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“We must all do theatre,
  to find out who we are and                            HELLO READER!
discover who we could become.”                           and resident of a world
                  - Augusto Boal                           where many things
                                                               seem wrong,

                                   Where class, colour, gender, nation, age,
                                   religion and notions of what is normal
                                   and what is not, create unearned privilege
                                   and wealth for some at the expense of
                                   the suffering of many others.
Hello,
Future Agent
 of Change.
Wish that you could
      Think it is possible             stop a crisis that you
      to look beyond the               have witnessed?
      criminal and understand
      the nature of a crime?
                                                                  If you’ve answered yes to one or more of the above,
                                                                  then read on because now it’s time to make social

               Feel bothered by the
               incompetent laws in
                                                      Do you...   change fun, creative and irresistible!
                                                                  It’s all about Forum Theater -
                                                                  A form of interactive theater that allows you to tackle
               society and wish you                               oppressive situations on stage,yourself, so we can
                                                                  all be better prepared when facing them in real life.
               could write your own?


Feel that helplessness            Feel plagued by guilt
is only an excuse on the          for overlooking
part of a witness to injustice?   injustice?
Who is
Augusto Boal?
Augusto Boal, the father of Forum Theatre, was a revolutionary theatre artist and cultural activist from Brazil.

     Having seen the struggle of the working class against the classist society of Brazil, he brought theatre to the
      masses as a means of voicing their opinion, when they needed it most. In the early 1960’s a new military regime
       came into power which condemned Boal’s unconventional teaching methods and saw him as a threat. Boal was
        kidnapped in 1971, arrested, tortured and then sent to exile in Argentina for five years. During his exile, Boal
        developed the Theatre of The Oppressed, which allows the audience of the theatre piece to react and express
       their views on the subject of the play and raise their concerns, express their opinions and propose solutions
      that are then incorporated in the play. Initial forms of The Theatre of the Oppressed were in the form of
     Simultaneous Dramaturgy.
This is a simple audience-actor interaction where the audience members propose solutions to the problem that
the protagonist faces. The solutions are played out by the actors one by one until all the solutions have been
exhausted. This technique opened up interactive dialogue on stage for the first time. But what was lacking in this
model was a certain sense of empathy which is ‘personal, unique and non- transferable’ that no other actor can
imitate. For this, Boal introduced the world of Theatre to Forum Theatre, a play format in which there’s no
distinction between an actor or a spectator but is witnessed by ‘spectactors’ who can interrupt an unjust act
being portrayed in the play and replace an actor to give it an alternative ending.

a)the actors present a vision of the world as it is and the spectactor intervenes to change it to as it could be.

b) But, if no spectactor wishes to intervene and prevent injustice, it can be considered as an acceptance of the
situation in real life.
The play revolves around the story of:             The Protagonist:
                                                   One who is oppressed.




 The Antagonist:                                                           In a form like forum theatre, where there is
 The one who oppresses him.                                                so much interaction between different sets
                                                                           of people, don’t you surely see the need for
                                                                           a facilitator? A person who breaks the ice
                                                                           between the actors and the spectactors.
                                                                           Once the forum begins, the joker encourages,
                                                                           invites, regulates, appreciates, explains,
                                                                           concludes and at times even translates the
The Bystanders: Who witness this oppression                                interventions of a spectator.
                and are at a position to prevent
                it from happening.
Forum Theatre:
A step-by-step
     guide
Forum theatre is a form of theatre and just like any other form, it requires a clever script and supporting
design that makes it both pleasurable to watch in form and thought-provoking in content.

Now, how do you strike this magical balance between form and content and make the experience for
a spectactor really valuable?


The Anti-Model
To understand what an anti-model means, it will help to think about what the term ‘model’ means. A model
situation is one where there is deal distribution of power and no construct of oppression. So surely, the
anti-modmeans the opposite- an act in Forum Theatre that portrays the oppression. A Forum play can include
one or more anti-models that narrate an undesirable but prevalent view of the world.
The spectactors are the members of the audience who are invited on stage to replace the protagonist
or a bystander to intervene at the event of an injustice and offer solutions to dissolve the conflict and
give the play an optimistic ending.
The Joker welcomes and warms up the audience. He introduces the context and the
members of the play to the audience. As the play begins, it takes us through the life
of the protagonist. The cast build the scenes to portray the act of oppression and its
consequences. The spectactors are given a few minutes to absorb the gravity of the
act and reflect upon it.




