Objectives Be aware of the Do’s and Donts in Written Communication. Apply the Do’s and debunk the Donts in writing business communication. Improve the writing skills needed in the workplace.
RATIONALE Strong Business Communication Skills arecritical to the success of any organization. It isintertwined with internal culture and externalimage of an organization. Good BusinessCommunication assists its organization inachieving its objectives by informing,persuading, and building goodwill with inboth the external and internal environment.
Internal Communication- circulates within an organization.1. Memos2. Reports3. Proposal4. E-mail5. Letters
External Documents - circulate outside of the organization.1.Letters2.Tenders3. Proposals4. Reports
Business correspondence is an instrument of decision making in the business world. Business correspondence includes all types of notes, minutes, memos, letters as well as electronic mails and messages. Correspondence provides a record of transactions in business and industry that can be referred to and checked.
PROCESS OF LETTER WRITING Analyze your audience Analyze your purpose Gather information about your subject Choose the type of document- (letter, e-mail, memo) Draft the document Format the Document Revise, edit and proof read the document
HOW TO EFFECTIVELY PRESENT ONE SELF IN A CORRESPONDENCE?
1. USE THE APPROPRIATE LEVEL OF FORMALITY Letters, memos and emails are legal property of the organization; They may be read by the president, by the Governor himself, appear in the newspaper or court of law. Therefore, use moderate tone to avoid potential embarrassment.EX.Informal- Our meeting with the administrator went south right away when they threw a hissy fit, saying that we blew off the deadline for the progress report.Formal- In our meeting, the administrator expressed concern that we had missed the deadline for the progress report.
2. COMMUNICATE CORRECTLY Letters, represent the organization to the public, inappropriate use of mechanics- grammar reflect negatively on the organizations image. It is unprofessional since it suggests a lack of respect for your immediate supervisor, with the readers and yourself. It also causes your readers to think that you are careless about your job. Ensure that your message is accurate and unambiguous. The message should be concise and direct. Direct language should be used in order to avoid confusion and misunderstanding.
Those who formulated these statements did not fully consider the implications caused by the way in which the sentences were phrased. In a sense, they became victims of the Humpty-Dumpty Syndrome, a phenomenon where individuals fail to realize that words have many meanings and that others may not always be able to surmise the intent of a particular statement
Examples: Often, you may see a sign like the following at a mall: Entire store 25% off Do I need to buy the whole store, or can I just pick out a few items of interest?
The lady hit the man with an umbrella. Is the lady using an umbrella to hit OR Is she hitting a man who is carrying an umbrella? He gave her cat food. Is he giving cat food to her OR Is he giving her cat some food?)
3. PROJECT THE “YOU” ATTITUDE This entails knowing your audience. How?This is done by using the “you attitude”. looking at the situation from the reader’s perspective or point of view. The content, structure and tone should be adjusted to meet the readers’ needs. Your explanation should be clear and polite. Speak directly to the readers, addressing their individual needs and interests. This is achieved by using the personal pronoun “you". The writer should use a professional and courteous tone.
ME-ATTITUDE YOU-ATTITUDEWe have received your letter of June 15 Thank you for your letter on June 15I have five years experience as a sales Five years practical experience as juniorexecutive. accountant will enable me increase your sales.We shipped your order today. Your order will arrive on Thursday.Dear Mr .Jones, Dear Mr .Jones,I am happy to inform you that we have Congratulations! Your loan is approved.approved your loan.
Do More with LessThe paragraph below contains 70 words. Can you cut it down to 35 words or less?This document is for the purpose of giving the reader a detailed explanation of the inventory process. It describes the activities we currently do in the majority of instances on a daily and weekly basis. In order to provide an introduction to the process for employees who work on a temporary basis, we also have prepared an overview, which describes the highlights of the inventory process in just two pages.
Here is a 30-word revision:This document explains the inventory process in detail. It describes our usual daily and weekly activities. We also have prepared a two-page overview to introduce the process to temporary employees.
This document is for the This document explains the purpose of giving the reader a inventory process in detail. It detailed explanation of the describes our usual daily and inventory process. It describes weekly activities. We also have the activities we currently do in prepared a two-page overview the majority of instances on a to introduce the process to daily and weekly basis. In order temporary employees. to provide an introduction to the process for employees who work on a temporary basis, we also have prepared an overview, which describes the highlights of the inventory process in just two pages.
