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Wireless Fundamentals Introducing Wireless Regulation Bodies, Standards, and Certifications
The IEEE <ul><ul><li>The IEEE develops communication standards in electrical and computer sciences, engineering, and relat...
The Wi-Fi Alliance <ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi Alliance certifies interoperability between products WLAN products. </li></ul></ul><u...
Regulatory Bodies <ul><li>Each country or region defines its rules about the use of the RF space, including the following ...
FCC Part 15 Antenna Requirements <ul><ul><li>Antennas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antennas must use a unique or proprietary...
<ul><li>Point-to-multipoint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum of 36 dBm EIRP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30-dBm maximum transmi...
2.4-GHz EIRP Output Rules — FCC Example (Cont.) Point-to-Multipoint Point-to-Point The above values reflect the 3:1 rule. ...
2.4-GHz EIRP Output Rules — ETSI Example <ul><ul><li>Currently ETSI stipulates a maximum of 20 dBm EIRP on point-to-multip...
2.4-GHz EIRP Output Rules — ETSI Example (Cont.) Governing bodies with 20-dBm ceiling on EIRP: ETSI, France/Singapore, Isr...
Wireless Spectrum <ul><ul><li>The 2.4-GHz ISM band ranges from 2.4 to 2.4835 GHz (2.4970 GHz in Japan). In this range 11 c...
Current State of 5-GHz 802.11a Spectrum
Some IEEE 802.11 Standard Activities <ul><ul><li>802.11a —  5GHz, 54 Mb/s; ratified in 1999 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802...
802.11 Standards for Spectrums and Speeds OFDM 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54 100+ 1, 2, 5.5, 11 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 5...
802.11 <ul><ul><li>802.11 became a standard in July 1997, the first standard for wireless. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two ...
802.11b <ul><li>11 Mb/s, 2.4 GHz, DSSS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratified as standard in September 1999 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
802.11b Speed Coverage <ul><ul><li>Two different encodings: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Barker 11 </li></ul></ul></ul><...
802.11g <ul><ul><li>Standard for higher-rate extension in the 2.4-GHz ISM spectrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed up to ...
802.11b/g Cell Speeds <ul><ul><li>802.11g speeds: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>54 Mb/s, 48 Mb/s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul>...
802.11b/g Encoding and Modulations 11 CCK-128 QPSK 1 Barker BPSK 2 Barker QPSK 5.5 CCK-16 QPSK 54 OFDM 128-QAM 48 OFDM 64-...
802.11b and 802.11g Coexistence <ul><ul><li>802.11b presence triggers protection mode: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RTS/...
802.11a <ul><ul><li>Ratified as standard in September 1999 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>54 Mb/s 5 GHz (OFDM) </li></ul></ul>...
802.11a Spectrum <ul><ul><li>Twenty-eight different channels available: 23 United States, 19 Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
802.11a Speeds <ul><ul><li>Same speeds as 802.11g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No 802.11b interoperability </li></ul></ul><u...
Comparing the Technologies 802.11a Data Rates 54 1125 128-QAM 48 1000 64-QAM 36 750 16-QAM 24 500 16-QAM 18 375 QPSK 12 25...
802.11n: State of the Protocol <ul><ul><li>IEEE is developing 802.11n standard features and attributes. </li></ul></ul><ul...
Greater Reliability and Predictability Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output (MIMO) Improved MAC Efficiency 40-MHz Channels Maxi...
802.11n Channel Aggregation <ul><ul><li>802.11g and 802.11a use 20-Mhz channels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tones on the s...
Block Acknowledgment <ul><ul><li>802.11 requires acknowledgment of each frame. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11n uses blo...
Spatial Multiplexing <ul><li>Several frames are sent by several antennae over several paths and are recombined by several ...
Transmit Beamforming <ul><ul><li>Coordinates the signal sent from each antenna so that the signal at the receiver is drama...
Maximal Ratio Combining <ul><li>MRC is used by the receiver with multiple antennas to optimally combine energies from mult...
MIMO Benefits
Summary <ul><ul><li>The IEEE defines the 802.11 family of protocols. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Wi-Fi Alliance ensures...
Summary (Cont.) <ul><ul><li>802.11n tries to increase speed and throughput in the ISM and UNII bands. </li></ul></ul><ul><...