                                Sequence of Events
The Joker asks them if this kind of a social set up that is acceptable.
Questions like, “Do you feel any empathy after watching this play?”
“Are you prepared to fight it if it were a real life situation?” provoke thought
and finally the joker poses the question that urges them to act out any possible
solution, “ Would you like to try out any solutions?”
The spectactor can do many things. He can:
                                                         a) come in as a new character
                                                         b) replace a bystander
    The anti-model is repeated a
                                                         c) replace the protagonist and
 second time and the Joker shouts
                                                            offer a solution from the

                                       STOP!!
     “stop!” at a point where a
                                                               character’s perspective
spectactor stops the play at a point
   where they see a potential for
    change. He encourages the
spectactors to replace a character
who holds the power to liberate the                   After some resistance that will exist in a realistic
   protagonist from oppression.                        situation, the antagonist party will give in
                                                         depending on how powerful the offered solution
                                                            is and the spectactors will be able to see the
                                                                 problem unfold with a positive change.
Recapitulate
     Appreciate                           The Joker also regulates the
 Thank                                 Forum- any discussion or debate
                                           that may stem from these
                                                                              Once most possible solutions are
                                                                            exhausted, the Joker summarizes the
                                       solutions, he is expected to hold      possible solutions offered by the
                                         a neutral position, but asking         spectactors and presents the
                                        questions that the audience can    opportunities in time that allow one to
             Once we witness the         easily respond to with a Yes or    intervene in a difficult situation. This
       consequence of the solution,     No. In this way the joker always    allows the spectactors to review the
           the Joker stops the act,         tries keeping a healthy,       Forum, to seep the experience in. The
      recapitulates and appreciates      meaningful discussion going.         play ends on a positive note with
        the intervention, thanks the                                          emphasis on how a real life crisis
            spectactor for his/her                                              always has room for change.
          contribution and invites
             alternative solutions.
...... .........
                               ...                                                                            . .. .. ... .. .. ... . .. ... .. . . . .
                                                                                                           ..




                   ..




                                                       ...
                                                                                                       . ...                                   ...




              ..............
                                                                                                       .




                                                           ....
                                                                                                   Magic
                          What do you think




                                                                              ... ..




                                                                                                                                                   . .. .. . . . .
                                                               . .. ..... .. .. .. .. .. ..... . . .




                                                                                                                                                           . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... .. . .
                           the word magic




                                                            .......




                                                                                                                                                                    ......
                          magic means in this                                                                                                                                                            Interventions that use magic seem
                                                                                                                                                                                                            too good to be true and look at
                               context?




                                                       ...
                                                                                                                                                                                                       super-human or ideal circumstances.
           ..




                                                                              . .. . . .
                                                           ...
                                                                                                                                                                                                      It often happens when we assume that




                                                            ..
                   ..




                                                                                                                                                                                           . . .. .
                                   ...               ...                                                  .                                    . ...
                                         ...... ..                                                     .....                                                                                               the forces of oppression can be
                               ...             ..                                                           ............... ..
                                                                                                               ...........                                                                             neglected. When Magic as a solution
                                                                                                                                                                                                       is offered, it is important for the Joker
In Forum Theatre, ‘Magic’ refers to a solution offered by a spectactor                                                                                                                                    to identify Magic, explain it to the
 that frees, deletes or makes the oppression of the anti-model vanish                                                                                                                                   audience and suggest an alternative
  by unrealistic means. For example, if a spectactor tries to replace                                                                                                                                            point of intervention.
the rapist in a sexual abuse scene, it is unrealistic or magical to think
   of this approach as a possible solution!In real life, is it possible to
              dissolve matters by wishing a problem away?
..........   .....................................
                                                                              ..... ..............                                                          ........
                                                                                                                                                                       ......
                                                             .   .........                                                                                                      ....
                                ..                   .......                                                                                                                           ...
           ..       .... ......                       On the other hand if the oppression in the anti-model is portrayed to the
. ......




                                                                                                                                                                                         ...
                                               spectactors at a point so extreme that it cannot be prevented, it leaves no room




                                                                                                                                                                                               .....
..         ..
     . ...                                            for intervention and ends the play with a sense of helplessness and loss.




                                                                                                                                                                                              .. .....
                .
                                            For example -when one shows the protagonist being held at gun-point. If battling
                          .
                      ...
                                             the oppression (or in this case aggression) is only through physical self-defense,
                    .
                                 ...
                              ..                 the purpose of a forum is defeated. How can we, as spectactors reflect on the




                                                                                                                                                                                                       .....
                                       .         .
                                           . ...   root of the problem and try to prevent it from building into aggression that




                                                                                                                                                                                                             .
                                                     ..                                                                                                                                 ...




                                                                                                                                                                                          .
                                                                      ..
                                                          ..... .....                                                                                                            ....
                                                                           .......                                     ......................                            .....
                                                                                     .............. ............ .....                          ........
                                                                                                                                                           ...........
What is important is how


Writing your
                                             Is the oppression on a child being        precisely the problem is put
                                         bullied in the lunch hall less significant    forth – as Boal puts it, if the
                                         than that of a refugee being tortured by      presentation of the problem
                                               militants? Can you see how the         is done in a hazy manner, the

own Forum                                  suffering of two individuals cannot be
                                            compared on the same parameters?
                                              Any subject that enuinely wants
                                                                                       solutions will be as hazy, the
                                                                                        discussion as awry. A clear,
                                                                                        well-constructed, strongly


