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CChhaapptteerr 77 
AARRPP aanndd RRAARRPP 
Objectives 
Upon completion you will be able to: 
• Understand the need for ARP 
• Understand the cases in which ARP is used 
• Understand the components and interactions in an ARP package 
• Understand the need for RARP 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1
Figure 7.1 ARP and RARP 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 2
Figure 7.2 Position of ARP and RARP in TCP/IP protocol suite 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 3
7.1 ARP 
ARP associates an IP address with its physical aaddddrreessss.. OOnn aa ttyyppiiccaall 
pphhyyssiiccaall nneettwwoorrkk,, ssuucchh aass aa LLAANN,, eeaacchh ddeevviiccee oonn aa lliinnkk iiss iiddeennttiiffiieedd bbyy aa 
pphhyyssiiccaall oorr ssttaattiioonn aaddddrreessss tthhaatt iiss uussuuaallllyy iimmpprriinntteedd oonn tthhee NNIICC.. 
TThhee ttooppiiccss ddiissccuusssseedd iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn iinncclluuddee:: 
PPaacckkeett FFoorrmmaatt 
EEnnccaappssuullaattiioonn 
OOppeerraattiioonn 
AARRPP oovveerr AATTMM 
PPrrooxxyy AARRPP 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 4
Figure 7.3 ARP operation 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 5
Figure 7.4 ARP packet 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 6
Figure 7.5 Encapsulation of ARP packet 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 7
Figure 7.6 Four cases using ARP 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 8
NNoottee:: 
An ARP request is broadcast; 
an ARP reply is unicast. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 9
ExamplE 1 
A host with IP address 130.23.43.20 and physical 
address B2:34:55:10:22:10 has a packet to send to 
another host with IP address 130.23.43.25 and 
physical address A4:6E:F4:59:83:AB (which is 
unknown to the first host). The two hosts are on the 
same Ethernet network. Show the ARP request and 
reply packets encapsulated in Ethernet frames. 
See Next Slide 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 10
ExamplE 1 (ContinuEd) 
Solution 
Figure 7.7 shows the ARP request and reply packets. 
Note that the ARP data field in this case is 28 bytes, 
and that the individual addresses do not fit in the 4- 
byte boundary. That is why we do not show the 
regular 4-byte boundaries for these addresses. Also 
note that the IP addresses are shown in hexadecimal. 
For information on binary or hexadecimal notation 
see Appendix B. 
See Next Slide 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 11
Figure 7.7 Example 1 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 12
Figure 7.8 Proxy ARP 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 13
7.2 ARP PACKAGE 
In this section, we give an example of a simplified AARRPP ssooffttwwaarree 
ppaacckkaaggee ttoo sshhooww tthhee ccoommppoonneennttss aanndd tthhee rreellaattiioonnsshhiippss bbeettwweeeenn tthhee 
ccoommppoonneennttss.. TThhiiss AARRPP ppaacckkaaggee iinnvvoollvveess ffiivvee mmoodduulleess:: aa ccaacchhee ttaabbllee,, 
qquueeuueess,, aann oouuttppuutt mmoodduullee,, aann iinnppuutt mmoodduullee,, aanndd aa ccaacchhee--ccoonnttrrooll 
mmoodduullee.. 
TThhee ttooppiiccss ddiissccuusssseedd iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn iinncclluuddee:: 
CCaacchhee TTaabbllee 
QQuueeuueess 
OOuuttppuutt MMoodduullee 
IInnppuutt MMoodduullee 
CCaacchhee--CCoonnttrrooll MMoodduullee 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 14
Figure 7.9 ARP components 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 15
TTaabbllee 77..11 OOrriiggiinnaall ccaacchhee ttaabbllee uusseedd ffoorr eexxaammpplleess 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 16
ExamplE 2 
The ARP output module receives an IP datagram 
(from the IP layer) with the destination address 
114.5.7.89. It checks the cache table and finds that an 
entry exists for this destination with the RESOLVED 
state (R in the table). It extracts the hardware address, 
which is 457342ACAE32, and sends the packet and 
the address to the data link layer for transmission. 