Let’s try another:It is the belief of the Accounting Department that the predicament was precipitated by the computational inaccuracy.
It is the belief of the The AccountingAccounting Department thinks aDepartment that the Math error caused thepredicament was problemprecipitated by thecomputationalinaccuracy.
One more…Subsequent to the passage of the subject ordinance, it is incumbent upon you to advise your department to comply with it.
Subsequent to the After the law passes, you passage of the subject must tell your staff to ordinance, it is follow. incumbent upon you to advise your department to comply with it.
Improving Openers for Routine Request LettersWeak: I’ve been given the task of locating a convention site for my company’s meeting. I’ve checked a number of places, and your hotel looks possible.
Improved: Will you please answer the following questions regarding possible accommodations at the Dusit Hotel for a conference in May.
Weak: While reading Times Magazine, I noticed an offer of a free video describing your organization.
Improved: Please send me your free video describing your organization.
Weak: I am conducting a training class for students of Language at our Language Training Center, and I saw a series of modules that we would like to use in our program.
Improved: What is the procedure for ordering a copy of the series of English Language Modules to be used for training purposes?
Improved: We would appreciate receiving answers to these questions before April 4 so that we will have plenty of time to plan our conference.
To lighten up your sentences, watch for heavy phrases like these: Instead of using…. use the following instead. In order to To On a daily basis Daily On a regular basis Routinely Aware of the fact that Know It this point in time Now Have the capability to Can the majority of Most
In inspite of the fact that AlthoughIn the final analysis FinallyIt is our opinion that We think thatOn the grounds that BecauseMake reference to Refer toUntil such time UntilCame to the conclusion Concluded, decidedFor the purpose of discussing DiscussAt a later moment laterTrue facts FactsCPU unit CPU
In as few word as Concisely12 midnight Midnight12 noon NoonBiography of her life BiographyRefer back ReferCircle around CircleEach and every EachAlternative choices Alternative/choicesRepeat again RepeatWe are in receipt of We have receivedFinal completion CompletionEnclosed herewith enclosed
Eliminate Sexist or Gender BiasedLanguage Example Preferred Comment Alternative Example 1 Accountants use their reason to Use plural nouns. The accountants uses his guide them. OR: The accountant Delete he, his, or him reason to guide him. uses reason as a guide. altogether, rewording if necessary . Example 2 The secretary did it and was Delete he, using The secretary did it and he glad. compound verbs. was glad.
Example 3 The department chair must submit Use articles (the, a, an) instead a budget by March 1st. of personal pronouns.The department chair must submithis budget by March 1st. OR: The budget must be submitted by Use passive voice for verbs. (Use the department chair by March 1st. sparingly.)Example 4 The writer who plans ahead will save a Use who for he.If the writer plans ahead, he will save lot of effort.a lot of effort.Example 5 Take seriously what your Dean says Substitute a noun for the pronoun.Take seriously what your Dean says about falling enrollments. This person (Use sparingly.)about falling enrollments. He knows knows about current demographicabout current demographic trends. trends.Example 6 Consider what ordinary people Using the plural noun avoids theConsider what the ordinary (common) (individuals) think about justice. generic he later on.man thinks about justice.
Avoid correspondence Natural equivalents clichés- vague and unclear words/expressions should be avoided Letter clichés attached is Attached please find “As you wrote in your “Referring to your last letter on letter on March 19, the March19,2012 …” shipment of pianos…” “I believe…” “The writer believes that…”
Communicate HonestlyCommunicating honestly show respect for youraudience. It is a clear sign of professionalism.The message should be simple and clear for thereaders to understand so that they are able torespond to it accordingly. Ideas within the message should be separated within paragraphs.
COMMONLY MISUSED WORDSWITH REGARDSBetter use….with regard to,in regard to or as regards
in behalf of – in the interest of (This deposit is being made in behalf of my boss). on behalf of – speaking for (On behalf of the staff, I wrote this explanatory letter).
Taken cared of should be taken care ofThe program was taken care of the coordinator.
fill (a vacant position)The manager is in a hurry to fill the vacancy. fill in (the blanks)The doctor-clients simply want to fill in blanks-not write paragraphs.
Fill out ( a form) Could you please fill out this form?Fill up (a gas tank) I need you to fill up the tank. (bottle)
CONTINOUS- no such word. CONTINUOUS means nonstop, no letup, no rest, no recreation, no sleeping, no eating. It is therefore unimaginable to continuously improve a product.It maybe continual or regular improvement of a product or a continuing improvement of a product.
