Exam 3•    Mean: 35.2•    Median: 36                                                    Intelligence•    Mode: 38•    SD =...
Conceptual Difficulties                                      Controversies About Intelligence Psychologists believe that i...
General Intelligence                                       General Intelligence Spearman proposed that general intelligenc...
Howard Gardner                          Savants                                       Gardner proposes eight types of inte...
Emotional Intelligence: Components                                             Emotional Intelligence: Criticism         C...
Get ready…                                                                                            Long side on left or...
Alfred Binet                                                Lewis Terman                                                  ...
WAIS                                          Principles of Test Construction  WAIS measures overall intelligence and 11 o...
Reliability                                                            ValidityA test is reliable when it yields consisten...
Extremes of Intelligence                                       Mental Retardation  A valid intelligence test divides two g...
Genetic Influences                                           Adoption Studies Studies of twins, family members, and adopte...
Group Differences in Intelligence Test                Schooling Effects                                                 Sc...
Reasons Why Environment Affects              Environmental Effects                                                   Intel...
Stereotype ThreatA stereotype threat is a self-confirming concern thatone will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype...
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Intelligence test

  1. 1. Exam 3•  Mean: 35.2•  Median: 36 Intelligence•  Mode: 38•  SD = 6.8 Chapter 10•  Top Score: 49 Psy 12000.003 Spring 2010•  Top Cumulative Score to date: 146 1 2 What is Intelligence? My Brilliant Brain Intelligence (in all cultures) is the ability to learn•  Susan Polgar, Chess Champion from experience, solve problems, and use our•  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4VlGGM5WYZo knowledge to adapt to new situations.•  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=95eYyyg1g5s In research studies, intelligence is whatever the intelligence test measures. This tends to be “school smarts.” 3 4 1
  2. 2. Conceptual Difficulties Controversies About Intelligence Psychologists believe that intelligence is a concept Despite general agreement among psychologists and not a thing. about the nature of intelligence, at least three controversies remain: When we think of intelligence as a trait (thing) we   Is intelligence a single overall ability or is it several specific make an error called reification — viewing an abilities?   With modern neuroscience techniques, can we locate and measure abstract immaterial concept as if it were a concrete intelligence within the brain? thing.   Do between group differences in IQ scores (and distributions around the mean for each group) reflect real group differences in intelligence or are they artifacts of the testing instrument and procedure? 5 6 Intelligence: Ability or Abilities? General IntelligenceHave you ever thought that because people’s mental The idea that general intelligence (g) exists comes abilities are so diverse, it may not be justifiable to from the work of Charles Spearman (1863-1945) label those abilities with only one word, who helped develop the factor analysis approach in intelligence? statistics. You may speculate that diverse abilities representdifferent kinds of intelligences. How can you test this idea? 7 8 2
  3. 3. General Intelligence General Intelligence Spearman proposed that general intelligence (g) is L. L. Thurstone, a critic of Spearman, analyzed his linked to many clusters that can be analyzed by subjects NOT on a single scale of general factor analysis. intelligence, but on seven clusters of primary mental abilities, including: Spearman, using an earlier approach to factor analysis, found that scores on all mental tests   Word Fluency(regardless of the domain or how it was tested) tend   Verbal Comprehension to load on one major factor. Spearman suggested   Spatial Ability that these disparate scores are fueled by a common   Perceptual Speedmetaphorical “pool” of mental energy. He named this   Numerical Ability pool the general factor, or g (Spearman, 1904).   Inductive Reasoning 9   Memory 10 General Intelligence Contemporary Intelligence TheoriesLater psychologists re-analyzed Thurstone’s data and Howard Gardner (1983, 1999) supports Thurstone’s found a weak relationship between these clusters, idea that intelligence comes in multiple forms. suggesting some evidence of a g factor. Gardner notes that brain damage may diminish one type of ability but not others. People with savant syndrome excel in abilities 11 12 unrelated to general intelligence. 3
