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The Future of the Image       Jacques Rancière
Jacques Rancière                        • Althusser’s student- has departed from the path                          set by ...
Principle of equality     Deranty (2010)     • an “axiom”: Equality between individuals must be       postulated because i...
The Future of the Image     • Reflects on what artistic images are, and       contemporary changes in their status     • D...
Rancière’s “materialism”     Deranty (2010)     • Paradoxical: not premised upon a single, firmly defended       metaphysi...
Contents     • Introduction     • Images as “operations” and “regime of       imageness”     • Rancières deconstructive re...
Image as “operations” and “regime of imageness”     • not primarily manifestations of the properties       of a certain te...
Bresson’s imagesBresson’s (1966) Au Hasard Balthazar                                       • Operations that couple       ...
Films and television broadcasting     • Image refers to an Other, and Visual refers to       nothing but itself.     • Tel...
Films and television broadcasting     • The set with in-built light and the camera place us       before a feat of memory ...
Two different image-functions     • Resemblance- the simple relationship that produces       the likeness of an original: ...
Cinematic & literary images     • Bresson’s cinema does not realize a peculiar essence       of the cinema.     • The came...
Contents     • Introduction     • Images as “operations” and “regime of       imageness”     • Rancières deconstructive re...
Barthes argument in Camera Lucida     • Semiology: pursuing the messages hidden in images to purify both the       surface...
Barthes argument in Camera Lucida     • Assertion of "the wordless, senseless materiality       of the visible" that elude...
Rancières deconstructive redirection     • detaches Barthes ontology of photography from       any unique technical featur...
From one regime of ‘imageness’ to another     • A particular regime of articulation between the       visible and the saya...
The aesthetic regime     • It is a way in which things themselves speak and       are silent.     • Silent speech         ...
Photography as an art     • By placing its particular techniques in the       services of this dual poetics, by making the...
The aesthetic regime     • First, it dismantles the hierarchical system of       artistic subject matter, styles and genre...
Rancières deconstructive redirection     • What the simple relationship between       mechanical impression and the punctu...
A historical perspective     • Artistic images were redefined in a mobile       relationship between brute presence and en...
The end of images is behind us     • Proposals to abolish the mediation of the       image- that is, not only resemblance ...
• Pure art: whose results       no longer compose       images, but directly              • Becoming-life-art: which      ...
The end of images is behind us     • The end of images- the only one to have been       rigorously thought through and pur...
Naked, ostensive, metamorphic image     • Three ways of          • coupling and uncoupling the power of showing           ...
Naked image     • The image that does not constitute art       because what its shows us excludes the       prestige of di...
Ostensive image                                 Voici- 100 Years of Contemporary Art     • It asserts its power as       t...
Metamorphic image     • It is impossible to delimit a specific sphere of       presence isolating artistic operations and ...
Voilà: The world in my head     • The labour of art thus involves playing in the ambiguity of       resemblances and the i...
Contents     • Introduction     • Images as “operations” and “regime of       imageness”     • Rancières deconstructive re...
Conclusion     • Media- functions; images- operations     • Technical devices; social production     • Rhetoric of exegesi...
References     • Deranty, J.-P. (Ed.). (2010). Jacques Rancière:       key concepts. Acumen.     • Rancière, J. (2007). Th...
