Le subjonctif

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  • Le subjonctif

    1. 1. Le subjonctif
    2. 2. A mood• Like the indicative or the conditional, the subjunctive is a mood, not a tense.• Rather than indicating when something happened, the subjunctive indicates the attitude of the speaker to what is expressed.• In French, the subjunctive involves expressions of doubt, desire, necessity, fear, and possibility.
    3. 3. Formation: the stem• The subjunctive stem is the 3rd person plural ("ils") form of the verb, minus the "ent."• Parler: ils parlent: parl (stem)• Review: regular verbs in the present use the infinitive minus "er," "ir," or "re" as the stem. The impeferct uses the "nous" form minus the "ons" as the stem. Both the future and the conditional use the infinitive (minus the "e" for "re" verbs as the stem).
    4. 4. Formation: endings• The endings for the subjunctive are: e/es/e/ions/iez/ent.• The subjunctive is used in a dependent clause, so it is always introduced with "que."• que je parle/que tu parles/quil parle/que nous parlions/ que vous parliez/quils parlent• Notice that some forms of the subjunctive resemble the present and that some resemble the imperfect. Context become more and more important as you learn French.
    5. 5. Usage• Desire: Je veux que vous me parliez en français.• Necessity: Il faut que vous écoutiez en classe.• Fear: Le prof a peur que ses étudiants nétudient pas assez.• Possibility: Il est possible que vous ne comprenniez pas.• In these example, each clause has a different subject. If the subject is the same, just use "de" plus the infinitive: "Je veux parler en français," "Il faut écouter en classe," "Le prof a peur détudier," "Il est possible de ne pas comprendre."
    6. 6. Usage• You will often find the subjunctive after phrases such as "il faut que," which indicates obligation as in the sense of "must." "Il faut" os invariable; the subject can never be anything but "il."• In everyday speech, French speakers often avoid the subjunctive, but it is imperative to learn it in order to write properly: il faut que vous aprenniez utilser le subjonctif
    7. 7. Irregulars• Some verbs are completely irregular in the subjunctive:• être: que je sois/que tu sois/quil soit/que nous soyons/que vous soyez/quils soient• avoir: que jaie/que tu aies/quil ait/que nous ayons/que vous ayez/quils aient
    8. 8. Irregulars• Some verbs have irregular stems, but regular endings.• Faire: fass- (que je fasse/que tu fasses/quil fasse/que nous fassions/quils fassent)• Savoir: sache- (conjugaison???)• Pouvoir: puiss- (conjugaison???)
    9. 9. Irregulars• Some verbs use one stem for je/tu/il/ils and another for nous/vous.• Vouloir: veuill-/voul- (que je veuille/que tu veuilles/quil veuille/que nous voulions/que vous vouliez/quils veuillent)• Aller: aille-/all- (conjugaison???)• Now, look at our verb worksheet and figure out the subjunctive for each of the 10 verbs!

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