CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION1.1. Introduction of the Test: Individuals have different focused cognitive abilities. Such as when high schoolstudent is more aligned to Science subject (such as relying on observation,formulating hypothesis, predictions, and experimentation). But there is a tendency todecrease attention and concentration on the other field of subjects like English orMathematics which might lead into extinction. When these are all mastered, it mayinduce conflicts that consumed time and effort, thinking what must be the first toprioritize. Ethnic groups (such as Aetas, Mangyans, Igorots, etc.) are not familiar with thechanges occurred on industrialized environment like the development of cellularphones, computers, or even improvement on vehicles. This is the fact that theircultural background was followed from descendants and passes through nextgeneration. Their lifestyle was quite simple and traditional; from the house madefrom nipa hut; the use of charcoal as a source of heat; and their practical ability tosearch for food without relying money. Also, ethnic groups have their own way ofteaching their children, despite big differences in the languages used by othernationalities. The following mentioned factors were made because of intelligence. Intelligenceis the whole term used to describe a property of the mind that encompasses manyrelated abilities, such as the capacities to reason, to plan, to solve problems, tothink abstractly, to comprehend ideas, to use language, and to learn. No one in thisworld has not gifted by intelligence because without this, he or she cannotcomprehend ideas, unable to solve problems, and cannot survive in everyday life. Theproblem arises if there’s inadequacy on some abilities. Some high school students andethnic groups have language and comprehension problems that made them difficult tounderstand and some formed faulty verbal communication. In order to minimize theimpact of language skills and cultural bias, a non-verbal intelligence test known asStandard Progressive Matrices (SPM) is an instrument used the innate ability of anindividual on how he thinks quickly in a given situation as well as to reason outabstractly.
The Standard Progressive Matrices is originally developed as “Raven’sProgressive Matrices” by Dr. John C. Raven in 1936. This is an intelligence scaledesigned to cover the widest possible range of mental ability and to be equally usefulwith persons of all ages, whatever their education, nationality, or physical conditions.This scale is also developed to provide a reliable estimate of a person’s capacity tothink clearly when allowed to work steady at his or her own speed from the beginningto the end without interruption. It covers the whole range of intellectual developmentfrom the time a child is able to grasp the idea of finding a missing piece to complete apattern to the levels of ability required to form comparison and reason by analogy. The purpose of this paper is to update of test norms or scales; in this case, thosecorresponding to Raven’s Progressive Matrices Test, and the increase of the meanscores observed in the samples of the individuals examined, belonging to successivegenerations. The test, unlike any others, is made for individuals in high school levels,specifically those who are in fourth year levels. The test was concerned aboutindividuals innate on how he thinks quickly in a given situation as well as to reasonout abstractly.
1.2. Table of Specification: Test No. Description Key Letter No. of Items Percentage Pattern I PA 50 20% Analysis Visuo- II Spatial VSF 50 20% Functions Clear Thinking III CKO 50 20% and Keen Observation Eductive IV EA 50 20% Ability Reproductive V RA 50 20% Ability
TOTAL 250 100%1.3. Theoretical Framework: The test made employed by general intelligence factor theory (g factor) byCharles Spearman and Raymond Cattell’s Fluid Intelligence, as well as Gestalt LearningTheory by Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, and Kurt Koffka in relation to the testconstructed. General Intelligence Factor Theory attempt to quantify the mental abilityunderlying results of various tests of cognitive ability. This model provides framework in
which all variations in intelligence test scores are explained by two factors: first, a factorspecific to an individual mental task: the individual abilities that would make a personmore skilled at a specific cognitive task; and second a general factor g that governsperformance on all cognitive tasks.John Raven constructed this test on this theoretical basis. There follows a briefdescription of its main characteristics:• It is a test of intellectual capacity, of general mental ability.• It is a factor test, it evaluates the component of the G factor, the eductive capacity, i.e.to make sense out of confusion, to shape variables, to go beyond that which is given orobvious.• It is a non-verbal test.• It is a multiple choice test.• It is a test of multiple choice lacunar matrices. The individual’s task is to completeseries of drawings in which the last drawing is missing, selecting the appropriate onefrom a range of possible choices. Fluid intelligence is the ability to reason quickly and to think abstractly. This typeof intelligence tends to decline during late adulthood. This type of g factor involves ourcurrent ability to reason and deal with complex information around us, crystallizedintelligence involves learning, knowledge and skills that are acquired over a lifetime. Gestalt Learning Theory provides structure by which human beings have innateways to organized perceptions. A gestalt factor is a condition that aids in perceivingsituations as a whole or totality. The Gestalt theory proposes that learning consists of thegrasping of a structural whole and not just a mechanistic response to a stimulus.A "Gestalt" is an integrated whole system with its parts enmeshed. The whole is greaterthan just the sum of the parts. This theory has several laws of organization, which are asfollows: The Factor of Closure suggests that perception tends to complete incompleteobjects. When only part of an image, sound, thought or feeling is presented as a stimulus,the brain attempts to complete it to generate the whole.