   Piece
                All oppressions are       liberation, that requires the drawing of
                                         attention and discussion towards it, can
                                                                                          portrayed problem will
                                                                                        bring about clear, specific
           of equal importance- to the      be constructed into forum theatre. It        and strong reactions and
               people who are being       should ideally be a form of oppression
                                          that society can regonize, but is aware
                                                                                                 solutions.
                 subjected to them          of neglecting, that is relevant to the
                  - Augusto Boal            spectactors and that they can relate
                                                       and respond to.
The verbal language, or the speech,
 must be something that the spectactors
       are acquainted with to avoid any
 miscommunication or confusion. If there          The visual language can range from
 is any disparity,the Joker or a translator   something universal such as waving ones
      should be prepared to bridge this          arms in alarm to something culturally
     difference. In fact, here is where the    specific such as the colours of a flag as a
    importance of the visual language of      metaphor for liberty. Keeping the portrayal
   theatre comes in! Since Forum invites         realistic is a great way of getting one’s
spectactors to act and not just hold verbal      point across. But it isn’t the only mode.
 discussion, a strong and clear visual and     Including surreal and symbolic imagery
   metaphorical language adds layers to         (see more in Image theatre) pushes the
  the anti-model, gives more dimensions         imagination and encourages theatrical
     for interpretation and allows access          expression among the spectactors.
              to the spectactors to
            express their thoughts.
How can we use metaphors and symbols to convey

  Other                      oppression through theatre? How can we prevent a forum play
                               from resembling a boring monologue? How can we bring
                                      spectactors to understand a language that is

Techniques
                                                 not limited to words?

                 Image Theatre, as the name
                suggests, avoids using words              Rainbow Of Desires is an introspective technique that uses
             altogether. It uses the spontaneity             words and images to give us an view of what goes on
                 offered by movement, body                  inside a character’s mind. It helps us see how internal
                 language, objects, gestures,             conflicts of both the protagonist and the antagonist comes
               colours and visual signals that             across as oppression. This fair view of situations helps in
                  connect to our day-to-day               deepening the nature of the interventions. Using this, you
                perception. Through this, we               will be able to see beyond the black and white,good and
             make the language on stage more               evil, right and wrong to be able to better understand the
                   universal and relatable.                               spectrum of human behavior.
Functioning
  as a Forum
Theatre Group
Sitting in circles works miracles-
                                                                                     it dissolves hierarchy, everyone can see
          Actors in forum write their own script
                                                                                     everyone else making it easier to focus,
            through long sessions of spontaneous
                                                                              the group energy is contained, it makes taking turns
              theatre, improvisation and reflection. Are

Belonging
                                                                               easier and methodical, no issues stay unaddressed,
               we not members of the very society we
                                                                                 and with a little nudging and shifting, it’s always
                are acting against? Encouraging habits
  to the
                                                                             possible to accommodate one more person in the big

                                                              a group
big circle.
                of teamwork during rehearsal goes a                           circle. In the beginning of the session, the big circle

                                                           As
                long way in maintaining a healthy                             gives everyone an identical space to start off from. At
               group dynamic. Trust, belonging and                              the end of a session, once the group reflects and
              having an equal status in the group                               shares observations, it leaves one with a sense of
            enhances one’s willingness to contribute          Try one or more     gathering identical knowledge and learning.
          as one knows that one is being heard.             of these methods to         It brings oneness and decisiveness.
                                                           create and maintain a             And it makes louder noises.
                                                             healthy dynamic
Keep markers and paper
                  handy when in discussion.
                                                 Record
                                                            When in action, take pictures, videos,
Lay down big sheets of paper                                 audio recordings. What comes up in
 in the centre and allow free
 expression of needs, wants,                                 group discussions will greatly affect
     fears, hopes and any                                 what forms the content of the anti-model.
 concerns that people voice                                 Observe not only the obvious, but dig
      for late reference.                                 deep into the undercurrents of the actions
                                                           and what may have provoked them. And
 Record and remember what makes                             record, to include these details in the
 up the interests of the group and    Note ideas when             script for the anti-model.
 respond to them accordingly.          brainstorming.
                                         Write big.
To keep your content true to a                       As an individual, try switching
 world view, make it well-rounded                     your gaze from outward to inward.
with more than one perspective. As                    Observe yourself as a member of
  a group, switch roles and power
play. Put yourselves in the shoes of   Switch Roles        the society and how your
                                                      relationships with society change
                                                      with change in context. A greater
 someone who is on the other end
   of the spectrum. Play both, an                      sense of empathy will develop in
   antangonist and a protagonist.                        us not only from listening to
                                                        others but listening to oneself
                                                         thinking like someone else.
Many emotions that are raw, uncomfortable and

                                                        CONFIDE
                                                                  Chances are that as we build trust, refusal with
private emerge in discussions that lead to writing
                                                                   morph into hesitation which will slowly bloom into
 an anti-model. There are matters of secrecy that

                                                         TRUST
                                                                    willingness to share. With trust alone can we keep
 may be clouded by negative emotions. But as a
                                                                    shame, guilt, hurt and anger from getting in the
   group, learn to keep matters confidential with

