Copyright

883 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
883
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11 http://www.barb.nl/disneyficatie/Image46.jpg
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11 http://www.unionsquaremusic.co.uk/covers/large/METRCD100.jpg
  • 05/09/11
  • 05/09/11 http://xyno.de/lyrics/lyr_prettywoman.html
  • 05/09/11
  • Copyright

    1. 1. © Copyright and Fair Use
    2. 2. The Congress shall have Power . . . To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.
    3. 3. COPYRIGHT <ul><li>1790 -- books and maps for 14 years </li></ul><ul><li>1802 -- prints </li></ul><ul><li>1831-- musical compositions </li></ul><ul><li>1865 -- photographs </li></ul><ul><li>1870 -- paintings </li></ul><ul><li>1978 -- sound and video recordings </li></ul><ul><li>1995 -- digital performance right in sound recordings </li></ul>
    4. 4. Major Developments in © <ul><li>1909 Act – pre 1978 </li></ul><ul><li>1976 Act – post 1978 </li></ul><ul><li>Berne Convention 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>Moral Rights 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Millenium Copyright Act 1998 </li></ul>
    5. 5. What does © protect?
    6. 6. Eight Categories of Works <ul><li>Literary works </li></ul><ul><li>Musical (including accompanying words) </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic (including accompanying music) </li></ul><ul><li>Pantomimes and choreographic works </li></ul><ul><li>Pictorial, graphic and sculptural works </li></ul><ul><li>Motion pictures and other audiovisual </li></ul><ul><li>Sound recordings </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural works </li></ul>
    7. 7. What about <ul><li>Computer programs? </li></ul><ul><li>Test questions? </li></ul><ul><li>Essay questions? </li></ul><ul><li>Mickey Mouse? </li></ul>
    8. 8. original works of authorship as soon as they become fixed in a tangible form of expression
    9. 9. original <ul><li>What about my photo of the Golden Gate Bridge? </li></ul>
    10. 10. Does not need to be novel or distinctive.
    11. 11. Feist Publications v. Rural Telephone Service
    12. 12. <ul><li>Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Editing </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangement </li></ul>
    13. 13. fixation
    14. 14. <ul><li>Class comments </li></ul><ul><li>Performances </li></ul><ul><li>Dance </li></ul>
    15. 15. Copyright is a Bundle of Rights <ul><li>Think a pack of matches </li></ul><ul><li>May be divided by type of right, time and territory. </li></ul>
    16. 16. One “Work” May Contain Numerous Copyrights
    17. 17. Movie
    18. 19. Movie <ul><li>underlying work </li></ul><ul><li>screenplay </li></ul><ul><li>storyboards </li></ul><ul><li>score </li></ul><ul><ul><li>recording </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>underlying musical compositions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>movie itself </li></ul>
    19. 20. Ownership <ul><li>Author </li></ul><ul><li>Work-for-hire </li></ul><ul><li>Joint works </li></ul>
    20. 21. Community for Creative Non-Violence v. Reid
    21. 22. Term of Copyright post-1978 works <ul><li>Authors -- life plus 70 </li></ul><ul><li>Work-for-hire -- 95/120 </li></ul><ul><li>Joint works -- life of last author plus 70 </li></ul>
    22. 23. Copyright Law has its Limitations.
    23. 24. WHAT YOU CANNOT COPYRIGHT <ul><li>Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Facts </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Common Information </li></ul>
    24. 25. <ul><li>Calendars </li></ul><ul><li>Rulers </li></ul><ul><li>Lists and tables from public documents or common information </li></ul>
    25. 26. No Copyright Protection for . . . <ul><li>Titles </li></ul><ul><li>Names </li></ul><ul><li>Short phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Designs </li></ul><ul><li>( but these may be protected by other law) </li></ul>
    26. 27. Copyright protection is automatic. <ul><li>However, registration is both easy and advantageous. </li></ul><ul><li>File appropriate form and fee with U.S. Copyright Office. </li></ul>
    27. 28. Advantages of Registration <ul><li>Establishes a public record </li></ul><ul><li>Must register before can sue </li></ul><ul><li>If register before or within 5 years of publication, copyright presumed valid </li></ul><ul><li>If register within 3 months of publication may get statutory damages and attorney’s fees </li></ul><ul><li>may also seek import protection with U.S. Customs </li></ul>
    28. 29. 5 Exclusive Rights <ul><li>reproduce work </li></ul><ul><li>prepare derivative works </li></ul><ul><li>distribute work </li></ul><ul><li>perform work except sound recordings </li></ul><ul><li>display work </li></ul><ul><li>sound recordings: perform by means of a digital audio transmission </li></ul>
    29. 30. Moral Rights <ul><li>Right to attribution – artist may control use of name in association with the work </li></ul><ul><li>Right to integrity – artist’s right to control alterations and prevent distortion or destruction of the work </li></ul>
    30. 31. Visual Artists Rights Act (1990) <ul><li>Applies only to paintings, drawings, prints, sculptures, exhibition photographs </li></ul><ul><li>Only if single copy or limited edition 200 or fewer copies </li></ul><ul><li>Does not apply to works made for hire </li></ul><ul><li>Works of authorship – term limited to life of artist </li></ul>
    31. 32. Infringement <ul><li>Any violation of one of the exclusive rights </li></ul><ul><li>Prove have valid copyright. </li></ul><ul><li>Prove substantial similarity. </li></ul><ul><li>Prove access to copyrighted work. </li></ul>
    32. 35. Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include-- (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors.
    33. 36. Fair Use <ul><li>Purpose and character of use </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of copyrighted work </li></ul><ul><li>Portion of work used </li></ul><ul><li>Economic effect </li></ul>
    34. 37. Case-by-case determination
    35. 38. Basic Books, Inc. v. Kinkos (1991) <ul><li>The Kinko’s case. </li></ul><ul><li>Kinko’s guilty of copyright infringement for coursepack publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Did not obtain permissions. </li></ul><ul><li>Copied materials ranged from 14 to 110 pages and from 5% to 24% of the works. </li></ul><ul><li>Big judgment, attorneys fees and injunction. </li></ul>
    36. 39. Pretty Woman
    37. 40. Pretty Woman
    38. 42. Internet Existing law will be applied until new laws are established.

    ×