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Precision Farming / Satellite Farming (SSCM)

Precision Farming / Satellite Farming (SSCM)

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Precision Farming / Satellite Farming (SSCM)

  1. 1. PRECISION FARMING Past – Present - Future
  2. 2. About Precision Farming • Precision agriculture (PA) also called Satellite farming (SF) OR Site specific crop management (SSCM). • Based on : observing, measuring and responding to inter and intra-field variability in crops. • Identifies critical factors where yield is limited by controllable factors and determines intrinsic variability. • Record variations in crop or soil properties within a field which forms the basis for taking management decisions.
  3. 3. Why do we need Precision Farming • Increased Land degradation. • Depletion of Water resources. • Reduced availability of labour. • Better management of large scale crops. • Socio economic need for enhanced productivity • Minimum use of land, water and time. • To reduce environment pollution due to use of fertilizers and chemicals. • Alleviate poverty by enhancing quality of life and attaining food security. • Need for a technology enabled revolution to convert 2/3rd of the arable rain fed land for greater productivity.
  4. 4. Challenges on Implementing PF • Lack of technical knowledge and technological expertise. • Small plots or clusters of land. • Higher costs in fetching PF systems. • Poor penetration to Internet availability. • Illiteracy rate high in the country.
  5. 5. How is it done? Remote and In-field Sensing Satellite Imagery Aerial Photography Electrical Conductivity (EC) In-field Infrared Chlorophyll Meters Crop Height Monitoring
  6. 6. Satellite Imagery • Spectral imagery from satellite. • Not available to every one due to legal regulations or protected by law. • Cost for purchasing the images from satellite service providers is high. • Not precise and real time data not available. • Images will be shot at different times. • Outdated images will be provided – real time capturing not feasible. • Distortion may happen due to clouds or other factors. • Moving satellites from time to time and from place to place with respect to requirements is not feasible. • Targets cannot be locked for multiple locations using satellite. • Data cannot be fetched as and when required by farmers. • Cost of establishment and maintenance for regular is too high.
  7. 7. Photogammetry with UAV • Real time geographic area modelling- terrain can be modelled on a computer as such. • Aerial surveying provides data related to: Degradation / Erosion of soil Extend of pollution Data on growth / degradation of crops • Deriving the geographic pattern in 2D/3D for terrain analysis and planning. • Simulated video generation from terrain analysis for crop investigative purposes. • Flood detection, crop cultivation and management, accident recreation etc. can be done.
  8. 8. • Comparatively lower cost with respect to satellite imagery. • Flight chart can be configured manually in accordance with the needs. • Anytime change in flight paths. • Concentrating a particular area for any number of time and for many hours/days possible. • No limits or separate access fee required compared to satellite feeds. • No Govt. orders or sanctions required. • Effective use of Artificial intelligence makes data delivery in real time. • Real time monitoring of data and maps. • Generates Orthomosaic and 3D models for extraction of data outputs.
  9. 9. SIFT Feature Extraction • SIFT – Scale Invariant Feature Transform is an algorithm to detect and describe local features in images. • It describes an object by taking points on it and then use those characteristics to locate the object from a group of moving objects. • Used in : Object recognition, Robotic mapping, Navigation, Image stitching for mapping, 3D modelling, Gesture recognition, Video tracking, Match moving etc.
  10. 10. • Image stitching – means combining multiple photos with overlapping fields to produce a panoramic HD/3D view. • Applied in MEDICAL IMAGING. • Video Tracking - Locating a moving object and tracking its course using a camera.
  11. 11. RANSAC Outlier Detection • Estimates parameters of a mathematical model from a set of observed data which contains a model parameter. • A model parameter will be established and the result of aerial observation will be cross checked with this model to find erroneous measurements or incorrect hypothesis.
  12. 12. • Used to solve LDP(Location Determination Problem) where the use is to determine the points in space that project on to an image into a set of landmarks with known locations.
  13. 13. AFFINE Transformation Technique Affine transformation is used to correct for geometric distortions or deformations that occur with non-ideal camera angles.
  14. 14. GEMS & Multispectral Imaging • State of the art air- vehicle camera for collecting visible and near infrared imagery for precision agriculture
  15. 15. To bring a change ? • Co-operative movement in agriculture. • Co-operative markets. • Farmer Clubs. • Pilot projects. • Intrinsic research and adaptation of technical knowhow from other countries. • Government initiation and promotion for smart technology on field. • On field training and trainers on pan country scene. • Regulations in Rules and Acts. (Use of Drones and Satellite Imagery is prohibited)
  16. 16. Advantages • Increase in productivity using frontier technologies without damaging the quality of land and water • Pan nation wide techno-green revolution as the need of the hour.

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