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A report about intelligence in psychology

Published in: Technology, Spiritual
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  1. 1. By:Aira Rowie S.Altovar
  2. 2.  INTELLIGENCE is widely described as “the ability to learn and remember information, to recognize concepts and their relations , and to apply them to the individual’s own behavior in an adaptive way”. (Carlson, 2007) It is common knowledge that an individual who uses his skills and talents in solving various types of problems is actually using his intelligence.
  3. 3.  People vary widely in many ways such as in their abilities to learn, to solve problems and to perceive information. Psychologists have devised some ways to identify and measure individual differences and their abilities to solve problems.
  4. 4.  Spearman’sTwo-FactorTheory  Information-processingTheory  NeuropsychologicalTheory / Multiple Intelligence
  5. 5.  Charles Spearman proposed that a person’s performance on a test of intellectual ability is determined by two factors: the G Factor, which represents the general factor of intelligence common to all intellectual tasks (general reasoning ability), and the S Factor, which represents a factor specific to a particular task (specific ability), such as mechanical, musical, arithmetical logical and spatial.
  6. 6.  Spearman also called this the monarchic theory of intelligence.
  7. 7.  This was also performed by another theorist, Raymond Cattell, who described intelligence into two distinct factors: Fluid Intelligence ( gf) and Crystallized Intelligence (gc).  Fluid Intelligence is the person’s native capacity of acquiring new knowledge for intellectual performance, especially his ability to learn and solve problems.  Crystallized Intelligence is the knowledge and learning tat a person has acquired from his interaction with his environment and through his experiences and other learning opportunities.
  8. 8.  Robert Sternberg argued that there is a number of ways to demonstrate intelligence by integrating information processing approach and an analysis of intelligent behavior in the natural environment. According to his Triarchic (“ruled by three”) Theory, there are three aspects of intelligence: componential intelligence, experiential intelligence and contextual intelligence.
  9. 9.  Componential Intelligence  Metacomponents  Performance Components  KnowledgeAcquisition Components  Experiential Intelligence  Contextual Intelligence
  10. 10.  a mental mechanism which people use to plan and execute tasks; these components of intelligence serve three functions: metacomponents , performance components and knowledge acquisition components.  Metacomponents the processes by which people use to acquire and store knowledge: use in perception, memory and problem solving.
  11. 11.  Performance Components are processes that are used to perform the task, such as word recognition and working memory.  KnowledgeAcquisition Components are those that the person uses to gain new knowledge (such as acquiring vocabulary words) by sifting our relevant information and integrating it with what he already knows. (Carlson,2007)
  12. 12.  Is the ability to deal effectively with noel situations and to automatically solve problems that have been encountered previously.
  13. 13.  Is a form of intelligence that reflects the behaviors that were subject to natural selection in our evolutionary history such as adaptation, selection and shaping.
  14. 14.  Is a new breakthrough in information- processing. It is a new type of intelligence in which symbol processing systems are based on computer simulations.
  15. 15.  Dr. Howard Gardner introduces this theory based on neuropsychological analysis of human abilities. He accounted that each kind of human ability are considered as “skills or talents”; and are represented in the brain in which specific brain damage can impair some of them but leave others relatively intact.
  16. 16.  Linguistic Intelligence  Musical Intelligence  Logical- Mathematical Intelligence  Spatial Intelligence  Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence  Interpersonal Intelligence  Intrapersonal Intelligence  Naturalistic Intelligence
  17. 17.  ALSO CALLED “WORD SMART”  is the ability to use the core operations of language with clarity. People with this ability display their sensitivity to the meaning of words; and the capacity to follow “rules of grammar”, while, on carefully selected occasions may also violate them.
  18. 18.  Also called “music smart”  Is the ability to use the core set of musical elements such as pitch, rhythm and timbre.
  19. 19.  Also called “number/ reasoning smart”  Is the facility with umbers and reasoning. Individuals with this intellectual capacity think conceptually ad approach problems in sequential, systematic, analytical and logical manner.They work well in abstract symbols and formula which involve numbers, shapes, patterns, puzzles, details and complex computations.
  20. 20.  Also called “picture smart”  Is the capacity to perceive the world accurately and to be able to recreate one’s experience. It entails a number of related capacities: the ability to recognize the same elements as well as their transformations; the capacity to conjure up mental imagery and transforming them; and the ability to produce a graphic representation of spatial information.