The cache table remains the same. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 17
ExamplE 3 
Twenty seconds later, the ARP output module receives 
an IP datagram (from the IP layer) with the 
destination address 116.1.7.22. It checks the cache 
table and does not find this destination in the table. 
The module adds an entry to the table with the state 
PENDING and the Attempt value 1. It creates a new 
queue for this destination and enqueues the packet. It 
then sends an ARP request to the data link layer for 
this destination. The new cache table is shown in 
Table 7.2. 
See Next Slide 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 18
TTaabbllee 77..22 UUppddaatteedd ccaacchhee ttaabbllee ffoorr EExxaammppllee 33 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 19
ExamplE 4 
Fifteen seconds later, the ARP input module receives 
an ARP packet with target protocol (IP) address 
188.11.8.71. The module checks the table and finds 
this address. It changes the state of the entry to 
RESOLVED and sets the time-out value to 900. The 
module then adds the target hardware address 
(E34573242ACA) to the entry. Now it accesses queue 
18 and sends all the packets in this queue, one by one, 
to the data link layer. The new cache table is shown in 
Table 7.3. 
See Next Slide 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 20
TTaabbllee 77..33 UUppddaatteedd ccaacchhee ttaabbllee ffoorr EExxaammppllee 44 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 21
ExamplE 5 
Twenty-five seconds later, the cache-control module 
updates every entry. The time-out values for the first 
three resolved entries are decremented by 60. The 
time-out value for the last resolved entry is 
decremented by 25. The state of the next-to-the last 
entry is changed to FREE because the time-out is 
zero. For each of the three pending entries, the value 
of the attempts 
See Next Slide 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 22
TTaabbllee 77..44 UUppddaatteedd ccaacchhee ttaabbllee ffoorr EExxaammppllee 55 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 23
7.3 RARP 
RARP finds the logical address for a machine tthhaatt oonnllyy kknnoowwss iittss 
pphhyyssiiccaall aaddddrreessss.. 
TThhee ttooppiiccss ddiissccuusssseedd iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn iinncclluuddee:: 
PPaacckkeett FFoorrmmaatt 
EEnnccaappssuullaattiioonn 
RRAARRPP SSeerrvveerr 
AAlltteerrnnaattiivvee SSoolluuttiioonnss ttoo RRAARRPP 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 24
NNoottee:: 
The RARP request packets are broadcast; 
the RARP reply packets are unicast. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 25
Figure 7.10 RARP operation 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 26
Figure 7.11 RARP packet 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 27
Figure 7.12 Encapsulation of RARP packet 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 28

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Chap 07 arp & rarp

  • 1. CChhaapptteerr 77 AARRPP aanndd RRAARRPP Objectives Upon completion you will be able to: • Understand the need for ARP • Understand the cases in which ARP is used • Understand the components and interactions in an ARP package • Understand the need for RARP TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1
  • 2. Figure 7.1 ARP and RARP TCP/IP Protocol Suite 2
  • 3. Figure 7.2 Position of ARP and RARP in TCP/IP protocol suite TCP/IP Protocol Suite 3
  • 4. 7.1 ARP ARP associates an IP address with its physical aaddddrreessss.. OOnn aa ttyyppiiccaall pphhyyssiiccaall nneettwwoorrkk,, ssuucchh aass aa LLAANN,, eeaacchh ddeevviiccee oonn aa lliinnkk iiss iiddeennttiiffiieedd bbyy aa pphhyyssiiccaall oorr ssttaattiioonn aaddddrreessss tthhaatt iiss uussuuaallllyy iimmpprriinntteedd oonn tthhee NNIICC.. TThhee ttooppiiccss ddiissccuusssseedd iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn iinncclluuddee:: PPaacckkeett FFoorrmmaatt EEnnccaappssuullaattiioonn OOppeerraattiioonn AARRPP oovveerr AATTMM PPrrooxxyy AARRPP TCP/IP Protocol Suite 4