Thank you for your continued (or continuing, not continuous) support of our program. We have been continually making follow-ups for you to submit the financial reports. Having a continuing program to improve the quality of service is our major concern. A regular improvement in the quality of service is …….
“Enclosed is the registration form you requested”.Is the registration form enclosed with the letter? No, it’s attached to the letter or sent with it.Better: Attached is the registration form your requested us to send you. or with this letter is…Here is….ENCLOSED is correct if written in an envelope.Enclosed is the registration form you requested.
Use of in, on, atOn, in ______street (on/ in Nueno Avenue)At 239 Nueno StreetOn November 1-30In NovemberOn November 1In 2012In November 2012On November 15,2012
Last night, last week, last November 4, last month – are ok.(speaking only of the last ones)But you don’t use last with a year…Last November 2011. we had a series of motivational outings.Correct: In November 2011….Wrong: The staff meeting was held last August 26, 2011.Correct: The staff meting was held on August 26, 2011.
The irritating PER“As per your instruction”“Per you r approval”Should be:As you have instructed.As you have approved.
“Hope for your kind consideration.” “Hoping for your kind consideration.”Instead say….. I hope for your kind consideration. We are earnestly hoping for your early approval of this request.
More Rules: One of the – should be followed by plural noun One of the major tools Spell out numbers one through nine and use figures for 10 onwardsThere are nine additional chairs to be delivered in the Office of the Governor.
To is always followed by a verb in the present tense.I was able to talked to the Vice Governor yesterday. To received? to wrote? to did?
Look forward to must not be followed by verbbut by a noun or a gerund. (verb-noun ending in – ing) LOOK FORWARD TO SERVE YOUSHOULD BE LOOK FORWARD TO SERVING YOU
Noted by has no place in a memo or letter. The signatory of Noted By is simply saying “I know this.”Better use :Approved by:Endorsed By:Reviewed by: Checked by:Or you may use a Thru line.
Overview of Letter Parts Letterhead Dateline Letter Address Salutation Body Complimentary Closing Writer’s Name and Title Reference Initials
The letter head is the heading at the top of a letter. It usually consists of the name, address, telephone number and fax number of the company. The letterhead can be typed out but it is usually printed on the company’s stationery
265 Jean Way West Avenue , Makati City Phone 471-2060 Fax 784 6734If you do not have a letter headyou must write your name, addressand telephone number at the top ofthe page or above the insideaddress
The date line is used to indicate the date the letter was written. If your letter is completed over a number of days, use the date it was finished and mailed. Date formats: American- month/date/year
English - day/month/ year Chinese - year/month/day Depending which format you are using for your letter, either left justify the date or center it horizontally. Write out the date two inches from the top of the page.
The inside address is the recipient’s address. It is always best to write to a specific individual at the firm to which you are writing. If you do not have the person’s name, do some research by calling the company or speaking with employees from the company .
Follow a woman’s preference in being addressed as: Miss, Mrs., or Ms. If you are unsure of a woman’s preference in being addressed, use Ms.
If there is a possibility that the person to whom you are writing is a Dr. or has some other title, use that title. Usually, people will not mind being addressed by a higher title than they actually possess.
If you don’t know a reader’s gender, use a nonsexist salutation, except "To Whom it May Concern." It is acceptable to use the full name in a salutation if you cannot determine gender. For example, you might write Dear Chris Harmon:
Dear Personnel Director, Dear Sir or Madam (use if you dont know who you are writing to) The least that you can use. Dear Mr., Mrs., Miss or Ms (use if you know who you are writing to. VERY IMPORTANT use Ms for women unless asked to use Mrs. or Miss) Dear Frank (use if the person is a close business contact or friend)
For block and modified block formats, single space and left justify each paragraph within the body of the letter. Leave a blank line between each paragraph. When writing a business letter, be careful to remember that conciseness is very important.
In the first paragraph, consider a friendly opening and then a statement of the main point. The next paragraph should begin justifying the importance of the main point. In the next few paragraphs, continue justification with background information and supporting details. The closing paragraph should restate the purpose of the letter and, in some cases, request some type of action.