 
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Iuwne10 S01 L06

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Iuwne10 S01 L06

  1. 1. Wireless Fundamentals Introducing Wireless Regulation Bodies, Standards, and Certifications
  2. 2. The IEEE <ul><ul><li>The IEEE develops communication standards in electrical and computer sciences, engineering, and related disciplines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are more than 1300 protocols. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 802.11 committee analyzes the applications and environments in which wireless networks are used and develops standards for them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 802.11 family has more than 26 subprotocols. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Wi-Fi Alliance <ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi Alliance certifies interoperability between products WLAN products. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Products include 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n draft v2.0, dual-band products, and security testing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The organization provides assurance to customers of migration and integration options. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cisco is a founding member of Wi-Fi Alliance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certified products can be found at http://www.wi-fi.com. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Regulatory Bodies <ul><li>Each country or region defines its rules about the use of the RF space, including the following rules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which frequencies are allowed (spectrums and channels) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which transmit powers are possible (transmitters and antennae gain and EIRP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How a wave can be sent in each frequency (modulation and encoding techniques) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. FCC Part 15 Antenna Requirements <ul><ul><li>Antennas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antennas must use a unique or proprietary connector. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cisco Aironet products typically use RP-TNC connectors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some Cisco products designed for professional installation can use nonproprietary connectors such as a Type N connector. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FCC Part 15 Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approved antenna may exceed the regulations of other countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceeding the regulations may lead to interference problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penalties could result in fines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FCC standards apply to Part 15 users in the United States. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different countries will have similar standards. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Point-to-multipoint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum of 36 dBm EIRP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30-dBm maximum transmitter power with 6-dBi maximum gain of antenna and cable combination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A 1:1 ratio between the maximum power and maximum gain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce transmit power below maximum of 30 dBm by 1 dBm and increase maximum antenna and cable system gain by 1dBi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Point-to-point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum of 36 dBm EIRP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30-dBm maximum transmitter power with 6-dBi in gain of antenna and cable combination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FCC allows exceeding the 36 dBm EIRP in point-to-point installations using the 3:1 ratio rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce transmit power below maximum of 30 dBm by 1 dBm and increase maximum antenna and cable system gain by 3 dBi </li></ul></ul>2.4-GHz EIRP Output Rules — FCC Example
  7. 7. 2.4-GHz EIRP Output Rules — FCC Example (Cont.) Point-to-Multipoint Point-to-Point The above values reflect the 3:1 rule. The above values reflect the 1:1 rule. 36 dBm 16 dBm 20 dBm Cisco Maximum 36 dBm 6 dBm 30 dBm FCC Maximum EIRP Maximum Gain Transmitter Power - dBm 56 dBm 36 dBm 20 dBm Cisco Maximum 36 dBm 6 dBm 30 dBm FCC Maximum EIRP Maximum Gain Transmitter Power - dBm
  8. 8. 2.4-GHz EIRP Output Rules — ETSI Example <ul><ul><li>Currently ETSI stipulates a maximum of 20 dBm EIRP on point-to-multipoint and point-to-point installations; it also stipulates 17-dBm maximum transmitter power with 3-dBi in gain attributed to antenna and cable combination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional installers are allowed to increase the gain of an antenna and cable system if the transmitter power is reduced below 17 dBm in a 1:1 ratio. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce transmit power below maximum of 17 dBm by 1 dBm and increase antenna and cable system gain by 1 dBi. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 2.4-GHz EIRP Output Rules — ETSI Example (Cont.) Governing bodies with 20-dBm ceiling on EIRP: ETSI, France/Singapore, Israel, Mexico Point-to-Multipoint and Point-to-Point The above values reflect the 1:1 rule. *Tx = transmission 20 dBm 20 dBi 0 dBm Reduced Tx Power 20 dBm 13 dBi 7 dBm Reduced Tx Power 20 dBm 7 dBi 13 dBm Reduced Tx Power 20 dBm 5 dBi 15 dBm Reduced Tx* Power 19.2 dBm 2.2 dBi 17 dBm Cisco dipole Antennae 20 dBm 3 dBi 17 dBm Gov. Body Maximum EIRP Maximum Gain Transmitter Power-dBm
