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QUS 3206 / MDM NURULAINI
SUB TOPIC
 Introduction
 Principles of air-conditioning
 Type of of air-conditioning
 Cooling cycle / refrigeration cycle
 The coolant
INTRODUCTION
 Definition - Air conditioning is the process of
altering the properties
of air (primarily temperature and humidity) to
more favorable conditions.
 The control of these conditions may be
desirable to maintain the health and comfort of
the occupants, or to meet the requirements of
industrial processes irrespective of the external
climatic conditions
PRINCIPLES OF AIR-CONDITIONING
 The goal is to keep it more comfortable inside the house than
it is outside.
TYPE OF AIR-CONDITIONING
1) Window air-conditioning system
2) Split air-conditioning system
3) Centralised air-conditioning system
4) Package air-conditioning system
1) Windows Air-conditioning System
 Window air conditioners are one of the most
commonly used and cheapest type of air
conditioners.
 To install one of these units, you need the space to
make a slot in the wall, and there should also be
some open space behind the wall.
 Window air-conditioner units are reliable and
simple-to-install solution to keep a room cool
while avoiding the costly construction of a central
air system.
 Better yet, when the summer heat dies down, these
units can be easily removed for storage, and you
can use the window sill for other purpose
2) Split Air-Conditioning System
 The split air conditioner comprises of two parts:
the outdoor unit and the indoor unit.
 The outdoor unit, fitted outside the room, houses
components like the compressor, condenser and
expansion valve.
 The indoor unit comprises the evaporator or
cooling coil and the cooling fan. For this unit you
don’t have to make any slot in the wall of the
room.
 Further, the present day split units have aesthetic
looks and add to the beauty of the room. The split
air conditioner can be used to cool one or two
rooms
3) Centralised Air-Conditioning System
 The central air conditioning plants or the systems are used
when large buildings, hotels, theaters, airports, shopping
malls etc. are to be air conditioned completely.
 The window and split air conditioners are used for single
rooms or small office spaces.
 If the whole building is to be cooled it is not economically
viable to put window or split air conditioner in each and
every room.
 Further, these small units cannot satisfactorily cool the
large halls, auditoriums, receptions areas etc.
4) Packaged Air-Conditioning System
 The window and split air conditioners are usually
used for the small air conditioning capacities up to
5 tons.
 The central air conditioning systems are used for
where the cooling loads extend beyond 20 tons.
 The packaged air conditioners are used for the
cooling capacities in between these two extremes.
 The packaged air conditioners are available in the
fixed rated capacities of 3,5, 7, 10 and 15 tons.
 These units are used commonly in places like
restaurants, telephone exchanges, homes, small
halls, etc.
New Invented Technology
for Air-Conditioning System
DISTRICT
COOLING
SYSTEM
CHILLED BEAM
SYSTEM
District Cooling System
 District Cooling Systems (DCS) is a system
which distribute chilled water or other
media, usually provided from a dedicated
cooling plant, to multiple buildings for air
conditioning or other uses.
The Objectives :
To centralized production of
chilled water by using
district cooling plant. The
generated chilled water will
then be channeled to various
building blocks thru pre-
insulated seamless
underground pipes.
District Cooling System
The Advantages
1. Improve energy efficiency
2. Protect environment
3. Save spaces
4. Improve urban view
5. Reduce manpower for
operation and maintenance
District Cooling System
How The System Work ?
 DC means the centralized production and distribution of
cooling energy. Chilled water is delivered via an
underground insulated pipeline to office, industrial and
residential buildings to cool the indoor air of the buildings
within a district. Specially designed units in each building
then use this water to lower the temperature of air passing
through the buildings ACS.
 The output of one cooling plant is enough to meet the
cooling-energy demand of dozens of buildings. DC can
be run on electricity or natural gas, and can use either
regular water or seawater. Along with electricity and
water, DC constitute a new form of energy service.
District Cooling System
Why It Is Environmental Friendly ?
District cooling helps the
environment by increasing energy
efficiency and reducing
environmental emissions including
air pollution, the greenhouse gas
(GHG) carbon dioxide(CO2) and
ozone-destroying refrigerants.