We are writing in connection with... We are writing to enquire about ... Thank you for your letter of February 20 concerning … Further to our telephone discussion …, we would like to inform you that ... With reference to your enquiry about…
I look forward to receiving your reply. I look forward to hearing fom you soon. We look forward to seeing you soon. Please feel free to contact us if necessary.+CLOSE
With reference to your advertisement in the Times, your letter of 23 rd March, your phone call today, Thank you for your letter of March 5 th
I am writing to enquire about…I am writing to apologize for…I am writing to confirm…
I am writing to enquire aboutI am writing to apologize forI am writing to confirm
Could you possibly? I would be grateful if you couldAgreeing to Requests•I would be delighted to
Giving Bad News •Unfortunately •I am afraid that Enclosing Documents•I am enclosing/attaching•Please find enclosed•Enclosed you will find
Thank you for your help.Please contact us again if we can help in any way, if there are any problems, if you have any questions.
I look forward to ... hearing from you soon. meeting you next Tuesday. seeing you next Thursday.
Yours faithfully, (If you dont know the name of the person youre writing to) Yours sincerely, (If you know the name of the person youre writing to) Best wishes, Best regards, (If the person is a close business contact or friend)
Typist initials are used to indicate the person who typed the letter. If you typed the letter yourself, omit the typist initials.
If you have enclosed/attached any documents along with the letter, such as a resume, you indicate this simply by typing Enclosures one line below the closing. As an option, you may list the name of each document you are including in the envelope. For instance, if you have included many documents and need to insure that the recipient is aware of each document, it may be a good idea to list the names.
If you are sending a copy of the letter to another person or company, include that information at the bottom of the page. It should have the letters Cc in front of the information.
The postscript is used to add an afterthought. In sales letters, it is used mainly as added punch. Use the initials PS before the message.
When writing business letters, you must pay special attention to the format and font used.( arial, 11) The most common layout of a business letter is known as block format.Using this format, the entire letter is left justified and single spaced except for a double space between paragraphs.
Another widely utilized format is known as modified block format. the body of the letter is left justified and single-spaced. the date and closing are in alignment in the center of the page.
The final, and least used, style is semi- block. It is much like the modified block style except that each paragraph is indented instead of left justified
2” Top margin Date QS (Press Enter 4 times) Inside Address– DS (press Enter 2 times) Salutation – DS (press Enter 2 times) Body – SS the text within the paragraph and DS between the paragraphs Complimentary Closing – QS Writer’s ID (name and address)
Dear Mr. Monzon, I have gone through the letter sent by your office last week. Please be advised that our company can accept the offer to which the letter refers because it would be beneficial for our company in several ways. Infact, we have been looking for such innovation programmes for our junior executives for a long time but no training and consultancy company came forward to send us this interesting proposal. We have gone through the structure of the workshop and find it exhaustive and inappropriate. However, the workshop may not be effective unless it includes some project work relating some important areas of artificial intelligence. Moreover, our company may not be able to upgrade the knowledge level in this regard on a continuous basis unless the project work is included. There is no doubt that you have worked hard to design the structure of the programme so that it is suited for our needs. Nevertheless, we would not be able to take any action unless we receive your final proposal. Send this positively by the end of May, 2012. With regards, Yours sincerely,
I have gone through the letter Please refer to your letter sent by your office last week. Please be advised that our dated March 29,2012, company can accept the offer to containing the proposal to which the letter refers because it conduct a special workshop would be beneficial for our on Artificial Intelligence for company in several ways. Infact, the junior executives of our we have been looking for such innovation programmes for our company. junior executives for a long time but no training and consultancy company came forward to send us this interesting proposal.
We have gone through the I have gone through the structure of structure of the workshop and the Artificial Intelligence module find it exhaustive and and find it exhaustive and inappropriate. However, the appropriate. However, you may workshop may not be effective consider including the initiation unless it includes some project of some specific project work work relating some important relating to artificial intelligence. areas of artificial intelligence. This may help us in continuing Moreover, our company may our efforts to upgrade the not be able to upgrade the knowledge level of our knowledge level in this regard executives in this regard on a on a continuous basis unless the continuous basis. project work is included.
There is no doubt that you It gives me immense pleasure have worked hard to in acknowledging the design the structure of the effort that you have put in programme so that it is to designing the structure suited for our needs. of the module, which is Nevertheless, we would appropriately suited to our not be able to take any needs. I would appreciate if action unless we receive you could send us the final your final proposal. Send proposal by the end of this positively by the end May,2012. of May, 2012.