  10. 10. Wireless Spectrum <ul><ul><li>The 2.4-GHz ISM band ranges from 2.4 to 2.4835 GHz (2.4970 GHz in Japan). In this range 11 channels are allowed in the United State, 13 in Europe, and 14 in Japan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 5-GHz ISM band ranges from 5.725 to 5.875 GHz. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 5-GHz ISM band overlaps with the Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (UNII) bands: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UNII-1 ranges from 5.15 to 5.25 GHz (4 channels). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UNII-2 ranges from 5.25 to 5.35 GHz (4 channels). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UNII-2 extended ranges from 5.470 to 5.725 GHz (up to 11 channels). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UNII-3 ranges from 5.725 GHz to 5.825 GHz (4 channels). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Current State of 5-GHz 802.11a Spectrum
  12. 12. Some IEEE 802.11 Standard Activities <ul><ul><li>802.11a — 5GHz, 54 Mb/s; ratified in 1999 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11b — 2.4 GHz, 11 Mb/s; ratified in 1999 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11d — World Mode; ratified in 2001 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11e — QoS; ratified in 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11g — 2.4GHz, 54 Mb/s; ratified in 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11h — DFS and TPC mechanisms; ratified in 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11i — Authentication and security; ratified in 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11k — Radio resource measurement enhancements (under development) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11n — Higher throughput improvements using MIMO antennas (under development) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11t — WPP; test methods and metrics recommendation (under development) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11w — Protected management frames (under development) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 802.11 Standards for Spectrums and Speeds OFDM 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54 100+ 1, 2, 5.5, 11 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54 1, 2, 5.5, 11 1, 2 Data Rates (Mb/s) DSSS, CCK, OFDM DSSS OFDM DSSS IR, FHSS, DSSS Transmission varies 3 Up to 23 3 3 No of Channels 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz 2.4 GHz 5 GHz 2.4 GHz 2.4 GHz Frequency Band Not Ratified 2003 1999 1999 1997 Ratified 802.11n 802.11g 802.11a 802.11b 802.11
  14. 14. 802.11 <ul><ul><li>802.11 became a standard in July 1997, the first standard for wireless. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two RF technologies were defined: FHSS and DSSS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The standard allows 1 Mb/s and 2 Mb/s. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It defined specifications for Layer 1 and Layer 2, and basic security. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11 is defined in the 2.4-GHz ISM band. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three nonoverlapping channels is the most common deployment. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 802.11b <ul><li>11 Mb/s, 2.4 GHz, DSSS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratified as standard in September 1999 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11 U.S. channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13 ETSI channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14 Japanese channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power levels: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>36 dBm Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP); FCC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20 dBm EIRP; ETSI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approved for use nearly worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not recommended for new deployments </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 802.11b Speed Coverage <ul><ul><li>Two different encodings: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Barker 11 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CCK </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two different modulations: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DBPSK </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DQPSK </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four different speeds: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 Mb/s (Barker + DBPSK) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 Mb/s (Barker + DQPSK) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5.5 Mb/s (CCK-16 + DQPSK) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>11 Mb/s (CCK-128 + DQPSK) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. 802.11g <ul><ul><li>Standard for higher-rate extension in the 2.4-GHz ISM spectrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed up to 54 Mb/s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OFDM added to DSSS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backward-compatible with 802.11b </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. 802.11b/g Cell Speeds <ul><ul><li>802.11g speeds: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>54 Mb/s, 48 Mb/s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>36 Mb/s, 24 Mb/s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>18 Mb/s, 12 Mb/s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9 Mb/s, 6 Mb/s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Include 802.11b data rates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client looks for the best speed </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. 802.11b/g Encoding and Modulations 11 CCK-128 QPSK 1 Barker BPSK 2 Barker QPSK 5.5 CCK-16 QPSK 54 OFDM 128-QAM 48 OFDM 64-QAM 36 OFDM 16-QAM 24 OFDM 16-QAM 18 OFDM QPSK 12 OFDM QPSK 9 OFDM BPSK 6 OFDM BPSK Total Data Rate (Mb/s) Encoding Modulation with Subchannels