                                                        PROTECT
                                                                    way of an effective anti-model. With trust, and
responsibility and sensitivity. Respect anonymity
                                                                   secret societies with cool dress codes.
    or refusal to participate in certain discussions.
On several occasions, talking
 about oppression in one’s own       Functioning
    lives is a struggle which a
                                         and
                                     Appreciate
 participant will undergo for the                    Nevertheless, appreciate each
 sake of the group. At the same                    other’s courage to let go of the fear
  time, learn to detach yourself                      of being judged. After all, the
   enough to critically analyze                     more people we thank at the end
what fits the script and makes for                 of a session, the richer the day has
         powerful content.                             been in gaining a variety of
                                                              perspectives.
Ga mes
   f or a
Forum group
Ask a series of questions with            For eg, ask “If you are having a terrible day and wish you weren't here,
     two different answers and               stand over to the left, if you are thrilled to be here, have energy for the
      depending on what they                  day, stand to the right. Or if you are somewhere in the middle, stand


                                    Spectrum
   think, participants should                  somewhere in the middle, or a little more to the side that you agree
  arrange themselves more                      with a little more. Stand anywhere along the line that represents what
towards one answer on one                      you think. There are no right or wrong answers.”
       end, another answer on                 Ask why they chose to stand where they standing, again emphasizing if
  another end, or somewhere                  necessary that there are no answers better than others, or more correct-
    along the line in the middle.          this is simply an activity to see what people are thinking.
One partner tries to keep their
face aligned with the other
partner's hand as                     Secret thought or secret wish:
they move that hand around.              Everyone speaks their
 Switch roles, so that the previous    secret thought or what they
leader follows.                       secretly want simultaneously
 Both partners follow and lead at      and then one at a time they                                                                              Fast Forward/ Rewind-
the same time.                          share the essence of that
                                         thought when tapped.                                                                          Go back in time or ahead to the future.
                                                                         Double-                                                       Every conflict has a history and every
                                                                                                             Pause-
                                                                  Someone steps up and                                             resolution has it's consequences. Fast-forward
                                                                                                    To stop a scene and have            for previewingoutcomes or possible
                                                                 mirrors the protagonist’s     everyone hold the body posture
                                                                body language and makes                                             consequences. Rewind for showing context
                                                                                                of the paused moment. Helpful      and history. Rewind is especially useful when

                         Columbian
                                                                  statements in the first      when you identify a destructive
                                                                   person based on the                                               the conflict appears to start with a violent
                                                                                                behavioral pattern cycle is just       altercation, through a rewind you may
                                                                feelings that arise in their         beginning and give the            find that the conflict actually had roots

                        Hypnosis Boal
                                                               body. Think of it as someone     actors/spectactors a chance to
                                                                 offering inner thoughts.                                                    in the lunch line yesterday.
                                                                                                 observe their bodies and the
                                                                                                  direction of the anti-model.
Multiple Endings- Replay the scene
  A poetic monologue that can be                                  with different endings. Identify a
used during a pause to make inner

                                         Soliloquy
                                                                 pivotal moment in the scene while
    thoughts public and deepen                                   it's enacted the first time through.
understanding of where each other                               Once it ends, invite a rewind back to
are coming from. At any point in the                                 that pivotal point and ask the
  act, pause and ask an actor how                               characters to replay it in a different
          they are feeling.                                     way. If the participants can't think of
                                                                     any other endings then pose
                                                                          "what if" questions.
                                “I’m frustrated,
                                no one wants to believe
                               me. I’m extremely disappointed
                                and hurt.” Once the feelings
                                 are expressed and heard,
                                      resume the play.
Being aware of one’s
                    physical stance at all times                      For answers that ring in
                    is a must. For instance if the                 unison, it is important for the


                                                     Things
                      stage is on a higher dais,                  Joker’s questions to be framed
                      the Joker could lower his                    crisply. Go for questions that


                                                     to keep in
                     stance to a sitting position                      can be answered in a
                     to be at the same level as                             Yes or a No.
                            the audience.                                                         Even though all the actors


 Using a neutral tone, that
                                                      mind for                                  should watch out for Magic in
                                                                                                an intervention, it is the job of
avoids being judgemental
  of drawing conclusions
     is important so the
                                                     the Joker                                    the Joker to identify it. But
                                                                                                instead of ruling the solution
                                                                                                 out, he can instead ask the
                                                                                                 audience to decide if it is a
   spectactor can build
                                                                                                 possible, realistic solution.
    trust with the Joker.
Where is
       Social behaviour compels
                                it used?                                 The potential of Forum theatre has been
                                                                            recognized in Policy Making, where


                                                         Potential
    us to think from within the roles                                  important perspectives as brought forward by
 that we play in our daily lives such as                               various citizens and the distribution of power
                                                                       can be understood more sensitively.

