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Taste sour and salty

It aims at giving a brief insight into Sour and Salty tastes.

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Taste sour and salty

  2. 2. TASTE What is taste?  Taste is one of the five basic senses.  Taste is the sense by which the chemical qualities of food in the mouth are distinguished by the brain, based on information provided by the taste buds.  Taste is largely a psychophysical term.
  4. 4. TASTE SENSING  Tongue is covered by small bumps called papillae to which hundreds of taste buds attached.  Taste receptors are present on taste buds to sense the test and transfer signal to the brain
  5. 5. TASTE SENSING  All taste sensations come from all parts of the tongue although different parts are more sensitive to different tastes.  Bitter-At the back  Sweet-At the tip  Sour-On the sides  Salty-Front edge
  6. 6. SALTY  Saltiness is a taste produced primarily by the presence of sodium ions.  Other ions of the alkali metals group also taste salty, but the further from sodium the less salty the sensation is.  The saltiness of substances is rated relative to sodium chloride (NaCl), which has an index of 1. Potassium, as potassium chloride - KCl, is the principal ingredient in salt substitutes, and has a saltiness index of 0.6.
  7. 7. SALTY  Cations cause the basic salty taste, and anions modify the basic salt taste.  Sodium and lithium cations produce only salty taste while potassium and other alkaline earth cations produce a combination of both salty and bitter tastes.  The chloride anion is least inhibitory to the salty taste.  Chloride anion doesn’t contribute any taste.  Some anions like citrate suppress salty taste and also contribute anionic tastes to the food products.
  8. 8. SOURNESS  Sourness is the taste that detects acidity.  The sourness of substances is rated relative to dilute hydrochloric acid, which has a sourness index of 1. By comparison, tartaric acid has a sourness index of 0.7, citric acid an index of 0.46, and carbonic acid an index of 0.06 .  As sour taste substances are acidic in nature, they contain at least one proton that is dissociable in aqueous systems
  9. 9. SOURNESS  The acid strength in a solution does not appear to be the major determinant of the sour sensation  Molecular weight, polarity and size are important parameters for the sourness of a substance
  10. 10. PERCEPTION MECHANISM  Sour and Salty tastants modulate taste function by direct entry of H+ and Na+ ions through specialized membrane ion channels.  Epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs), which are ion channels, have been proposed to be the potential Na sensing protein receptors.  Sour sensing is mediated by PKD2L1, PKD2L3, and HCN1 receptor proteins.  The precise mechanism for detecting acids and salts is yet to be elucidated.
  11. 11. SALTY FOOD PRODUCTS  Salt is present in almost all the food products in varying quantities.  Salt is essentially used in them mostly to impart a characteristic flavor or as a preservative.  Most common flavoring agent used is Common Salt i.e. Sodium Chloride(NaCl)
  12. 12. SALTY FOOD PRODUCTS Roasted and Salted Nuts • Salted to impart flavor. • Sodium Content of about 800mg to 1500mg per 100g Fried Snacks • Includes various snacks such as Chips, Fries, Farsan etc • Sodium Content of about 1000mg to 1500mg per 100g Pickles • Salt plays dual role of preservative and flavorant • Very high sodium content of about 1800mg to 2500mg
  13. 13. COMMON SALT  Composition- Common salt is almost entirely composed of NaCl. Impurities include moisture (upto 3%) and other salts like MgCl, CaCl2 etc. Some trace elements are also present.  Occurrence- Salt is abundant in sea water(2-3%). Also obtained from salt beds and landlocked seas (8-15%).  Production-In India salt is mainly obtained from sea water through the salt pans. It is also mined from salt mines near Himalayan region.
  14. 14. COMMON SALT
  15. 15.  Special Salt  Iodized salt is produced as a preventive measure against goiter, a disease of the thyroid gland.  It contains 5 mg/kg of sodium-, potassium- or calcium iodide.  Salt substitutes  Some human diseases make it necessary to avoid excessive intake of sodium ions  Salt Substitutes- Potassium Chloride, Potassium Lactate, Seaweed, Glutamic acid etc
  16. 16. SOUR FOOD PRODUCTS  All the sour food products contain at least one organic acid.  Citrus Fruits  Citrus fruits are the one’s which contain citric acid.  Examples of citrus fruits are lemon, oranges, grapes etc
  17. 17. SOUR FOOD PRODUCTS  Fermented Milk Products  Fermented milk products are dairy foods that have be fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Leuconostoc  These include cheese, yogurt, buttermilk, lassi, shrikhand etc
  18. 18. VINEGAR  Vinegar is the most important single flavoring used to provide or enhance the sour, acidic taste of food  Production  Vinegar is produced microbiologically from ethanol or by dilution of acetic acid.  CH3CH2OH + O2 −→ CH3COOH + H2O + 494 kJ  Microbial Production- Acetobacter species is cultivated in aqueous ethanol solution. It dehydrogenates ethanol to acetic acid.  Reaction occurs in aerobic conditions.
  19. 19. VINEGAR  Chemical Synthesis  Acetic acid is usually synthesized by catalytic oxidation of acetaldehyde:  CH3CHO +1/2 O2 −c−a→t. CH3COOH  Composition  There is 5–15.5 g acetic acid in 100 g of vinegar.  Composition depends upon origin.
  20. 20. Health Benefits  Salty  Salty taste improves the flavor of food, improves digestion, lubricates tissues, liquefies mucous, maintains mineral balance, aids in the elimination of wastes .  Sour  Sour taste stimulates digestion, helps circulation and elimination, energizes the body, strengthens the heart, relieves thirst, maintains acidity, sharpens the senses, and helps extract minerals such as iron from food
  21. 21. Adverse Effects on Health  Salty  High salt intake is associated with various problems such as High Blood Pressure and other cardiovascular diseases.  Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to drizziness or electrolyte disturbance, which can cause neurological problems.  Sour  Overconsumption of acidic foods leads to listlessness, depression, headaches, acne, dry skin, mood swings, poor digestion, brittle nails and hair, and sensitive gums.  Bacteria and viruses thrive in an acidic environment, increase in free radicals will make you susceptible to bacteria and viruses.
  22. 22. THANK YOU

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  • ShatabdiJana

    Oct. 12, 2015
  • SkAbdurRaunak

    Jun. 30, 2020

It aims at giving a brief insight into Sour and Salty tastes.


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