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Rancière's (2007) The Future of the Image

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Rancière's (2007) The Future of the Image

  1. 1. The Future of the Image Jacques Rancière
  2. 2. Jacques Rancière • Althusser’s student- has departed from the path set by his teacher • Rancière’s aesthetic theory connects aesthetics with politics • Aesthetics: the multiple ways in which any social order establishes, manages, privileges or marginalizes different modes of perception • "distribution of the sensible”: communal forms of naturalized perception based on what is allowed to be "visible or audible, as well as what can be said, made or done” • “redistribution of the sensible”: PoliticsMuseum of Education
  3. 3. Principle of equality Deranty (2010) • an “axiom”: Equality between individuals must be postulated because it can never be definitively proven. • the scope of the principle’s application: Once postulated, the principle transforms the way in which individuals, society, politics and the arts are seen. • Democracy means equality.Museum of Education
  4. 4. The Future of the Image • Reflects on what artistic images are, and contemporary changes in their status • Deposes the technical features of different media as constitutive of the identity of art works • Defines the "aesthetic image” and the aesthetic regime of the arts based on the dialectic between the image as raw, material presence and the image as discourse encoding a historyMuseum of Education
  5. 5. Rancière’s “materialism” Deranty (2010) • Paradoxical: not premised upon a single, firmly defended metaphysical option, but emerges rather from a mode of thinking and writing that is sensitive to the constant exchanges and blurrings between mental and material realities. • Discursive, conceptual realities, by informing the views of material realities, determine the types and forms of practice, and thus indirectly shape the material, • The material, being the only plane in which practical meanings can be realized, determines thoughts and discourses. • There are possibilities for “redistribution of the sensible.” • Ranciere’s radical extension of the axiom of equality into the material.Museum of Education
  6. 6. Contents • Introduction • Images as “operations” and “regime of imageness” • Rancières deconstructive redirection of Barthes’ argument • ConclusionMuseum of Education
  7. 7. Image as “operations” and “regime of imageness” • not primarily manifestations of the properties of a certain technical medium • but operations: relations between a whole and a part; between a visibility and a power of signification and affect associated with it; between expectations and what happens to meet them • A regime of ‘imageness’: a regime of relations between elements and functionsMuseum of Education
  8. 8. Bresson’s imagesBresson’s (1966) Au Hasard Balthazar • Operations that couple and uncouple the • Not a donkey, two visible and its children and an adult; signification of speech nor the techniques of and its effect, which close-ups and the create and frustrate camera movements expectations • Do not derive from the • Even presuppose a properties of the systematic distance cinematic medium from ordinary employmentMuseum of Education
  9. 9. Films and television broadcasting • Image refers to an Other, and Visual refers to nothing but itself. • Television image (has its light in-built- Same) vs. Cinematic image (from an external source- Other) • The intrinsic nature of the images remains unchanged, whether we see the reels projected in a cinema, or through a cassette or disc on our television screen, or a video projectionMuseum of Education
  10. 10. Films and television broadcasting • The set with in-built light and the camera place us before a feat of memory and presence of mind that is in itself foreign to them. • Cinema also reproduces a constructed performance in front of a camera. Cinematic images are themselves the performance. • Different concerns: • What has happened elsewhere and what is happening before our eyes • Operations that make up the artistic nature of what we are seeing.Museum of Education
  11. 11. Two different image-functions • Resemblance- the simple relationship that produces the likeness of an original: not necessarily its faithful copy, but simply what suffices to stand in for it. • An alteration of resemblance. • The images of art are operations that produce a discrepancy, a dissemblance. • The image is not exclusive to the visible. • The commonest regime of the image: a relationship between the sayable and the visible which plays on both the analogy and the dissemblance between themMuseum of Education
  12. 12. Cinematic & literary images • Bresson’s cinema does not realize a peculiar essence of the cinema. • The camera’s fixing on the hand that pours the water and the hand that holds the candle is no more peculiar to cinema than the fixing of Doctor Bovary’s gaze on Mademoiselle Emma’s nails, or Madame Bovary’s gaze on those of the notary’s clerk is peculiar to literature. • Two cinematic shots or sequences of shots can thus pertain to a very different “imageness.” Conversely, one cinematic shot can pertain to the same type of imageness as a novelistic sentence or a paintingMuseum of Education
  13. 13. Contents • Introduction • Images as “operations” and “regime of imageness” • Rancières deconstructive redirection of Barthes’ argument • ConclusionMuseum of Education
  14. 14. Barthes argument in Camera Lucida • Semiology: pursuing the messages hidden in images to purify both the surfaces of inscription of art forms and the consciousness of the agent of future revolutions • Beyond semiology: The indexical nature of the photographic medium: its mechanical registration of a past reality untouched by artistic manipulation • The studium designates historical, social or cultural meanings extracted via semiotic analysis of photographs. • the punctum effect of the photograph arises from details that are unintended or uncontrolled by the photographer. • Photography may thus be distinguished from painting or drawing in that its apparatus visualizes the world automatically, rather than being wholly formed by the interventions of the photographer/artist.Museum of Education