  20. 20. 802.11b and 802.11g Coexistence <ul><ul><li>802.11b presence triggers protection mode: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RTS/CTS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ CTS to self” protection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Non-ERP present” wave spreads throughout the network. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Throughput can drop from 22 Mb/s to 8 Mb/s. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. 802.11a <ul><ul><li>Ratified as standard in September 1999 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>54 Mb/s 5 GHz (OFDM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>23 U.S. channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic Frequency Control (DFS)* </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transmitter Power Control (TPC)* </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>19 ETSI channels (many countries) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DFS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TPC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>*Required by July 20th, 2007 </li></ul>
  22. 22. 802.11a Spectrum <ul><ul><li>Twenty-eight different channels available: 23 United States, 19 Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three different bands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Channels have 30 MHz of protection in the lower band, 20 MHz in the others </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. 802.11a Speeds <ul><ul><li>Same speeds as 802.11g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No 802.11b interoperability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher frequency, which implies lower range but also less scattering </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Comparing the Technologies 802.11a Data Rates 54 1125 128-QAM 48 1000 64-QAM 36 750 16-QAM 24 500 16-QAM 18 375 QPSK 12 250 QPSK 9 187.5 BPSK 6 125 BPSK Total Data Rate (Mb/s) Data Rate Per Subchannel (kb/s) Modulation with Subchannels
  25. 25. 802.11n: State of the Protocol <ul><ul><li>IEEE is developing 802.11n standard features and attributes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi Alliance is using 802.11n Draft 2.0 in an interim baseline. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal is for software upgrades to meet standard compliance and minimize hardware upgrades. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Greater Reliability and Predictability Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output (MIMO) Improved MAC Efficiency 40-MHz Channels Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC) Beam forming Spatial multiplexing MAC aggregation packs smaller packets into a single unit. Block acknowledgment improves throughput. Two adjacent 20-MHz channels are combined to create a single 40-MHz channel. Primary 802.11n Components
  27. 27. 802.11n Channel Aggregation <ul><ul><li>802.11g and 802.11a use 20-Mhz channels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tones on the side are not used to protect the main carrier (11 Mb/s unused). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11n aggregates twp carriers to double the speed from 54 Mb/s to 108+11 = 119 Mb/s </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Block Acknowledgment <ul><ul><li>802.11 requires acknowledgment of each frame. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11n uses block acknowledgment for constituent frames. </li></ul></ul>802.11 Header Packet 802.11 ACK 802.11n ACK 802.11n Header Packet 802.11n Header Packet 802.11n Header Packet
  29. 29. Spatial Multiplexing <ul><li>Several frames are sent by several antennae over several paths and are recombined by several antennae to optimize throughput and multipath resistance. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Transmit Beamforming <ul><ul><li>Coordinates the signal sent from each antenna so that the signal at the receiver is dramatically improved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally used when the receiver has only a single antenna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnitude and phase dynamically adjusted at each transmitter with client feedback if client is 802.11n </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Maximal Ratio Combining <ul><li>MRC is used by the receiver with multiple antennas to optimally combine energies from multiple receive chains. An algorithm eliminates out-of-phase signal degradation. </li></ul>
  32. 32. MIMO Benefits
  33. 33. Summary <ul><ul><li>The IEEE defines the 802.11 family of protocols. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Wi-Fi Alliance ensures the interoperability of wireless devices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The local or regional regulatory bodies define what is allowed in which spectrum. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 802.11 family has more than 26 protocols. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The original 802.11 protocol defined 1- and 2-Mb/s speeds with FHSS and DSSS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11b increased the speed to 11 Mb/s. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11g increased the speed to 54 Mb/s, but still in the ISM band. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11b devices degrade the performances of 802.11g cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11a uses the same modulation and speed as 802.11g, but in the 5-GHz band. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Summary (Cont.) <ul><ul><li>802.11n tries to increase speed and throughput in the ISM and UNII bands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>892.11n provides several new features to increase speed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Channels can be aggregated from 20 to 40 MHz. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAC layer behavior is enhanced. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial multiplexing is used over several antennae. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several antennae can be used to send to one single antennae. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several antennae can be combined to receive the signal of one emitter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11n enhances range and throughput for both 802.11n clients and non-802.11n clients. </li></ul></ul>

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