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Alternative to HCFC in air conditioning equipment as split


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Alternative to HCFC in air conditioning equipment as split by Antonio Orozco.

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Important questions you need to ask yourself about R32/Hydrogen fluoride!!

    1) At what temperature does R32 become Hydrogen Fluoride???
    2) How much Hydrogen Fluoride does it take to Kill a man?? could be as little as 1 gram?
    3) In the future if there is class action over R32 could you be Legally liable?? Remember “Ignorance of the law is no excuse”

    For more information why not google ” dangers of R32 refrigerant ” or have a look at

    I know we all have to earn a dollar but I would hate to think that a refrigeration mechanic got hurt or killed because commercial interest got in the way of the truth.
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
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Alternative to HCFC in air conditioning equipment as split

  1. 1. DAIKIN 1 Alternatives for HCFCs in split type room air conditioners South America Workshop on low-GWP, energy-efficient HCFC replacement technologies in the Refrigeration and Air Conditioning sector Bogota, Colombia, 22-23 April 2010 DAIKIN Industries Ltd.
  2. 2. DAIKIN Abstract 2 To phase-out HCFCs, alternatives to HCFCs should be chosen carefully though overall evaluations: 1) Energy efficiency 2) Total emission 3)Safety 4) Economic aspects. There are several candidates. 1. HFO1234yf : Low GWP and not efficient 2. HFC32 : Intermediate GWP and efficient 3. Propane(R290) : Natural and efficient but highly flammable 4. CO2(R744) : Natural but poor in efficiency 5. HFC410A : High GWP but applications are widely commercialized This presentation shows the results of overall evaluations for alternatives to HCFCs for split air-conditioning applications. From the comprehensive points of view, we recommend R32 as the best alternative to new split air-conditioners for the time being.
  3. 3. DAIKIN Contents 3 1. Properties of Alternative Refrigerants 2. Evaluation for alternatives 1) Energy-efficiencies 2) Total emissions 3) Safety measures 4) Costs 5) Summery 3. Conclusion 3
  4. 4. DAIKIN 1. Properties of Alternative Refrigerants 4 Following table shows properties of alternative refrigerants to HCFC22. Red areas show unsuitable properties as an alternative refrigerant. Refrigerant physical properties Cond. Capacity COP GWP Life Press. ODP (IPCC4) Flamm- Toxicity MPa R22 ratio R22 ratio Year ability HCFC22 Single 1.73 100 100 0.05 1810 11.9 No Low HFC407C Zoetrope 1.86 102 99 0 1770 - No Low HFC410A Azeotorope 2.72 141 92 0 2090 - No Low HFC R32 Single 2.80 160 97 0 675 5 Low Low HFO1234yf Single 1.16 57 90 0 4 7day Low ? HFO mixture ? ? Under investigation ? ? ? ? ? ? Low Propane (R290) Single 1.53 83 98 0 3 - High Low Natural CO2(R744 ) Single 10.00 243 41 0 1 120 No Low Ammonia (R717) Single 1.78 116 106 0 0 0 Low High In case of Candidates for preventing Residential A/C global warming Commercial A/C Note: Ammonia is not considered as a candidate refrigerant for small air-conditioners due to its high toxicity
  5. 5. DAIKIN 2.1 Energy-efficiencies 5 •Annual efficiency (APF) comparison •Peak power comparison (R410A ratio) Case of 4kW Room A/C by JRAIA (R410 ratio) under cooling condition HFO1234yf (1.2kg) R32 (1.2kg) R290 (0.49kg) R744 (1.05Kg) R410A (1.4kg) Efficiency ratio Power ratio Consideration: Consideration: As for annual efficiency of APF, CO2 is the A big difference exists in the peak power worst, HFO needs further optimization, and under cooling condition. HFO and CO2 will the rest of the candidates are equivalent to cause the peak power problem in large cities. R410A. Calculation conditions: HFO1234yf A/C is modified to improve efficiency, such as an increase in the pipe size of heat exchanger.
  6. 6. DAIKIN 2.2 Total Emissions 6 LCCP comparison (4kW Room A/C) Total emissions = Indirect emissions+Direct emissions+Emissions during producing refrigerant JRAIA; in China 09.4.4 Indirect impact Direct impact HFO1234yf (1.2kg) Precondition: R32 (1.2kg) refrigerant recovery rate is 30% which is current rate in Japan. R290 (0.49kg) LCCP (Life Cycle Climate Performance) means the sum of R744 (1.05Kg) "the warming impact during refrigerant production” (which is R410A (1.4kg) negligible compared to HCFC22) , (Refrigerant charge) “ the warming impact according to energy consumption during KgCO2 operation in life cycle” and "the warming impact by emission Consideration: of refrigerant“. LCCP of R32 and propane are less in terms of total emissions. The charge volume of R32 can be reduced by 40% compared to R410A. HFO1234yf needs to be improved in efficiency to be practical.