With regards, We look forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely, Yours sincerely,
cal structure which bores much resemblance of the phonological and lexical similarities of Guyanese acrolectal and mesolectal creole features. There Dear Mr. Monzon, Please refer to your letter dated March 29,2012, containing the proposal to conduct a special workshop on Artificial Intelligence for the junior executives of our company. I have gone through the structure of the Artificial Intelligence module and find it exhaustive and appropriate. However, you may consider including the initiation of some specific project work relating to artificial intelligence. This may help us in continuing our efforts to upgrade the knowledge level of our executives in this regard on a continuous basis. It gives me immense pleasure in acknowledging the effort that you have put in to designing the structure of the module, which is appropriately suited to our needs. I would appreciate if you could send us the final proposal by the end of May,2012. We look forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely, Name/Signature
Memos are the workhorses of business communication, used for the routine, day to day exchange of information within an organization for internal communication. Business memos describe problems, inform employees, request information or additional resources, explain actions and policies, provide direction and give feedback. Good memos discuss one topic. They are less private than letters.
CHARACTERISTICS I. describe problems 2. request for information or additional resources 3. contain proposals or request for proposals 4. explain policy statements 5. contain office instruction or guidelines 6. persuade the reader to take action 7. invite the reader to business meetings and conferences 8. give feedback suggestions and recommendations 9. seek explanations and clarifications 10. polite reminders
There are usually 1. upward memos – subordinates to supervisors 2. downward memos- supervisors to subordinates
Memos should beclear- simple, specific and familiar words. Avoid clichés and overused proverbs and phrasesconcise- essential information- Unnecessary repetition of words, and explanation should be avoided.unified according to theme- ensure the memo discusses one specific topicinformal tone- the tone is usually conversational
HEADING Date: (complete and current) To: (Name and designation of the recipient) From: ( name and designation of the sender) Subject: (Topic of the memo usually expressed as a phrase)OPENING- states the basic purpose (central idea) of the memo.BODY - contains the message of the memo. It describes, explains and discusses the central idea of the memo.CLOSING- states what action the reader is required to take.SIGNATURE- (this is sometimes used)
HEADINGDate : November 21 , 2012To /For : Janice Ilano , Administrative OfficerFrom : Roy David, Vice President for Internal AffairsSubject : Seminar on Workplace Communcation
Date : March 7,2012 To : All employees From : Anil Marks, Director (sales and Marketing) Subject: New Health Scheme______________________________________OPENINGThe company is introducing a new health schemecalled SCS Health Plan. You will receive your medicalcard and a booklet outlining the terms and conditions of thescheme by June 30,2012.BODYThe main features of the SCS Health Plan include:a. Medical reimbursement for treatment at private hospitals and clinics.b. Direct payment of medical expenses to ALLMS and other important national hospital.c. Medical facilities for retired staffd. Token system at SCS HospitalSCS Health Plan is compulsory for all employees of the company. The use of the medical card ismandatory.CLOSINGI am sure the health scheme will improve the existing medical facilities and would benefit our company. We encourage you to use yourmedical card you visit a health centre or the SCS hospital and follow the guidelines contain in the brochure. Your cooperation in thismatter will be greatly appreciated.Anil Marks
Other things to remember when writing a memo or letter:Do not end memos with these all-too-common phrases: For your information. For your perusal. For your strict compliance For your approval Thank you
• Memorandum [Memorandum] Format To : Mr. John Q. Public From: Any A. Person AAP [handwritten]• Memo may be labeled at top center, or not, as you see fit. Date: August 27, 2007• Place your handwritten Re : Format of Memos initials after your typed name in “From” line.• Triple space after “Re” line, Paragraph 1……………………………. which may be labeled …………………………………………… ………………………………………….. “Subject” instead.• Single space within Paragraph 2……………………………. paragraphs; double space …………………………………………… between paragraphs. …………………………………………… ……………………………………………
• Memorandum [Memorandum] Format To: Mr. John Q. Public From: Any A. Person AAP [handwritten]• Memo may be labeled at top center, or not, as you see fit. Date: August 27, 2007• Place your handwritten Re: Format of Memos initials after your typed name in “From” line.• Triple space after “Re” line, Paragraph 1……………………………. which may be labeled …………………………………………… ………………………………………….. “Subject” instead.• Single space within Paragraph 2……………………………. paragraphs; double space …………………………………………… between paragraphs. …………………………………………… ……………………………………………