  4. 4. Howard Gardner Savants Gardner proposes eight types of intelligences and speculates about a ninth one — existential intelligence. Existential intelligence is the ability to think about the question of life, death and existence. Daniel Tammet, “Brainman” Brainman:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hKk96kOAnLg&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Vs6R5YZQ3c On Letterman:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qXG-1YLGAS0&feature=related 13 14 Robert Sternberg Emotional Intelligence Sternberg (1985, 1999, 2003) Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive, also agrees with Gardner, understand, and use emotions (Salovey and but suggests three intelligences colleagues, 2005). The test of emotional intelligence rather than eight. measures overall emotional intelligence and its four components.   Analytical Intelligence: Intelligence that is assessed by intelligence tests.   Creative Intelligence: Intelligence that makes us adapt to novel situations, generating novel ideas.   Practical Intelligence: Intelligence that is required for everyday tasks (e.g. street smarts). 15 16 4
  5. 5. Emotional Intelligence: Components Emotional Intelligence: Criticism Component Description Gardner and others criticize the idea of emotional Recognize emotions in faces, music intelligence and question whether we stretch this idea of Perceive emotion and stories intelligence too far when we apply it to our emotions. Predict emotions, how they change Understand emotion and blend Express emotions in different Manage emotion situations Utilize emotions to adapt or be Use emotion creative 17 18 Is Intelligence Neurologically Intelligence and Creativity Measurable? Creativity is the ability to produce ideas that are both Recent Studies indicate some correlation (about +.40) novel and valuable. It correlates somewhat with between brain size and intelligence. As brain size intelligence. decreases with age, scores on verbal intelligence tests also decrease.  Factors associated with creativity:   Expertise: A well-developed knowledge base.   Imaginative Thinking: The ability to see things in novel ways.   Adventuresome Personality: A personality that seeks new experiences rather than following the pack.   Intrinsic Motivation: A motivation to be creative from within.   A Creative Environment: A creative and supportive environment allows creativity to bloom. 19 20 Gray matter concentration in people with high intelligence. 5
  6. 6. Get ready… Long side on left or right? 21 22 Brain Function Assessing Intelligence Studies of brain functions show that people who score Psychologists define intelligence testing as a method forhigh on intelligence tests perceive stimuli faster, retrieve assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparinginformation from memory quicker, and show faster brain them with others using numerical scores. response times. People with higher intelligence respond correctly and quickly to 23 24 the above question. 6
  7. 7. Alfred Binet Lewis Terman In the US, Lewis Terman Alfred Binet and his adapted Binet’s test for colleague Théodore Simon American school children practiced a more modern and named the test theform of intelligence testing Stanford-Binet Test. The by developing questions following is the formula of that would predict Intelligence Quotient (IQ),children’s future progress in introduced by William the Paris school system. Stern: 25 26 Aptitude and Achievement Tests David WechslerAptitude tests are intended to predict your ability to learn Wechsler developed thea new skill and achievement tests are intended to reflect Wechsler Adult Intelligence what you have already learned. Scale (WAIS) and later the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), an intelligence test for preschoolers. 27 28 7
  8. 8. WAIS Principles of Test Construction WAIS measures overall intelligence and 11 other aspects related to intelligence that are designed to For a psychological test to be acceptable it must fulfill assess clinical and educational problems. the following three criteria:   Standardization   Reliability   Validity 29 30 Standardization Normal CurveStandardizing a test involves administering the test to a Standardized tests establish a normal distribution of representative sample of future test takers in order to scores on a tested population in a bell-shaped pattern establish a basis for meaningful comparison. called the normal curve. 31 32 8