                                                            of
a student, worker, bread-winner, mother,
teacher etc. Despite ourselves, we invoke                                  In the realm of Medical Humanities, Forum
and reinforce these hierarchies, orders and                                  Workshops allow better understanding
  connotations and distance ourselves from
communicating as fellow humans. Forum theatre
   is a medium of breaking these patterns and
                                                       Forum Theatre    between patients, their families and physicians.
                                                                          This fragile relationship requires not only an
                                                                          understanding of the other but also thorough
     behaviours, sometimes donning new ones                              self awareness, that is provided by the voicing
       altogether, and communicating the way our                              of opinions and feelings under crucial
         bodies guide us, from one human to another.                    circumstances portrayed in forum anti-models.
In the classroom, traditionally a space that hegemonises the
  teacher, the technique of Forum Theatre democratises space. Instead
  of assuming that the knowledge of a teacher always puts hims/her in
   authority, the classroom becomes a space of learning and problem
solving for everyone. Everyone is a spectactor, a teacher and a student.
 In the end, becoming a participant of Forum is a process of realization
  and reflection. It can be unsettling and painful when buried feelings
   are stirred, but there can be no better way to voice one’s struggle,
  whether in one’s personal life, in the classroom, at a workplace or on
   the warring borders of countries. The subject of the Forum can be
   ever-changing, but what remains constant is the empathetic human
     dialogue it generates - something the world could use more of.
            Something worth spreading wherever life takes you.
Joker:
                           Antagonist:                            Inner-conflict:                            The facilitator of the
                        Character who acts                    The range of emotions                        forum model of theatre
     Anti-Model:
                           as a force of                 that occur within a character of                 who conducts the session
   An act of forum
                           oppression.                    the anti-model, both positive                      with a neutral stand.
theatre that portrays
                                                         and negative. The thoughts that
 the opposite of an
                                                           lead to a dilemma between

                                              Glossary
   ideal situation.
                                                              choosing to live under
                                                              oppression or seeking              Intervention:
                                                                    liberation.             The act of a spectactor
                    Connotation:                                                         interrupting the forum play
               An idea or feeling that a                                                  when it runs a second time
              word invokes for a person                                                 and replacing a character to
              in addition to its literal or                                                address the oppression
                  primary meaning.                                                             through theatre.
Soliloquy:
                           A poetic                              Change:
                      monologue of any                     To make the nature,
                        member that                       content or the future            Liberation:
                       expresses their                    course of something         The seeking of equal
                       inner thoughts.                    different from what it     status or just treatment
                                                          would be if left alone.    for or on behalf of any
         Magic:                                                                       group believed to be
Any forum intervention            Spectactor : The audience                          discriminated against.
   that liberates the                of forum theatre, not                                                       Social Change:
 protagonist but in an              simply spectators but                                                          Refers to an
unrealistic manner such            participating members              Oppression:                               alternation in the
    as replacing the               who can intervene in the          The exercise of                             social order of
       antagonist.                performance and alter its       authority or power in                              society.
                                           direction.              an unjust manner.

