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Mechanism of odour


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Mechanism of odour

  2. 2. Why do we need smell?  Smell is our distant chemical sense.  For many animals, smell is the most important sense.  Although for humans smell is not as important as say vision or hearing, we do use smell more than we think to guide behavior. Smell is an important part of taste. Many qualities of foods that we think we taste, are actually a function of smell
  3. 3. The Sense of Smell Smell depends on sensory receptors that respond to airborne chemicals. In humans, these chemoreceptors are located in the olfactory epithelium — a patch of tissue about the size of a postage stamp located high in the nasal cavity. The olfactory epithelium is made up of three kinds of cells: sensory neurons each with a primary cilium supporting cells between them basal cells that divide regularly producing a fresh crop of sensory neurons to replace those that die (and providing an exception to the usual rule that neurons seldom are replaced).
  4. 4. The sequence of events The cilia of the sensory neurons are immersed in a layer of mucus. Odorant molecules (molecules that we can smell) dissolve in the mucus and bind to receptors on the cilia. These are "7 pass" transmembrane proteins. Binding of the odorant activates a G protein coupled to the receptor on its cytoplasmic side. This activates adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme embedded in the plasma membrane of the cilia. Adenylyl cyclase catalyzes the conversion of ATP to the "second messenger" cyclic AMP (cAMP) in the cytosol
  5. 5.  cAMP opens up ligand-gated sodium channels for the facilitated diffusion of Na+ into the cell. The influx of Na+ reduces the potential across the plasma membrane. If this depolarization reaches threshold, it generates an action potential. The action potential is conducted back along the olfactory nerve to the brain. The brain evaluates this and other olfactory signals reaching it as a particular odor.
  6. 6. How can one kind of cell enable us to discriminate among so many different odors? Humans can discriminate between hundreds, perhaps thousands, of different odorant molecules, each with its own structure. The mammalian genome contains a family of about 1000 related but separate genes encoding different odor receptors.  The olfactory epithelium of rats expresses several hundred genes not expressed in other tissues.  Each gene encodes a transmembrane protein that resembles — but is not identical to — the others.  Each protein contains 7 regions of hydrophobic alpha helix that allow the molecule to pass back and forth 7 times through the plasma membrane.
  7. 7.  However, many odorant molecules are hydrophobic and could easily enter the lipid bilayer and bind to the receptor there. This possibility is supported by the finding that much of the sequence variability from one receptor to another is found in the alpha helices. Each olfactory neuron expresses only a single type of receptor. Some evidence:  Gene probes for a single type of receptor bind to only 1 in a 1000 sensory neurons in a normal olfactory epithelium.  However, rats made to express a single type of receptor in large numbers of their olfactory neurons responded much more vigorously to a single type of odorant than to any of the other 73 tested.  Cells taken from these rats and placed in tissue culture also responded to only that one type of odorant molecule.
  8. 8. The Mechanism: Olfactory transduction occurs when odorant molecules reach the olfactory mucosa and bind to the olfactory receptor proteins on the cilia of the olfactory receptor neurons. When odorants bind to the receptor site, the receptor protein changes shape which in turn triggers the flow of ions across the receptor-cell membrane and an electrical response is triggered in the cilium. Electrical responses in the cilia spread to the rest of the receptor cell, and from there are passed onto the olfactory bulb of the brain in the olfactory nerve. A total of about 10 million receptor neurons are present. Each receptor neuron has about 1,000 similar receptor proteins. Because there are 1,000 different receptor proteins, there are also 1,000 different receptor neurons. Inputs from similar receptor neurons go to similar glomeruli. 1,000 different types of receptor neurons, there are 1,000 different types of glomeruli.
  9. 9.  From the olfactory bulb, mitral cells and tufted cells carry olfactory information to the olfactory cortex, and to the orbitofrontal cortex. Now we have a mechanism for discriminating among a thousand or so odorants. However, Each receptor is probably capable of binding to several different odorants — some more tightly than others. Each odorant is capable of binding to several different receptors.
  10. 10. This provides the basis for combinatorial diversity. It would work like this: Assume that: Odorant A binds to receptors on neurons #3, #427, and #886. Odorant B binds to receptors on neurons #2, #427, and #743. The brain then would interpret the two different patterns of impulses as separate odors. So now we have a mechanism capable of discriminating among millions of different odorants.
  11. 11. The Neural Code for Smell  because odorants are such complicated stimuli, we dont yet have a complete picture of how smell is encoded by the brain  different areas of the mucosa are sensitive to different types of odorants  smells appear to be organized spatially in the olfactory bulb (similar smells are grouped together) an odotope is a group of odorants that share some chemical feature and cause similar patters of neural firing. Neurons that fire to the same odotope are usually located near each other
  12. 12. Experience of Smell Humans can tell the difference between 10,000 different odors. But often it is difficult to name the odors. People who are trained to recognize odors (wine experts or perfume experts) are not necessarily any more sensitive with their nose - just better at retrieving names of smells from memory. Dogs can be 10,000 times more sensitive to odors than humans. Yet, a individual human olfactory receptor is no less sensitive than a dogs. What makes dogs so sensitive? Although their receptors arent any better, they have many many more of them (1 billion receptors in dogs compared to only 10 million in humans). Pleasant smells (like fresh-baked bread or coffee) are used in supermarkets to encourage customers.
  13. 13. THANK YOU