  15. 15. Barthes argument in Camera Lucida • Assertion of "the wordless, senseless materiality of the visible" that eludes or resists discursive domination • The privilege Barthes assigns to the photographic punctum: an exaggerated form of realism- defined by Rancière as hyper-resemblance • Hyper-resemblance is the original resemblance, the resemblance that does not provide the replica of a reality but attests directly to the elsewhere whence it derives. It never disappears.Museum of Education
  16. 16. Rancières deconstructive redirection • detaches Barthes ontology of photography from any unique technical features of the medium • links it to the aesthetic regime of art, which has informed art practice and theory for at least two centuries • specifically: The polarities of punctum and studium express a "double poetics" of the "aesthetic image" as it came to be conceived and manifested within the aesthetic regime.Museum of Education
  17. 17. From one regime of ‘imageness’ to another • A particular regime of articulation between the visible and the sayable • The representative regime (Aristotle’s poetics): an order of stable relations between the visible and the sayable • The aesthetic regime: the image is no longer a codified expression of a thought or feeling.Museum of Education
  18. 18. The aesthetic regime • It is a way in which things themselves speak and are silent. • Silent speech • The meaning of things inscribed directly on their bodies, their visible language to be decoded • The eloquence of the very thing that is silent • Art as displacement between two image functions- the unfolding of inscriptions carried by bodies and the interruptive function of their naked, non-signifying presenceMuseum of Education
  19. 19. Photography as an art • By placing its particular techniques in the services of this dual poetics, by making the face of anonymous people speak twice over- as silent witnesses of a condition inscribed directly on their features, their clothes, their life setting; and as possessor of a secret we shall never know, a secret veiled by the very image that delivers them to us.Museum of Education
  20. 20. The aesthetic regime • First, it dismantles the hierarchical system of artistic subject matter, styles and genres consolidated in the representative system. • Secondly, art of the aesthetic regime breaches ontological divisions between fine and applied art, or between art and non-art categories. • The third shift instituted by the aesthetic regime repeals the privilege assigned to the written word and arts story-telling functioning Aristotelian poetics.Museum of Education
  21. 21. Rancières deconstructive redirection • What the simple relationship between mechanical impression and the punctum erases is the whole history of the relations between three things: the images of art, the social forms of imagery, and the theoretic procedures of criticism of imagery.Museum of Education
  22. 22. A historical perspective • Artistic images were redefined in a mobile relationship between brute presence and encoded history • An encyclopedia of the shared human inheritance: remote life-forms, works of art, popularized bodies of knowledge, thanks to mechanical presses and the new procedure of lithography • New exchange between artistic images and commerce in social imagery • Criticism of imagery: Marx, Balzac, FreudMuseum of Education
  23. 23. The end of images is behind us • Proposals to abolish the mediation of the image- that is, not only resemblance but also the power of operations of decoding and suspension- just as they do in the interaction between the operations of art, the commerce of images and the labour of exegesis. • pure art • becoming-life-artMuseum of Education
  24. 24. • Pure art: whose results no longer compose images, but directly • Becoming-life-art: which realize the idea in self- abolishes the distance of sufficient material form the image so as to • Loie Fuller, whose identify its procedures “dance” consists in the with the forms of a whole folding and unfolding of life in action, no longer a dress lit up by the play separating art from work of spotlights or politics • Vertov’s eye-machineMuseum of Education
  25. 25. The end of images is behind us • The end of images- the only one to have been rigorously thought through and pursued lies behind us. • The spectators were taking care of construction, and required of artists nothing but precisely imagesMuseum of Education
  26. 26. Naked, ostensive, metamorphic image • Three ways of • coupling and uncoupling the power of showing and the power of signifying, the attestation of presence and the testimony of history • sealing or refusing the relationship between art and image. • None of these three forms thus defined can function within the confines of its own logicMuseum of Education
  27. 27. Naked image • The image that does not constitute art because what its shows us excludes the prestige of dissemblance and the rhetoric of exegeses. Mémoires des campsMuseum of Education
  28. 28. Ostensive image Voici- 100 Years of Contemporary Art • It asserts its power as that of sheer presence, without signification but it claims its power in the name of art.Museum of Education
  29. 29. Metamorphic image • It is impossible to delimit a specific sphere of presence isolating artistic operations and products from forms of circulation of social and commercial imagery and from operations interpreting this imagery. • The images of art possess no peculiar nature of their own that separates them in stable fashion from the negotiation of resemblances and the discursiveness of symptoms.Museum of Education
  30. 30. Voilà: The world in my head • The labour of art thus involves playing in the ambiguity of resemblances and the instability of dissemblances, bringing about a local reorganization, a singular rearrangement of circulating images.Museum of Education
  31. 31. Contents • Introduction • Images as “operations” and “regime of imageness” • Rancières deconstructive redirection of Barthes’ argument • ConclusionMuseum of Education
  32. 32. Conclusion • Media- functions; images- operations • Technical devices; social production • Rhetoric of exegesis • Material embeddedness of discursive practices, constant exchanges and blurrings between mental and material realities • Emancipated spectators as artistsMuseum of Education
  33. 33. References • Deranty, J.-P. (Ed.). (2010). Jacques Rancière: key concepts. Acumen. • Rancière, J. (2007). The future of the image. The future of the image (pp. 1-31). (G. Elliott, Trans.). New York and London: Verso.Museum of Education

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