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Guide to Forum Theater

  • 1. “We must all do theatre, to find out who we are and HELLO READER! discover who we could become.” and resident of a world - Augusto Boal where many things seem wrong, Where class, colour, gender, nation, age, religion and notions of what is normal and what is not, create unearned privilege and wealth for some at the expense of the suffering of many others.
  • 3. Wish that you could Think it is possible stop a crisis that you to look beyond the have witnessed? criminal and understand the nature of a crime? If you’ve answered yes to one or more of the above, then read on because now it’s time to make social Feel bothered by the incompetent laws in Do you... change fun, creative and irresistible! It’s all about Forum Theater - A form of interactive theater that allows you to tackle society and wish you oppressive situations on stage,yourself, so we can all be better prepared when facing them in real life. could write your own? Feel that helplessness Feel plagued by guilt is only an excuse on the for overlooking part of a witness to injustice? injustice?
  • 5. Augusto Boal, the father of Forum Theatre, was a revolutionary theatre artist and cultural activist from Brazil. Having seen the struggle of the working class against the classist society of Brazil, he brought theatre to the masses as a means of voicing their opinion, when they needed it most. In the early 1960’s a new military regime came into power which condemned Boal’s unconventional teaching methods and saw him as a threat. Boal was kidnapped in 1971, arrested, tortured and then sent to exile in Argentina for five years. During his exile, Boal developed the Theatre of The Oppressed, which allows the audience of the theatre piece to react and express their views on the subject of the play and raise their concerns, express their opinions and propose solutions that are then incorporated in the play. Initial forms of The Theatre of the Oppressed were in the form of Simultaneous Dramaturgy.
  • 6. This is a simple audience-actor interaction where the audience members propose solutions to the problem that the protagonist faces. The solutions are played out by the actors one by one until all the solutions have been exhausted. This technique opened up interactive dialogue on stage for the first time. But what was lacking in this model was a certain sense of empathy which is ‘personal, unique and non- transferable’ that no other actor can imitate. For this, Boal introduced the world of Theatre to Forum Theatre, a play format in which there’s no distinction between an actor or a spectator but is witnessed by ‘spectactors’ who can interrupt an unjust act being portrayed in the play and replace an actor to give it an alternative ending. a)the actors present a vision of the world as it is and the spectactor intervenes to change it to as it could be. b) But, if no spectactor wishes to intervene and prevent injustice, it can be considered as an acceptance of the situation in real life.
  • 7. The play revolves around the story of: The Protagonist: One who is oppressed. The Antagonist: In a form like forum theatre, where there is The one who oppresses him. so much interaction between different sets of people, don’t you surely see the need for a facilitator? A person who breaks the ice between the actors and the spectactors. Once the forum begins, the joker encourages, invites, regulates, appreciates, explains, concludes and at times even translates the The Bystanders: Who witness this oppression interventions of a spectator. and are at a position to prevent it from happening.
  • 9. Forum theatre is a form of theatre and just like any other form, it requires a clever script and supporting design that makes it both pleasurable to watch in form and thought-provoking in content. Now, how do you strike this magical balance between form and content and make the experience for a spectactor really valuable? The Anti-Model To understand what an anti-model means, it will help to think about what the term ‘model’ means. A model situation is one where there is deal distribution of power and no construct of oppression. So surely, the anti-modmeans the opposite- an act in Forum Theatre that portrays the oppression. A Forum play can include one or more anti-models that narrate an undesirable but prevalent view of the world.
  • 10. The spectactors are the members of the audience who are invited on stage to replace the protagonist or a bystander to intervene at the event of an injustice and offer solutions to dissolve the conflict and give the play an optimistic ending.
  • 11. The Joker welcomes and warms up the audience. He introduces the context and the members of the play to the audience. As the play begins, it takes us through the life of the protagonist. The cast build the scenes to portray the act of oppression and its consequences. The spectactors are given a few minutes to absorb the gravity of the act and reflect upon it. Sequence of Events
  • 12. The Joker asks them if this kind of a social set up that is acceptable. Questions like, “Do you feel any empathy after watching this play?” “Are you prepared to fight it if it were a real life situation?” provoke thought and finally the joker poses the question that urges them to act out any possible solution, “ Would you like to try out any solutions?”
  • 13. The spectactor can do many things. He can: a) come in as a new character b) replace a bystander The anti-model is repeated a c) replace the protagonist and second time and the Joker shouts offer a solution from the STOP!! “stop!” at a point where a character’s perspective spectactor stops the play at a point where they see a potential for change. He encourages the spectactors to replace a character who holds the power to liberate the After some resistance that will exist in a realistic protagonist from oppression. situation, the antagonist party will give in depending on how powerful the offered solution is and the spectactors will be able to see the problem unfold with a positive change.
  • 14. Recapitulate Appreciate The Joker also regulates the Thank Forum- any discussion or debate that may stem from these Once most possible solutions are exhausted, the Joker summarizes the solutions, he is expected to hold possible solutions offered by the a neutral position, but asking spectactors and presents the questions that the audience can opportunities in time that allow one to Once we witness the easily respond to with a Yes or intervene in a difficult situation. This consequence of the solution, No. In this way the joker always allows the spectactors to review the the Joker stops the act, tries keeping a healthy, Forum, to seep the experience in. The recapitulates and appreciates meaningful discussion going. play ends on a positive note with the intervention, thanks the emphasis on how a real life crisis spectactor for his/her always has room for change. contribution and invites alternative solutions.
  • 15. ...... ......... ... . .. .. ... .. .. ... . .. ... .. . . . . .. .. ... . ... ... .............. . .... Magic What do you think ... .. . .. .. . . . . . .. ..... .. .. .. .. .. ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... .. . . the word magic ....... ...... magic means in this Interventions that use magic seem too good to be true and look at context? ... super-human or ideal circumstances. .. . .. . . . ... It often happens when we assume that .. .. . . .. . ... ... . . ... ...... .. ..... the forces of oppression can be ... .. ............... .. ........... neglected. When Magic as a solution is offered, it is important for the Joker In Forum Theatre, ‘Magic’ refers to a solution offered by a spectactor to identify Magic, explain it to the that frees, deletes or makes the oppression of the anti-model vanish audience and suggest an alternative by unrealistic means. For example, if a spectactor tries to replace point of intervention. the rapist in a sexual abuse scene, it is unrealistic or magical to think of this approach as a possible solution!In real life, is it possible to dissolve matters by wishing a problem away?
