INTELLIGENCE is widely described as “the
ability to learn and remember information, to
recognize concepts and their relations , and
to apply them to the individual’s own
behavior in an adaptive way”. (Carlson, 2007)
It is common knowledge that an individual
who uses his skills and talents in solving
various types of problems is actually using his
People vary widely in many ways such as in
their abilities to learn, to solve problems and
to perceive information. Psychologists have
devised some ways to identify and measure
individual differences and their abilities to
Charles Spearman proposed that a person’s
performance on a test of intellectual ability is
determined by two factors: the G Factor,
which represents the general factor of
intelligence common to all intellectual tasks
(general reasoning ability), and the S Factor,
which represents a factor specific to a
particular task (specific ability), such as
mechanical, musical, arithmetical logical and
Spearman also called
this the monarchic
theory of intelligence.
This was also performed by another
theorist, Raymond Cattell, who described intelligence
into two distinct factors: Fluid Intelligence ( gf) and
Crystallized Intelligence (gc).
Fluid Intelligence is the person’s native capacity of
acquiring new knowledge for intellectual
performance, especially his ability to learn and solve
Crystallized Intelligence is the knowledge and
learning tat a person has acquired from his interaction
with his environment and through his experiences and
other learning opportunities.
Robert Sternberg argued that there is a
number of ways to demonstrate intelligence
by integrating information processing
approach and an analysis of intelligent
behavior in the natural environment.
According to his Triarchic (“ruled by three”)
Theory, there are three aspects of
intelligence, experiential intelligence and
a mental mechanism which people use to
plan and execute tasks; these components of
intelligence serve three functions:
metacomponents , performance components
and knowledge acquisition components.
Metacomponents the processes by which
people use to acquire and store knowledge:
use in perception, memory and problem
Performance Components are processes that
are used to perform the task, such as word
recognition and working memory.
KnowledgeAcquisition Components are
those that the person uses to gain new
knowledge (such as acquiring vocabulary
words) by sifting our relevant information
and integrating it with what he already
Is the ability to deal effectively with noel
situations and to automatically solve
problems that have been encountered
Is a form of intelligence that reflects the
behaviors that were subject to natural
selection in our evolutionary history such as
adaptation, selection and shaping.
Is a new breakthrough in information-
processing. It is a new type of intelligence in
which symbol processing systems are based
on computer simulations.
Dr. Howard Gardner introduces this theory
based on neuropsychological analysis of
human abilities. He accounted that each kind
of human ability are considered as “skills or
talents”; and are represented in the brain in
which specific brain damage can impair some
of them but leave others relatively intact.
ALSO CALLED “WORD SMART”
is the ability to use the core operations of
language with clarity. People with this ability
display their sensitivity to the meaning of
words; and the capacity to follow “rules of
grammar”, while, on carefully selected
occasions may also violate them.
Also called “music smart”
Is the ability to use the core set of musical
elements such as pitch, rhythm and timbre.
Also called “number/ reasoning smart”
Is the facility with umbers and reasoning.
Individuals with this intellectual capacity
think conceptually ad approach problems in
sequential, systematic, analytical and logical
manner.They work well in abstract symbols
and formula which involve numbers, shapes,
patterns, puzzles, details and complex
Also called “picture smart”
Is the capacity to perceive the world
accurately and to be able to recreate one’s
experience. It entails a number of related
capacities: the ability to recognize the same
elements as well as their transformations; the
capacity to conjure up mental imagery and
transforming them; and the ability to
produce a graphic representation of spatial
Also called “body smart”
Involves the control of one’s own body
motions and the ability to manipulate and
handle objects skillfully.
Also called “smart people”
Is the ability to notice ad to respond
appropriately to individual differences
moods, temperaments, motivations and
Also called “self smart”
Is the ability to form an awareness of one’s
own feelings.The ability to distinguish a basic
feeling of pleasure from emotional pain to a
more complex and highly differentiated sets
of feelings are types of socially aware people
with personal intelligence.
Also called “nature smart”
Is the ability to understand, relate
to, categorize, classify comprehend and
explain the things encountered in the world
Francis Galton – attempted to apply Darwin’sTheory
of Evolution on his study of human activities. He
believed that intellectual abilities are hereditable and
that scores are a measure of intelligence.
Alfred Binet &Theodore Simon – developed the
Binet-Simon Scale in 1905 to identify children who
need special attention even outside the normal
classroom instruction.The scale consists of various
tasks grouped accrdg. to mental age which provides
the standard measure intelligence quotient.The
intelligence quotient (IQ) is the ratio of a person’s
metal age to his chronological age, multiply by 100.
LewisTerman – revised the Binet-Simon
Scale in 1916, which later become the
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale.This scale
containde a formula for computing
intelligence quotient such as IQ= MA/CA x
100, wherein the IQ is expressed as the
quotient of mental age (MA) and
chronological age (CA), multiplied by 100
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
This is one of the most popular individual IQ tests
ever developed and has been an important
acquisition of many diagnostic centers until today.
It is used to assess educational needs of children
specifically in terms of identifying the slow from
fast learner, and how they benefit from the
different types of classroominstruction.
DavidWechsler, a chief psychologist in
Bellevue Psychiatric hospital in NewYork City
developed theWechsler-Bellevue Scale.This
consists of eleven subtests divide into two
categories: verbal and performance.
Is another nonverbal individual test which
contains that require abstract reasoning and
is culture fair.
The Alpha tests were the first group tests of intelligence
developed by RobertYerkes. It is a paper-and-pencil IQ test
that is used to select and classify military recruits.The Army
Alpha test is administer to literate recruits and to measure
cognitive abilities such as mathematical reasoning, analogies
and practical judgment.The Army Beta test was intended for
non-English speakers and illiterate recruits.
The Scholastic AptitudeTest (SAT) was introduced and used
extensively by colleges and universities for purpose of
admission in schools, while the National IntelligenceTest
was used as a group test for schoolchildren.
Tests are important in the modern society.The
following are the uses tests:
1. It is used for college admission, as well as for selection and placement of
2. Employees use tests for selection, hiring and placement of job
3. It is used to determine aptitudes, spatial abilities, language
ability, mathematical ability, etc.
4. It is used to group students according to ability.There are students who
are exceptionally bright but perform poorly because of boredom or
because of misdemeanors /disruptive behaviors.
5. It is used to assess the student’s educational needs and learning
disabilities for appropriate remedial / educational program and to prevent
It is used as a diagnostic tool to identify individual with cognitive problems
such as those with brain damage or impairment in the nervous system.
Standardization.When we say standardized, it must have
established norms which determine that the scores are
representative of the general population. It is important that tests
are given under identical conditions and identical procedures.
Reliability.This is another property of the test which measures the
consistency and stability of test scores when the test is given again
over a period of time.The two types of reliability: test-retest
reliability and split-half reliability.Test-retest reliability is
determined by obtaining a similar score when test is given the
second time around; while split-half reliability is determined by
obtaining similar scores after taking the other equivalent half of
the test on the second occasion intelligence test are the most
reliable of all psychological test.
Validity.This pertains to the ability of the test
to measure what it is supposed to measure.
ContentValidity. It determines whether the test
cover a representative sample of the behavior
domain to be measured.This commonly used to
measure how well the individual has mastered a
specific skill or a course of study.
Criterion-predictiveValidity.This indicates the
effectiveness of the test in predicting an individual
performance in specified activities.