Writing Research Report


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Writing Research Report

  1. 1. Effective Report Writing Prepared by: Mrs. Najmunnisa Siddiqui
  2. 2. Recall your memory <ul><li>What is report? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the purpose of it? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it contain? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Report <ul><li>Report means a statement or description of what has been said, seen, done, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>It contains facts figures, information, analysis, opinion, suggestions, recommendations, drafts , charts, pictures, statistical tables specially complied for a particular purpose. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Purpose of Report writing <ul><li>Business report writing serves the purpose of exploring a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of a Business Reports to communicate information to assist in the business Decision Making Process. </li></ul><ul><li>Some reports might propose solutions for business problems or might present relevant information to assist in the problem solving process. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is a Good Report? <ul><li>A good report is one that is read and action taken because of it (not just filed and ignored). </li></ul><ul><li>An effective report is one that is read; and that stimulates some sort of an action as a result of being read. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What Makes a Report Good? <ul><li>Students` Response </li></ul>
  7. 7. Essentials of Report Writing With Style <ul><li>Clear </li></ul><ul><li>Complete </li></ul><ul><li>Concise </li></ul><ul><li>Creative </li></ul><ul><li>Considerate </li></ul><ul><li>Correct </li></ul><ul><li>Credible </li></ul><ul><li>Courtesy </li></ul><ul><li>Concreteness </li></ul>
  8. 8. Clarity <ul><li>have a definite purpose for writing and make sure it is clearly communicated up front. Be bold and connect quickly. Getting the meaning from your head into the head of your reader – accurately </li></ul><ul><li>Information has to be understood at the first reading. The report has to be easy to read with legible writing and a clear message. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Guideline No.1 for Communicating with Clarity <ul><ul><li>Your audience will understand better if you Choose precise, concrete and familiar words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Familiar Pretentious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After subsequent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example e.g. (L) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay remuneration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invoice statement for payment </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Clarity <ul><li>Example of Unfamiliar/Familiar sentences: </li></ul><ul><li>Unfamiliar: </li></ul><ul><li>After our perusal of pertinent data, the conclusion is that lucrative market exists for the subject property. </li></ul><ul><li>Familiar </li></ul><ul><li>The data we studied show that your property is profitable and in high demand. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Guideline No. 2 for Communicating with Clarity <ul><ul><li>Your audience will understand better if you construct effective sentences and paragraphs. This includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Length of sentence: Try for 17-20 words per sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unity: In a sentence keep one idea at a time. If you want to add another idea, it should be closely related to the first one. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: “I like Jim, and Eiffel Tower is in Paris” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Above sentence is obviously is not a unified sentence. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Coherence <ul><ul><li>In a coherent sentence the words are correctly arranged so that the ideas clearly express the intended meaning. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example of Coherent and non-coherent sentences: </li></ul><ul><li>Unclear: Our report is about testing, broken down in unit and functional methods </li></ul><ul><li>Clear: Our report on testing focused on unit and functional methods </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Unclear: After planting 10, 000 berry plants, the deer came into our botanist’s arm and crushed them. </li></ul><ul><li>Clear: After our botanist had planted 10,000 berry plants, the deer came into his farm and crushed them </li></ul>
  14. 14. Completeness <ul><li>Your business message is complete when it contains all the facts, according to the reader or listener needs for reaction you desire. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicators-Sender and receivers-differ in their mental filters; they are influenced by their backgrounds, viewpoints, needs, experiences, attitudes, status, and emotions. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Because of these differences, communication senders need to assess their messages through the eyes of receivers. To be sure they have included all relevant information. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide all necessary information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who, what, where, when, why, how? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Answer all questions asked </li></ul><ul><li>Give something extra, when desirable </li></ul>
  16. 16. Completeness - examples <ul><li>Q: How come my request for an interview did not receive a response? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A: When was the letter sent? To whom? Who sent it? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Q: I’m new to the city, and would like to join your club. When is the next open day? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A: Where are we? How to get here? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Conciseness <ul><li>Your report is only to be as long as you need to include the necessary information. </li></ul><ul><li>Use short, simple sentences. Do not use jargon or words that aren’t required. </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate Wordy Expressions: </li></ul>Soon In due course Need Have need for Because Due to the fact that Now At this time
  18. 18. <ul><li>Omit unnecessary expressions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow me to say how helpful your last response was </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your last response was helpful </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Replace wordy conventional statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Please find attached the list you requested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The list you requested is attached </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Omit “which” and “that” clause whenever possible . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She bought desks that are of the executive type. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She bough executive-type desks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eliminate unnecessary prepositional phrases. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The issue of most relevance is teamwork. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most relevant issue is teamwork. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limit use of passive voice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The reports are to be submitted by employee prior to 5:00 at which time they will be received by Mr. Jones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Please submit your reports to Mr. Jones by 5:00 </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Consideration <ul><li>Consideration means preparing every message to keep your audience in your mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on you instead of I and we </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You are foremost aware of their desires, problems, circumstances, emotions, and probable reactions to your request. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This thoughtful consideration is also called “you attitude,” empathy, the human touch, and understanding. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Take an interest in the reader, show how the reader will benefit. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Readers react positively when benefits are shown to them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emphasise positive, pleasant facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Readers will react positively or negatively to certain words </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>I am delighted to announce that we will be extending our hours to make shopping more convenient </li></ul><ul><li>You will be able to shop evenings with the extended hours …(Focus on “You” Instead of “I”) </li></ul><ul><li>It is impossible to open an account for you today. (Negative, Unpleasant) </li></ul><ul><li>When we receive proof of ID we will gladly open an account for you (Emphasis on Positive, Pleasant Facts) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Concreteness <ul><li>Communicating concretely means being specific, definite, and vivid rather than vague and general. </li></ul><ul><li>Often it means using denotative (direct, explicit, often dictionary based) rather than connotative words (ideas or notions suggested by or associated with a word or phrase) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Guide Lines for creating concrete messages <ul><li>Use specific facts and figures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is desirable in both oral & written communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>She’s a brain (Vague, General, Indefinite) </li></ul><ul><li>Her grade-point average in 2006 was 3.9 on a four-point scale. (Concrete, Precise) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Guide Lines for Creating Concrete Messages <ul><li>: Put action in your verbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbs propel thought: Verbs can activate other words and help make your sentences alive, more vigorous. That is to have dynamic sentences in your communication. Active verbs help your sentence more: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific: “The dream decided” is more explicit than “A decision has been made” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal: “You will note” is both personal and specific; “It will be noted” is impersonal.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concise: The passive requires more words and thus shows both writing and reading. Compare “Figures show” with “It is shown in the figure.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphatic: Passive verbs dull action. Compare “The students held a contest” with “A contest was held by the students.” </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Courtesy <ul><li>The courtesy involves being aware not only of the perspective of others, but also their feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing your audience allows you to use statements of courtesy </li></ul><ul><li>Be sincerely tactful, thoughtful and appreciative </li></ul><ul><li>Use expressions that show respect </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Choose non-discriminatory expressions, for example i n order to avoid gender discrimination you can use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entering student instead of freshman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers, employees instead of manpower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The best candidate for the position instead of the best man for the position. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Clearly, you did not read my latest fax </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes my wording is not precise; let me try again (Tactfulness) </li></ul><ul><li>Manpower vs. Employees (More Desirable as its non-sexist term) </li></ul><ul><li>Man-made vs. manufactured </li></ul><ul><li>The best man for the job vs. The Best Candidate </li></ul>
  29. 29. Correctness <ul><li>At the core of Correctness is proper grammar, punctuation, and spelling. </li></ul><ul><li>However, a message may be perfect grammatically and mechanically but still insult or lose a customer </li></ul><ul><li>The term “Correctness,” as applied to business messages, also means the following three characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the right level of language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check accuracy of figures, facts, and words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain acceptable writing mechanics. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Use the right level of Language: <ul><li>There are three levels of language: formal, informal, and substandard. </li></ul><ul><li>Formal writing this often associated with scholarly writing: doctoral dissertations, scholarly articles, legal documents, top level government agreements, and other material where formality is demanded. </li></ul><ul><li>Informal writing is more characteristic of business writing. Here you use words that are short, well known, and conversational as follows: </li></ul>
  31. 31. Formal vs. informal <ul><ul><ul><li>Participate/ join </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procure /get </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endeavor/ try </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ascertain/ find out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deem/ think </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Check accuracy of figures & facts <ul><ul><li>Verify your statistical data. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double-check your totals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have someone else read your message if the topic involves data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine whether a “fact” has changed overtime. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Avoid using substandard language: <ul><li>Substandard vs. more appropriate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ain’t vs. isn’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aim at proving vs. aim to prove </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irregardless vs. regardless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should of vs. should have </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Accept vs. except </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept is a verb and means to receive; Except is a verb or a preposition and relates to omitting or leaving out. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Between vs. among </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between involves two people, among three or more </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effect vs. affect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effect is a noun, affect is a verb </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Farther vs. further </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farther used for distance in space, further for distance in time, quality or degree </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imply, infer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imply means “suggest”; infer means “to conclude” </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Be credible: <ul><li>strive to present yourself from a position of reliability and competence. Write to reinforce your message and make it more believable. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Considerate <ul><li>. Be considerate: keep your reader's needs in mind as you write. Ask yourself, 'Why should my reader spend time reading this?' </li></ul>
  37. 37. Be Creative <ul><li>Be creative: use different formats (vs. straight narrative) to communicate your message. Q & A format, graphics, Idea lists, etc. </li></ul>
  38. 38. References <ul><li>http://www.articlesbase.com/business-articles/how-to-write-a-business-report-130904.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.personal-writer.com/blog/what-makes-a-good-report-write </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.lancs.ac.uk/depts/conted/learningskillsresources/Learning%20skills%20resources/Get%20good%20marks/GGM-U4.pdf </li></ul>