  • 16. .......... ..................................... ..... .............. ........ ...... . ......... .... .. ....... ... .. .... ...... On the other hand if the oppression in the anti-model is portrayed to the . ...... ... spectactors at a point so extreme that it cannot be prevented, it leaves no room ..... .. .. . ... for intervention and ends the play with a sense of helplessness and loss. .. ..... . For example -when one shows the protagonist being held at gun-point. If battling . ... the oppression (or in this case aggression) is only through physical self-defense, . ... .. the purpose of a forum is defeated. How can we, as spectactors reflect on the ..... . . . ... root of the problem and try to prevent it from building into aggression that . .. ... . .. ..... ..... .... ....... ...................... ..... .............. ............ ..... ........ ...........
  • 17. What is important is how Writing your Is the oppression on a child being precisely the problem is put bullied in the lunch hall less significant forth – as Boal puts it, if the than that of a refugee being tortured by presentation of the problem militants? Can you see how the is done in a hazy manner, the own Forum suffering of two individuals cannot be compared on the same parameters? Any subject that enuinely wants solutions will be as hazy, the discussion as awry. A clear, well-constructed, strongly Piece All oppressions are liberation, that requires the drawing of attention and discussion towards it, can portrayed problem will bring about clear, specific of equal importance- to the be constructed into forum theatre. It and strong reactions and people who are being should ideally be a form of oppression that society can regonize, but is aware solutions. subjected to them of neglecting, that is relevant to the - Augusto Boal spectactors and that they can relate and respond to.
  • 18. The verbal language, or the speech, must be something that the spectactors are acquainted with to avoid any miscommunication or confusion. If there The visual language can range from is any disparity,the Joker or a translator something universal such as waving ones should be prepared to bridge this arms in alarm to something culturally difference. In fact, here is where the specific such as the colours of a flag as a importance of the visual language of metaphor for liberty. Keeping the portrayal theatre comes in! Since Forum invites realistic is a great way of getting one’s spectactors to act and not just hold verbal point across. But it isn’t the only mode. discussion, a strong and clear visual and Including surreal and symbolic imagery metaphorical language adds layers to (see more in Image theatre) pushes the the anti-model, gives more dimensions imagination and encourages theatrical for interpretation and allows access expression among the spectactors. to the spectactors to express their thoughts.
  • 19. How can we use metaphors and symbols to convey Other oppression through theatre? How can we prevent a forum play from resembling a boring monologue? How can we bring spectactors to understand a language that is Techniques not limited to words? Image Theatre, as the name suggests, avoids using words Rainbow Of Desires is an introspective technique that uses altogether. It uses the spontaneity words and images to give us an view of what goes on offered by movement, body inside a character’s mind. It helps us see how internal language, objects, gestures, conflicts of both the protagonist and the antagonist comes colours and visual signals that across as oppression. This fair view of situations helps in connect to our day-to-day deepening the nature of the interventions. Using this, you perception. Through this, we will be able to see beyond the black and white,good and make the language on stage more evil, right and wrong to be able to better understand the universal and relatable. spectrum of human behavior.
  • 20. Functioning as a Forum Theatre Group
  • 21. Sitting in circles works miracles- it dissolves hierarchy, everyone can see Actors in forum write their own script everyone else making it easier to focus, through long sessions of spontaneous the group energy is contained, it makes taking turns theatre, improvisation and reflection. Are Belonging easier and methodical, no issues stay unaddressed, we not members of the very society we and with a little nudging and shifting, it’s always are acting against? Encouraging habits to the possible to accommodate one more person in the big a group big circle. of teamwork during rehearsal goes a circle. In the beginning of the session, the big circle As long way in maintaining a healthy gives everyone an identical space to start off from. At group dynamic. Trust, belonging and the end of a session, once the group reflects and having an equal status in the group shares observations, it leaves one with a sense of enhances one’s willingness to contribute Try one or more gathering identical knowledge and learning. as one knows that one is being heard. of these methods to It brings oneness and decisiveness. create and maintain a And it makes louder noises. healthy dynamic
  • 22. Keep markers and paper handy when in discussion. Record When in action, take pictures, videos, Lay down big sheets of paper audio recordings. What comes up in in the centre and allow free expression of needs, wants, group discussions will greatly affect fears, hopes and any what forms the content of the anti-model. concerns that people voice Observe not only the obvious, but dig for late reference. deep into the undercurrents of the actions and what may have provoked them. And Record and remember what makes record, to include these details in the up the interests of the group and Note ideas when script for the anti-model. respond to them accordingly. brainstorming. Write big.
  • 23. To keep your content true to a As an individual, try switching world view, make it well-rounded your gaze from outward to inward. with more than one perspective. As Observe yourself as a member of a group, switch roles and power play. Put yourselves in the shoes of Switch Roles the society and how your relationships with society change with change in context. A greater someone who is on the other end of the spectrum. Play both, an sense of empathy will develop in antangonist and a protagonist. us not only from listening to others but listening to oneself thinking like someone else.
  • 24. Many emotions that are raw, uncomfortable and CONFIDE Chances are that as we build trust, refusal with private emerge in discussions that lead to writing morph into hesitation which will slowly bloom into an anti-model. There are matters of secrecy that TRUST willingness to share. With trust alone can we keep may be clouded by negative emotions. But as a shame, guilt, hurt and anger from getting in the group, learn to keep matters confidential with PROTECT way of an effective anti-model. With trust, and responsibility and sensitivity. Respect anonymity secret societies with cool dress codes. or refusal to participate in certain discussions.
