essential   Feared   Forced   Controlled  
  46. 46. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture 1 2 3 4 5 ©The 5D model A navigation tool which explains cultural differences RELATIONSHIP TO POWER PDI RELATIONSHIP TO THE GROUP IDV MOTIVATION ROOTS MAS RELATIONSHIP TO UNCERTAINTY UAI RELATIONSHIP TO TIME LTO
  47. 47. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture A little experience Long Term Orientation (“LTO”) Try the fill the missing words My future will start ___________ My present starts ___________ My pass started ____________
  48. 48. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture LTO (Relationship to time) Scores Spain   19   Italy   34   U.S.   29   India   61   Norway   44   0   100  75  50  25   SHORT term countries LONG term countries China   118   Medium  area  Extreme  area   Extreme  area   Japan   Vietnam   80   U.K.   25   New     Zealand          30   Belgium   38  
  49. 49. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture Life cycle Long Term Orientation (“LTO”) The  extent  to  which  society  exhibits  a  pragmatic  future   orientated  perspective  rather  than  a  normative  historic  or   near  term  point  of  view  
  50. 50. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture LTO (Long Term Orientation) Key IDEAS L If A is true, B is not A & B can be true Matter & spirit integrated SHORT term countries LONG term countries 0   100  50   Absolute  truth   Conventional/traditional   Concern  for  stability   Quick  results  expected   Many  truths   Pragmatic   Acceptance    of  change   Perseverance   Matter & spirit separated
  51. 51. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture PAYS EGALITAIRES 0   100  50   SHORT term countries LONG term countries Lo MAIN  CONCERN   WORK  VALUES   FOCUS     PROFIT   LOYALTY  DEPENDS   NEGOTIATION     LTO (Long Term Orientation) in Business Demand of virtue Learn, be honest, adapt Market position 10 years profit On guanxy, etc.. Possessing the truth This quarter profit On bottom line Freedom/right/achievement On business needs Sequential vision Global vision
  52. 52. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture Symbol of « struggle for life » Illustration : GAMES SHORT term countries Long term countries 0   100  50   Holistic view
  53. 53. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture 1 2 3 4 5 How to use the model? POWER PDI 40 INDIVIDUALISM IDV 91 MASCULINITY MAS 62 UNCERTAINTY UAI 46 TIME LTO 29 35 15 21 86 -- 54 46 95 92 80 U.S. COSINDIA 77 48 56 40 61 31 69 8 50 44 JPN NOR
  54. 54. The Expert in Intercultural Management and Organisational Culture Thanks for your attention All  Country  values  on  my  blog      www.cultureclash.co   54   Jean-Pierre Coene Jeanpierre.coene@itim.org + 32 475 42 16 29 THIS PRESENTION IS AVAILABLE ON www.slideshare.net

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