Abnormal behavior ~ ap share


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Abnormal behavior ~ ap share

  2. 3. In recent years, the treatment of mental disorders has received much more appropriate public and governmental attention. Most modern methods of treating mental illnesses find their roots in the major perspectives of psychology introduced at the beginning of our course.
  3. 5. PSYCHOANALYTICAL {Psychodynamic} TREATMENTS: <ul><li>A recognition of repressed animalistic/id/libido desires. </li></ul><ul><li>Therapy taps into the unconscious. </li></ul><ul><li>Therapy taps into unresolved childhood issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of psychoanalysis/psychodynamic therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freudian couch. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of free association ~ stream of consciousness . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of transference . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of hypnosis and/or dream analysis . </li></ul></ul>
  4. 6. Criticisms of the Psychoanalytical Approach : <ul><li>Unproven theories. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of ability to resolve issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of reliability to trust childhood memories - confabulations. </li></ul>
  5. 7. BEHAVIORAL TREATMENTS: <ul><li>Focus on rewards/punishments . </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on schedules and reinforcements . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of systematic desensitization . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of aversive conditioning . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of a token economy . </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Criticisms of the Behavioral Approach : <ul><li>Usually only effective in dealing with minor issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Successes can be temporary if overall behaviors aren’t adjusted. </li></ul><ul><li>Not very useful for dealing with major psychological disorders. </li></ul>
  7. 9. COGNITIVE TREATMENTS: <ul><li>Often referred to as cognitive-behavioral therapy. </li></ul><ul><li>Therapy focuses on changing internalized sentences . </li></ul><ul><li>Very positive view of the power of our minds to control our actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes rational thoughts . </li></ul>
  8. 10. Criticisms of the Cognitive Approach : <ul><li>It is not possible to solve many problems that are chemical or physiological in nature simply by just changing the way one thinks about them. </li></ul><ul><li>Often times behavior involves entities that are beyond our thought. </li></ul>
  9. 11. HUMANISTIC TREATMENTS: <ul><li>Therapy focuses on the patient as the one in position to control their own mental health and well-being. </li></ul><ul><li>Stresses repairing needs structures . </li></ul><ul><li>Use of client-centered treatment . </li></ul><ul><li>Use of unconditional positive regard . </li></ul>
  10. 12. Criticisms of the Humanistic Approach : <ul><li>Lack of responsibility of the patient. </li></ul><ul><li>Too often becomes the blame game. </li></ul><ul><li>Too wishy-washy. </li></ul>
  11. 13. THERAPEUTIC TREATMENTS: <ul><li>The major focus of the previous approaches is individual therapy, but there are other types: </li></ul><ul><li>G roup Therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More cost effective. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not alone in dealing with the issue. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing of problems / companionship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared successes and support for failures. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Family Therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows those who often have to help manage the problem the most to seek help too. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encounter Therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced sharing of deep emotions, conflicts and thoughts. Similar to an “intervention”. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Criticisms of the Therapeutic Approach : <ul><li>Patients are hesitant to trust therapist, other patients, or the group as a whole. </li></ul><ul><li>Failures by any member can lead others to feeling failure as well. </li></ul><ul><li>One size fits all approach often misses important individual differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Encounter therapy can be very psychologically threatening to an emotionally unstable individual. </li></ul>
  13. 15. SPECIAL NOTES ON ALL TYPES OF THERAPY: <ul><li>Factors that all therapy have in common: </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to help resolve conflicts. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct relationship with a therapist. </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipation of positive change. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of therapy for the patients: </li></ul><ul><li>Find a better method of handling the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the nature of the problem better. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a relationship with someone who cares. </li></ul><ul><li>Overcome present issue and gain skills to help them in the future. </li></ul>
  14. 16. BIOMEDICAL TREATMENTS: <ul><li>Chemotherapy (chemical therapy – medication) via a psychiatrist or a medical doctor. (main drugs are tranquilizers, anti-anxiety, anti-depressants, anti-psychotics, and mood stabilizers) </li></ul><ul><li>ECT – electro-convulsive therapy aka: electric shock treatment…repetitive Trans-cranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)…Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS). </li></ul><ul><li>Psychosurgery – frontal lobotomy…the “gamma knife”…cingulotomy. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Criticisms of the Biomedical Approach : <ul><li>CRITICISMS OF CHEMOTHERAPY: </li></ul><ul><li>Medications often mask problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t just take a pill to cure a mental illness – it really doesn’t “go away”. </li></ul><ul><li>Many just treat the symptoms rather than the source of the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Patients often feel cured and then stop treatment leading them right back to the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Some physical problems can occur from medications. </li></ul><ul><li>Patients often complain of feeling numb rather than better. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Criticisms of the Biomedical Approach : <ul><li>CRITICISMS OF ECT: </li></ul><ul><li>It is not really known why it works. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible memory loss and brain damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Has only proved to be really effective with serious cases of major depression. </li></ul><ul><li>Often makes other conditions worse. </li></ul><ul><li>While not reported to be painful, appears primitive and is terrifying to patients. </li></ul><ul><li>Just sedates/calms patients – Begs the question: Why not just medicate them to calm them? </li></ul>
  17. 19. Criticisms of the Biomedical Approach : <ul><li>CRITICISMS OF PSYCHOSURGERY: </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal lobe is also the location of our personality and our emotional responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Many patients come out of these procedures nothing like themselves – lifeless and emotionless. </li></ul><ul><li>One small error and other brain functions are in jeopardy. </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases, patients come out more violent and unmanageable than before the procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>Again, begs the question: Why not just tranquilize these patients? </li></ul>