District cooling can reduce annual
CO2emissions by about 1 ton for
every ton of district cooling
refrigeration demand served
District Cooling System
DCS Network Diagram
DCS Network Diagram
DCS- APPLICATION IN MALAYSIA
PUTRAJAYA
KUALA LUMPUR
INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
BANGSAR
UKM
DCS - COMPONENTS
 Central Chiller Plant – generate chilled water for
cooling purposes
 Distribution Network – distribute chilled water to
building
 User Station – interface own building air-conditioning
circuit
CHILLED BEAM SYSTEM
 It is a type of convection HVAC system designed to heat or
cooled high rise building such as commercial building.
 It’s primarily gives off its cooling effect through
convection by using water to remove heat from a room.
 Pipes of water passed through the beam suspended short
distance from the ceiling of a room.
 As the beam chills the air around it, the air becomes denser
and falls to the floor.
 It is replaced by warmer air moving up from
below, causing a constant floe of convection and cooling
the room.
 Simple to design and control
 Smaller ductwork
 Less mechanical space
 Less maintenance
 Increase comfort
ADVANTAGES
 Not well known in our industry
 Higher construction cost
 Many engineers aren’t familiar
with this technology
 Dew point concerns, building must
have a good control of humidity to
prevent condensation on chilled
beam surface.
disadvantages
DEFINITION– a cycle that shows how the refrigerant vapor is inhaled
and discharged by the compressor to the condenser.
Compressor
-Inhaling the refrigerant
from the suction channel
- Compressing to the
discharge channel.
Hot refrigerant vapor and
high pressure
Condenser
-Remove heat from condenser
-Refrigerant vapor turn to liquid.
Hot refrigerant vapor and
high pressure
Expansion Valve
-Low the temperature and
pressure of liquid
-Control the flow rate in
-to the evaporator.
Cold refrigerant vapor and
low pressure
Evaporator
-Liquid turns to vapor
-Cold air flows out room
Cold refrigerant vapor and
low pressure
COMPRESSOR
CONDENSER
EVAPORATOR
EXPANSION VALVE
 Heat is removed from the cooling by coolant.
 Functions as a heat absorber from the evaporator
 Good coolant must have features ;
1. Non toxic
2. Not explosive
3. Non-corrosive components
THE COOLANT
 Not explosive
 Soluble in oil to lubricate effectively
 Harmless when responding to oil even in the presence of
moisture
 Have a high resistance to electricity.
THE COOLANT
Type of coolant
R-22
MONOKLORODIFLUOROMETANA
R-12
DIKLORODIFLUOROMETANA
R-11
TRIKLOROMONOFLUROMETANA
CAN YOU FIND WHERE TO
USED EACH OF THIS
COOLANT?

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Air conditioning system

  • 1. QUS 3206 / MDM NURULAINI
  • 2. SUB TOPIC  Introduction  Principles of air-conditioning  Type of of air-conditioning  Cooling cycle / refrigeration cycle  The coolant
  • 3. INTRODUCTION  Definition - Air conditioning is the process of altering the properties of air (primarily temperature and humidity) to more favorable conditions.  The control of these conditions may be desirable to maintain the health and comfort of the occupants, or to meet the requirements of industrial processes irrespective of the external climatic conditions
  • 4. PRINCIPLES OF AIR-CONDITIONING  The goal is to keep it more comfortable inside the house than it is outside.
  • 5. TYPE OF AIR-CONDITIONING 1) Window air-conditioning system 2) Split air-conditioning system 3) Centralised air-conditioning system 4) Package air-conditioning system
  • 6. 1) Windows Air-conditioning System  Window air conditioners are one of the most commonly used and cheapest type of air conditioners.  To install one of these units, you need the space to make a slot in the wall, and there should also be some open space behind the wall.  Window air-conditioner units are reliable and simple-to-install solution to keep a room cool while avoiding the costly construction of a central air system.  Better yet, when the summer heat dies down, these units can be easily removed for storage, and you can use the window sill for other purpose
  • 7.
  • 8. 2) Split Air-Conditioning System  The split air conditioner comprises of two parts: the outdoor unit and the indoor unit.  The outdoor unit, fitted outside the room, houses components like the compressor, condenser and expansion valve.  The indoor unit comprises the evaporator or cooling coil and the cooling fan. For this unit you don’t have to make any slot in the wall of the room.  Further, the present day split units have aesthetic looks and add to the beauty of the room. The split air conditioner can be used to cool one or two rooms
  • 9.
  • 10. 3) Centralised Air-Conditioning System  The central air conditioning plants or the systems are used when large buildings, hotels, theaters, airports, shopping malls etc. are to be air conditioned completely.  The window and split air conditioners are used for single rooms or small office spaces.  If the whole building is to be cooled it is not economically viable to put window or split air conditioner in each and every room.  Further, these small units cannot satisfactorily cool the large halls, auditoriums, receptions areas etc.