  7. 7. DAIKIN 2.3 Safety measures to use flammable refrigerants 7 (1) Current status of Safety standards to use flammable refrigerants [International] ISO5149 and ISO817 are being drafted, IEC 60335-2-24, 40 and 89 are published [European] EN378 is published [U.S.] ASHRAEstd. 34 is published, and ASHRAEstd. 15 is now under a discussion. [Japan] High Pressure Gas Safety Law (2) Charge limits for DX-AC set by IEC Standard, without ventilation fan. In the case of 10m2 room Flammable refrigerants are limited in charge Propane <0.24kg HFO1234< 3.02kg amount of DX-AC in IEC standard. Charge amount(kg) R32 <3.24kg Maximum charge amount depends on LFL and installation height. In the case of wall mounted type, the charge amounts stipulated in the std can be feasible for small and medium sized ACs except when using R290. Room area(m2) When charge volume exceeds the limits, leak detector and mechanical ventilation become mandatory.
  8. 8. DAIKIN 2.3 Safety measures to use flammable refrigerants 8 (3) Consideration on the use of 2L refrigerants classified by ASHRAE34 Class 1 Class 2L Class2 Class3 (non-flammable) (Low flammable limit with low (Low flammable limit (High flammable and burning velocity) with high burning velocity) higher heat of combustion) CO2(R744 ) HFO 1234 R152a Propane (R290) R410A R32 R22 Ammonia (Toxic) 1. Class 2L is similar to ammonia which caused no flammable accidents. Consideration is on going to clarify the safety requirements to use 2L refrigerants 2. Refrigerators, Commercial refrigeration and MAC(wrong use) which employed R290 caused fire accidents in the fields. <Fire accident examples> Beer cooler incident in Australia Refrigerators Explosion Propane explosion in a New 10/19/95, CA: charging while engine in UK and South Korea Zealand supermarket. was still hot 8/18/96, MS: low pressure hose from evaporator blew off 9/27/96, AR: torch used on truck AC unit after venting refrigerant Source: US-EPA in Bogota 2008 Source Source: EFCTC newslettr Fire accident in case of:fuel use: ave.68/yr, death: ave.1.3/yr (01-06) ,:Source METI Japan
  9. 9. DAIKIN 2.4 Costs 9 (1) Factors of Cost Fluctuation Component which increases cost Refrigerant price Cheap Cheap Expensive Cheap Cost for performance Compressor, Same as R22 Near as R410 Larger comp. Two-stage comp. EX, etc. Same as R22 Same as R410 Larger pipe etc. High-pressure etc. Cost for safety Charge reduction Important (ex.230g) Necessary Necessary Necessary Joint Special joint Special joint Special joint Unnecessary Electronic parts Sealing etc. Sealing etc. Sealing etc. Unnecessary Leak detector Necessary Unnecessary Unnecessary Unnecessary Ventilation Necessary Unnecessary Unnecessary Unnecessary Required in Cost for handling Japan Manufacture Special facility Modified facility Modified facility Modified facility Supply chain Qualification Modification Modification Qualification Installation Qualified person Modification Modification Qualified person Service Qualified person Modification Modification Qualified person Disposal Qualification Modification Modification Modification Consideration: Consideration: Propane requires additional cost CO2 requires significant cost when taking safety measures in for performance improvement. application and handling.
  10. 10. DAIKIN 2.5 Summery 10 Not commercialized The warming impact of refrigerants Note: = Suitable = Poor = Not Suitable R410-ratio. Assumption: When R32 is used, the charge volume is reduced by 25%.
  11. 11. DAIKIN 11 3. Conclusion 1. To evaluate not only GWP but also the total emissions. In case of R32, higher efficiency and less refrigerant charge will lead lesser emissions. Additional leakage prevention measures will contribute to emission reduction further. 2. Higher flammable refrigerants have bigger risks, while handling and under poor quality control, in addition by wrong use. When charge volume is small, we recommend to use class A2L refrigerants, by taking measures in accordance with IEC60335-2-40. When charge volume is large, we recommend to use class A1 refrigerants for the moment. 3. Use of efficient refrigerants brings economical benefits. Higher peak power will cause problem energy supply. CO2 application requires significant cost for performance improvement, and it can be used for limited applications. 4. HFC32 is the most practical solution for the time being. HFO mixture could be a candidate; however, it needs further improvement to become practical.
  12. 12. DAIKIN 12 Thank you. For inquiries, please e-mail to