  21. 21.  Also called “body smart”  Involves the control of one’s own body motions and the ability to manipulate and handle objects skillfully.
  22. 22.  Also called “smart people”  Is the ability to notice ad to respond appropriately to individual differences particularly their moods, temperaments, motivations and intentions.
  23. 23.  Also called “self smart”  Is the ability to form an awareness of one’s own feelings.The ability to distinguish a basic feeling of pleasure from emotional pain to a more complex and highly differentiated sets of feelings are types of socially aware people with personal intelligence.
  24. 24.  Also called “nature smart”  Is the ability to understand, relate to, categorize, classify comprehend and explain the things encountered in the world of nature.
  25. 25.  Francis Galton – attempted to apply Darwin’sTheory of Evolution on his study of human activities. He believed that intellectual abilities are hereditable and that scores are a measure of intelligence.  Alfred Binet &Theodore Simon – developed the Binet-Simon Scale in 1905 to identify children who need special attention even outside the normal classroom instruction.The scale consists of various tasks grouped accrdg. to mental age which provides the standard measure intelligence quotient.The intelligence quotient (IQ) is the ratio of a person’s metal age to his chronological age, multiply by 100.
  26. 26.  LewisTerman – revised the Binet-Simon Scale in 1916, which later become the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale.This scale containde a formula for computing intelligence quotient such as IQ= MA/CA x 100, wherein the IQ is expressed as the quotient of mental age (MA) and chronological age (CA), multiplied by 100
  27. 27.  Individual IQTests  Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale  WechslerTests  Raven’s Progressive Matrices  Group IQTests
  28. 28.  Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale  This is one of the most popular individual IQ tests ever developed and has been an important acquisition of many diagnostic centers until today. It is used to assess educational needs of children specifically in terms of identifying the slow from fast learner, and how they benefit from the different types of classroominstruction.
  29. 29.  WechslerTests  DavidWechsler, a chief psychologist in Bellevue Psychiatric hospital in NewYork City developed theWechsler-Bellevue Scale.This consists of eleven subtests divide into two categories: verbal and performance.
  30. 30.  Is another nonverbal individual test which contains that require abstract reasoning and is culture fair.
  31. 31.  The Alpha tests were the first group tests of intelligence developed by RobertYerkes. It is a paper-and-pencil IQ test that is used to select and classify military recruits.The Army Alpha test is administer to literate recruits and to measure cognitive abilities such as mathematical reasoning, analogies and practical judgment.The Army Beta test was intended for non-English speakers and illiterate recruits.  The Scholastic AptitudeTest (SAT) was introduced and used extensively by colleges and universities for purpose of admission in schools, while the National IntelligenceTest was used as a group test for schoolchildren.
  32. 32.  Tests are important in the modern society.The following are the uses tests:  1. It is used for college admission, as well as for selection and placement of students.  2. Employees use tests for selection, hiring and placement of job applicants.  3. It is used to determine aptitudes, spatial abilities, language ability, mathematical ability, etc.  4. It is used to group students according to ability.There are students who are exceptionally bright but perform poorly because of boredom or because of misdemeanors /disruptive behaviors.  5. It is used to assess the student’s educational needs and learning disabilities for appropriate remedial / educational program and to prevent mislabeling.  It is used as a diagnostic tool to identify individual with cognitive problems such as those with brain damage or impairment in the nervous system.
  33. 33.  Standardization.When we say standardized, it must have established norms which determine that the scores are representative of the general population. It is important that tests are given under identical conditions and identical procedures.  Reliability.This is another property of the test which measures the consistency and stability of test scores when the test is given again over a period of time.The two types of reliability: test-retest reliability and split-half reliability.Test-retest reliability is determined by obtaining a similar score when test is given the second time around; while split-half reliability is determined by obtaining similar scores after taking the other equivalent half of the test on the second occasion intelligence test are the most reliable of all psychological test.
  34. 34.  Validity.This pertains to the ability of the test to measure what it is supposed to measure.  ContentValidity. It determines whether the test cover a representative sample of the behavior domain to be measured.This commonly used to measure how well the individual has mastered a specific skill or a course of study.  Criterion-predictiveValidity.This indicates the effectiveness of the test in predicting an individual performance in specified activities.