• Full Block 123 Any St. Cookeville, TN 38505 Format August 27, 2007 Mr. John Q. Public• All lines begin at left 456 Any Ave. margin. Cookeville, TN 38501• No name line in return Dear Mr. Public: address--unless you are using preprinted stationery. Paragraph 1……………………………• Double space between …………………………………………… parts of letter; single space ………………………………………….. within parts of letter. Paragraph 2……………………………..• Quadruple space (i.e., 3 …………………………………………… blank lines) between complimentary close and Sincerely, printed name, leaving room for signature. [Signature] Printed name
• Modified Block 123 Any St. Cookeville, TN 38505 with Indentions August 27, 2007 Format Mr. John Q. Public 456 Any Ave. Cookeville, TN 38501• Indent first line of each paragraph 5 spaces. Dear Mr. Public:• Otherwise follow modified block format. Paragraph 1…………………………. ……………………………………………• This format is sometimes …………………………………………… referred to as Semiblock with Indentions format. Paragraph 2…………………………. …………………………………………… Sincerely, [Signature] Printed Name
• Simplified Format 123 Any St. Cookeville, TN 38505 August 27, 2007• Replace Salutation with “Re” (or “Subject”) line. Pat Smith 456 Any Ave.• Otherwise follow one of the Cookeville, TN 38501 other letter formats exactly.• Use this format when no Re: recipient name is known or when name is of ambiguous Paragraph 1………………………… …………………………………………… gender and actual gender of ………………………………………….. letter recipient is unknown (i.e., Pat Smith). Paragraph 2………………………… …………………………………………… Very truly yours, [Signature] Printed Name
Electronic –mail is the medium of communication that sends and receives messages through specially designed computer networks. They are means to reach people both inside and outside the organization.
NETIQUETTE Its likely that Internet tools will provide most of the mediated communication in which your group engages. Netiquette refers to etiquette on the Internet. The guidelines below generally apply to email, chat rooms, and discussion boards.
Keep messages as straight-forward and concise as possible. Recipients may hit the "delete" button if they see a lengthy, cluttered, and unclear message. Quote relevant parts of a message to which you are responding so the original sender (or others who may read the email) understands the context of your response. Make sure that your name and the messages subject are included. Focus on one topic in each message. If you try to cover multiple topics, some of your points may be missed. Type in lowercase. Uppercase means that youre SHOUTING. Keep in mind that for many Internet users, and possibly members of your small group, English is not their first language. Ask senders for clarification before making judgments and jumping to conclusions.
Before you write an email, ensure that you are aware of the organization’s e-mail policies. When you write emails, adhere to netiquette standards. Stick to business. Do not send jokes or other non-business messages. Keep the message brief; when you reply to a former email do not quote long passages. Write correctly- you should edit, and proofread your e- mail before sending them.
Do not FLAME. To flame is to scorch the readers with scathing criticism, usually in response to something that the person wrote in a previous message. When you are angry keep your hands away from the keyboard. Make your messages easy on the eyes. Use uppercase and lowercase letters, and skip lines for paragraphing where necessary. Do not forward a message to an online discussion forum without the writer’s permission. Doing so is unethical and illegal; the email is the intellectual property of the writer. Do not send an email unless you have something to say.
ALWAYS proofread your correspondence before printing. It is also good to have someone else proofread your work.
Write a letter of Invitation to someone to be your guest speaker for the coming seminar –workshop of your department with the theme Enhancing Communication in the Workplace. (You may decide on the venue and the date). Use all the parts of a letter The return address Date line Inside address Salutation Body of the letter three paragraphs Complimentary closing
Your immediate supervisor sent you a memo requesting you to explain in 24 hours why you have been coming to work late for the past three (3) days. Write a memo to your office staff requesting him/her to explain in 24 hours the reason behind his or her absence for the past three (3) days.
Carrel, Joyce.,.2004.,Writing and grammar, communication in action, Pearson Education South Asia,Singapore. Hands, Penny.,2002., Time-chambers English grammar usage., 2002.,Federal Publication.,Singapore. Paterno, Adelaida., 2003.,Oral readers of English as a second language.,Rex Book Store, Manila. Richard Killer.,2005 Double –check your workplace English.,New Day Pub.,Q.C.