The Factor of Proximity suggests that when elements are grouped closelytogether, they are perceived as wholes. This has relevance in reading, visual arts, andmusic. The Factor of Similarity proposes that like parts tend to be grouped together incognition. This has implications for instruction, suggesting that learning is facilitated ifsimilar ideas are treated and linked together and then contrasted with opposing orcomplementary sets of ideas. The Figure-Ground Effect suggests that the eye tends to see the objects, ratherthan the spaces or holes between them. In conclusion, these theories are helpful for understanding and predicting howindividual comprehend the figures as a whole and think complexity more than what hehad achieve on present cognition.
CHAPTER 2 ITEM COMPOSITION AND TEST VALIDATION2.1. Methodology2.2. Test Administration A set of test books is required which can be used repeatedly. Each person requires an answer sheet and pencil. Illustrators of the answer sheet and problem A1 was drawn twice the original twice the original size, which can be employed for demonstration purposes. When the test is administered individually by a trained and skilled individual, it appears to introduce emotional factors which interfere with effective thought. These are less likely to arise when people are allowed to work quietly at their own speed. When people are able to work quietly on their own individually or as a part of a group, it appears to provide a more reliable sample of their capacity for clear thinking.
The test can be given to group of any size according to accommodation. Approximately one (1) hour or sixty (60) minutes is allowed for each group tested. Persons to be tested are seated comfortably at tables with room for books and answer sheets and sufficiently apart to prevent copying. Space is left so that test proctor can pass easily between people without disturbing them. They should all face the person in change. When people do the test alone, they should be seated comfortably at a table in a quiet room.2.3. Item Generation Each puzzle has a missing part, which the person taking the test has to find among the options provided. This scale also consist of sixty (60) problems divided into five sets (A, B, C, D, E) each made up of twelve (12) problems. In each set, the first problem is as nearly as possible self-evident. The problem followed build on the argument of those that have gone before and become progressively more difficult. The order of the items provides the standard training in the method of working. The five sets provide five opportunities to grasp the method of thought required to solve the problems and five progressive assessments of a person’s capacity for intellectual activity. Each areas of the scale were represented of five sets, or series of puzzles exhibiting serial change in two dimensions simultaneously. The scale was divided into five parts with different functions namely:1. Pattern Analysis – this is an abstract/visual reasoning indicates the examinee’s abilities tosolve problems through reasoning, and to determine the logic behind patterns.2. Visuo-Spatial Functions – this subtest analyzes and understands space in two to threedimentions. It include mental imagery and navigation, distance, and depth perception and visuo-spatial construction.3. Clear Thinking and Keen Observation,4. Eductive Ability – this comprises new insights, perceive, and identify relationship, generatenew largely non-verbal concepts which made it possible and to think clearly.5. Reproductive Ability – this subtests measures the ability to recall and use, a culture’s store ofexplicit, verbalized concepts.