  • 25. On several occasions, talking about oppression in one’s own Functioning lives is a struggle which a and Appreciate participant will undergo for the Nevertheless, appreciate each sake of the group. At the same other’s courage to let go of the fear time, learn to detach yourself of being judged. After all, the enough to critically analyze more people we thank at the end what fits the script and makes for of a session, the richer the day has powerful content. been in gaining a variety of perspectives.
  • 26. Ga mes f or a Forum group
  • 27. Ask a series of questions with For eg, ask “If you are having a terrible day and wish you weren't here, two different answers and stand over to the left, if you are thrilled to be here, have energy for the depending on what they day, stand to the right. Or if you are somewhere in the middle, stand Spectrum think, participants should somewhere in the middle, or a little more to the side that you agree arrange themselves more with a little more. Stand anywhere along the line that represents what towards one answer on one you think. There are no right or wrong answers.” end, another answer on Ask why they chose to stand where they standing, again emphasizing if another end, or somewhere necessary that there are no answers better than others, or more correct- along the line in the middle. this is simply an activity to see what people are thinking.
  • 28. One partner tries to keep their face aligned with the other partner's hand as Secret thought or secret wish: they move that hand around. Everyone speaks their Switch roles, so that the previous secret thought or what they leader follows. secretly want simultaneously Both partners follow and lead at and then one at a time they Fast Forward/ Rewind- the same time. share the essence of that thought when tapped. Go back in time or ahead to the future. Double- Every conflict has a history and every Pause- Someone steps up and resolution has it's consequences. Fast-forward To stop a scene and have for previewingoutcomes or possible mirrors the protagonist’s everyone hold the body posture body language and makes consequences. Rewind for showing context of the paused moment. Helpful and history. Rewind is especially useful when Columbian statements in the first when you identify a destructive person based on the the conflict appears to start with a violent behavioral pattern cycle is just altercation, through a rewind you may feelings that arise in their beginning and give the find that the conflict actually had roots Hypnosis Boal body. Think of it as someone actors/spectactors a chance to offering inner thoughts. in the lunch line yesterday. observe their bodies and the direction of the anti-model.
  • 29. Multiple Endings- Replay the scene A poetic monologue that can be with different endings. Identify a used during a pause to make inner Soliloquy pivotal moment in the scene while thoughts public and deepen it's enacted the first time through. understanding of where each other Once it ends, invite a rewind back to are coming from. At any point in the that pivotal point and ask the act, pause and ask an actor how characters to replay it in a different they are feeling. way. If the participants can't think of any other endings then pose "what if" questions. “I’m frustrated, no one wants to believe me. I’m extremely disappointed and hurt.” Once the feelings are expressed and heard, resume the play.
  • 30. Being aware of one’s physical stance at all times For answers that ring in is a must. For instance if the unison, it is important for the Things stage is on a higher dais, Joker’s questions to be framed the Joker could lower his crisply. Go for questions that to keep in stance to a sitting position can be answered in a to be at the same level as Yes or a No. the audience. Even though all the actors Using a neutral tone, that mind for should watch out for Magic in an intervention, it is the job of avoids being judgemental of drawing conclusions is important so the the Joker the Joker to identify it. But instead of ruling the solution out, he can instead ask the audience to decide if it is a spectactor can build possible, realistic solution. trust with the Joker.
  • 31. Where is Social behaviour compels it used? The potential of Forum theatre has been recognized in Policy Making, where Potential us to think from within the roles important perspectives as brought forward by that we play in our daily lives such as various citizens and the distribution of power can be understood more sensitively. of a student, worker, bread-winner, mother, teacher etc. Despite ourselves, we invoke In the realm of Medical Humanities, Forum and reinforce these hierarchies, orders and Workshops allow better understanding connotations and distance ourselves from communicating as fellow humans. Forum theatre is a medium of breaking these patterns and Forum Theatre between patients, their families and physicians. This fragile relationship requires not only an understanding of the other but also thorough behaviours, sometimes donning new ones self awareness, that is provided by the voicing altogether, and communicating the way our of opinions and feelings under crucial bodies guide us, from one human to another. circumstances portrayed in forum anti-models.
  • 32. In the classroom, traditionally a space that hegemonises the teacher, the technique of Forum Theatre democratises space. Instead of assuming that the knowledge of a teacher always puts hims/her in authority, the classroom becomes a space of learning and problem solving for everyone. Everyone is a spectactor, a teacher and a student. In the end, becoming a participant of Forum is a process of realization and reflection. It can be unsettling and painful when buried feelings are stirred, but there can be no better way to voice one’s struggle, whether in one’s personal life, in the classroom, at a workplace or on the warring borders of countries. The subject of the Forum can be ever-changing, but what remains constant is the empathetic human dialogue it generates - something the world could use more of. Something worth spreading wherever life takes you.
  • 33. Joker: Antagonist: Inner-conflict: The facilitator of the Character who acts The range of emotions forum model of theatre Anti-Model: as a force of that occur within a character of who conducts the session An act of forum oppression. the anti-model, both positive with a neutral stand. theatre that portrays and negative. The thoughts that the opposite of an lead to a dilemma between Glossary ideal situation. choosing to live under oppression or seeking Intervention: liberation. The act of a spectactor Connotation: interrupting the forum play An idea or feeling that a when it runs a second time word invokes for a person and replacing a character to in addition to its literal or address the oppression primary meaning. through theatre.
  • 34. Soliloquy: A poetic Change: monologue of any To make the nature, member that content or the future Liberation: expresses their course of something The seeking of equal inner thoughts. different from what it status or just treatment would be if left alone. for or on behalf of any Magic: group believed to be Any forum intervention Spectactor : The audience discriminated against. that liberates the of forum theatre, not Social Change: protagonist but in an simply spectators but Refers to an unrealistic manner such participating members Oppression: alternation in the as replacing the who can intervene in the The exercise of social order of antagonist. performance and alter its authority or power in society. direction. an unjust manner.