  9. 9. Reliability ValidityA test is reliable when it yields consistent results. To Reliability of a test does not ensure validity. Validity of a establish reliability researchers establish different test refers to what the test is supposed to measure or procedures: predict.  Split-half Reliability: Dividing the test into two equal halves and assessing how consistent the scores are.   Content Validity: Refers to the extent a test measures a  Reliability using different tests: Using different forms of particular behavior or trait. the test to measure consistency between them.   Isomorphism  Test-Retest Reliability: Using the same test on two   Predictive Validity: Refers to the function of a test in occasions to measure consistency. predicting a particular behavior or trait. 33 34 The Dynamics of Intelligence Stability or Change?Does intelligence remain stable over a lifetime or does Intelligence scores become stable after about seven yearsit change? Are individuals on the two extremes of the of age. In numerous studies, stability of intelligence intelligence scale really that different? scores have been determined (Angoff, 1988; Deary et al., 2004). 35 36 9
  10. 10. Extremes of Intelligence Mental Retardation A valid intelligence test divides two groups of people Mentally retarded individuals required constant into two extremes: the mentally retarded (IQ 70) and supervision a few decades ago, but with a supportive individuals with high intelligence (IQ 135). These two family environment and special education they can now groups are significantly different. care for themselves. 37 38 Genetic and Environmental Influences High Intelligence on IntelligenceContrary to popular belief, people with high intelligence No other topic in psychology is so passionately followed test scores tend to be healthy, well adjusted, and as the one that asks the question, “Is intelligence due to unusually successful academically. genetics or environment?” 39 40 10
  11. 11. Genetic Influences Adoption Studies Studies of twins, family members, and adopted children Adopted children show a marginal correlation in verbal together support the idea that there is a significant ability to their adopted parents. genetic contribution to intelligence. 41 42 Environmental Influences Early Intervention Effects Studies of twins and adopted children also show the Early neglect from caregivers leads children to develop a following: lack of personal control over the environment, and it  Fraternal twins raised together tend to show impoverishes their intelligence. similarity in intelligence scores.  Identical twins raised apart show slightly less similarity in their intelligence scores. Romanian orphans with minimal 43 44 human interaction are delayed in their development. 11
  12. 12. Group Differences in Intelligence Test Schooling Effects ScoresSchooling is an experience that pays dividends, which is Why do groups differ in intelligence? How can we make reflected in intelligence scores. Increased schooling sense of these differences? correlates with higher intelligence scores. To increase readiness for schoolwork, 45 46 projects like Head Start facilitate leaning. Ethnic Similarities and Differences Racial (Group) Differences To discuss this issue we begin with two disturbing but If we look at racial differences, white Americans score agreed upon facts: higher in average intelligence than black Americans (Avery and others, 1994). European New Zealanders   Racial groups differ in their average intelligence score higher than native New Zealanders (Braden, 1994). scores.   High-scoring people (and groups) are more likely to attain high levels of education and White-Americans Black-Americans income. Average IQ = 100 Average IQ = 85 47 Hispanic Americans 48 12
  13. 13. Reasons Why Environment Affects Environmental Effects Intelligence Differences in intelligence among these groups are   Races are remarkably alike genetically. largely environmental, as if one environment is more   Race is a social category. fertile in developing these abilities than another.   Asian students outperform North American students on math achievement and aptitude tests.   Today’s better prepared populations would outperform populations of the 1930s on intelligence tests.   White and black infants tend to score equally well on tests predicting future intelligence.   Different ethnic groups have experienced periods of remarkable achievement in different eras. 49 50 Gender Similarities and Differences The Question of BiasThere are seven ways in which males and females differ in various abilities. Aptitude tests are necessarily biased in the sense that 1. Girls are better spellers they are sensitive to performance differences caused by cultural differences. 2. Girls are verbally fluent and have large vocabularies 3. Girls are better at locating objects 4. Girls are more sensitive to touch, taste, and color However, aptitude tests are not biased in the sense that 5. Boys outnumber girls in counts of underachievement they accurately predict performance of one group over the other. 6. Boys outperform girls at math problem solving, but under perform at math computation 7. Women detect emotions more easily than men do 51 52 13
  14. 14. Stereotype ThreatA stereotype threat is a self-confirming concern thatone will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. This phenomenon appears in some instances in intelligence testing among African-Americans and among women of all colors. 53 14