  • 11.
  • 12. 4) Packaged Air-Conditioning System  The window and split air conditioners are usually used for the small air conditioning capacities up to 5 tons.  The central air conditioning systems are used for where the cooling loads extend beyond 20 tons.  The packaged air conditioners are used for the cooling capacities in between these two extremes.  The packaged air conditioners are available in the fixed rated capacities of 3,5, 7, 10 and 15 tons.  These units are used commonly in places like restaurants, telephone exchanges, homes, small halls, etc.
  • 13.
  • 14. New Invented Technology for Air-Conditioning System DISTRICT COOLING SYSTEM CHILLED BEAM SYSTEM
  • 15. District Cooling System  District Cooling Systems (DCS) is a system which distribute chilled water or other media, usually provided from a dedicated cooling plant, to multiple buildings for air conditioning or other uses.
  • 16. The Objectives : To centralized production of chilled water by using district cooling plant. The generated chilled water will then be channeled to various building blocks thru pre- insulated seamless underground pipes. District Cooling System
  • 17. The Advantages 1. Improve energy efficiency 2. Protect environment 3. Save spaces 4. Improve urban view 5. Reduce manpower for operation and maintenance District Cooling System
  • 18. How The System Work ?  DC means the centralized production and distribution of cooling energy. Chilled water is delivered via an underground insulated pipeline to office, industrial and residential buildings to cool the indoor air of the buildings within a district. Specially designed units in each building then use this water to lower the temperature of air passing through the buildings ACS.  The output of one cooling plant is enough to meet the cooling-energy demand of dozens of buildings. DC can be run on electricity or natural gas, and can use either regular water or seawater. Along with electricity and water, DC constitute a new form of energy service. District Cooling System
  • 19. Why It Is Environmental Friendly ? District cooling helps the environment by increasing energy efficiency and reducing environmental emissions including air pollution, the greenhouse gas (GHG) carbon dioxide(CO2) and ozone-destroying refrigerants. District cooling can reduce annual CO2emissions by about 1 ton for every ton of district cooling refrigeration demand served District Cooling System
  • 22. DCS- APPLICATION IN MALAYSIA PUTRAJAYA KUALA LUMPUR INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT BANGSAR UKM
  • 23. DCS - COMPONENTS  Central Chiller Plant – generate chilled water for cooling purposes  Distribution Network – distribute chilled water to building  User Station – interface own building air-conditioning circuit
  • 24. CHILLED BEAM SYSTEM  It is a type of convection HVAC system designed to heat or cooled high rise building such as commercial building.  It’s primarily gives off its cooling effect through convection by using water to remove heat from a room.  Pipes of water passed through the beam suspended short distance from the ceiling of a room.  As the beam chills the air around it, the air becomes denser and falls to the floor.  It is replaced by warmer air moving up from below, causing a constant floe of convection and cooling the room.
  • 25.
  • 26.  Simple to design and control  Smaller ductwork  Less mechanical space  Less maintenance  Increase comfort ADVANTAGES
  • 27.  Not well known in our industry  Higher construction cost  Many engineers aren’t familiar with this technology  Dew point concerns, building must have a good control of humidity to prevent condensation on chilled beam surface. disadvantages
  • 28. DEFINITION– a cycle that shows how the refrigerant vapor is inhaled and discharged by the compressor to the condenser.
  • 29. Compressor -Inhaling the refrigerant from the suction channel - Compressing to the discharge channel. Hot refrigerant vapor and high pressure Condenser -Remove heat from condenser -Refrigerant vapor turn to liquid. Hot refrigerant vapor and high pressure Expansion Valve -Low the temperature and pressure of liquid -Control the flow rate in -to the evaporator. Cold refrigerant vapor and low pressure Evaporator -Liquid turns to vapor -Cold air flows out room Cold refrigerant vapor and low pressure
  • 30.
  • 32.  Heat is removed from the cooling by coolant.  Functions as a heat absorber from the evaporator  Good coolant must have features ; 1. Non toxic 2. Not explosive 3. Non-corrosive components THE COOLANT
  • 33.  Not explosive  Soluble in oil to lubricate effectively  Harmless when responding to oil even in the presence of moisture  Have a high resistance to electricity. THE COOLANT