  • 5. Figure 7.3 ARP operation TCP/IP Protocol Suite 5
  • 6. Figure 7.4 ARP packet TCP/IP Protocol Suite 6
  • 7. Figure 7.5 Encapsulation of ARP packet TCP/IP Protocol Suite 7
  • 8. Figure 7.6 Four cases using ARP TCP/IP Protocol Suite 8
  • 9. NNoottee:: An ARP request is broadcast; an ARP reply is unicast. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 9
  • 10. ExamplE 1 A host with IP address 130.23.43.20 and physical address B2:34:55:10:22:10 has a packet to send to another host with IP address 130.23.43.25 and physical address A4:6E:F4:59:83:AB (which is unknown to the first host). The two hosts are on the same Ethernet network. Show the ARP request and reply packets encapsulated in Ethernet frames. See Next Slide TCP/IP Protocol Suite 10
  • 11. ExamplE 1 (ContinuEd) Solution Figure 7.7 shows the ARP request and reply packets. Note that the ARP data field in this case is 28 bytes, and that the individual addresses do not fit in the 4- byte boundary. That is why we do not show the regular 4-byte boundaries for these addresses. Also note that the IP addresses are shown in hexadecimal. For information on binary or hexadecimal notation see Appendix B. See Next Slide TCP/IP Protocol Suite 11
  • 12. Figure 7.7 Example 1 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 12
  • 13. Figure 7.8 Proxy ARP TCP/IP Protocol Suite 13
  • 14. 7.2 ARP PACKAGE In this section, we give an example of a simplified AARRPP ssooffttwwaarree ppaacckkaaggee ttoo sshhooww tthhee ccoommppoonneennttss aanndd tthhee rreellaattiioonnsshhiippss bbeettwweeeenn tthhee ccoommppoonneennttss.. TThhiiss AARRPP ppaacckkaaggee iinnvvoollvveess ffiivvee mmoodduulleess:: aa ccaacchhee ttaabbllee,, qquueeuueess,, aann oouuttppuutt mmoodduullee,, aann iinnppuutt mmoodduullee,, aanndd aa ccaacchhee--ccoonnttrrooll mmoodduullee.. TThhee ttooppiiccss ddiissccuusssseedd iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn iinncclluuddee:: CCaacchhee TTaabbllee QQuueeuueess OOuuttppuutt MMoodduullee IInnppuutt MMoodduullee CCaacchhee--CCoonnttrrooll MMoodduullee TCP/IP Protocol Suite 14
  • 15. Figure 7.9 ARP components TCP/IP Protocol Suite 15
  • 16. TTaabbllee 77..11 OOrriiggiinnaall ccaacchhee ttaabbllee uusseedd ffoorr eexxaammpplleess TCP/IP Protocol Suite 16
  • 17. ExamplE 2 The ARP output module receives an IP datagram (from the IP layer) with the destination address 114.5.7.89. It checks the cache table and finds that an entry exists for this destination with the RESOLVED state (R in the table). It extracts the hardware address, which is 457342ACAE32, and sends the packet and the address to the data link layer for transmission. The cache table remains the same. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 17
  • 18. ExamplE 3 Twenty seconds later, the ARP output module receives an IP datagram (from the IP layer) with the destination address 116.1.7.22. It checks the cache table and does not find this destination in the table. The module adds an entry to the table with the state PENDING and the Attempt value 1. It creates a new queue for this destination and enqueues the packet. It then sends an ARP request to the data link layer for this destination. The new cache table is shown in Table 7.2. See Next Slide TCP/IP Protocol Suite 18
  • 19. TTaabbllee 77..22 UUppddaatteedd ccaacchhee ttaabbllee ffoorr EExxaammppllee 33 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 19
  • 20. ExamplE 4 Fifteen seconds later, the ARP input module receives an ARP packet with target protocol (IP) address 188.11.8.71. The module checks the table and finds this address. It changes the state of the entry to RESOLVED and sets the time-out value to 900. The module then adds the target hardware address (E34573242ACA) to the entry. Now it accesses queue 18 and sends all the packets in this queue, one by one, to the data link layer. The new cache table is shown in Table 7.3. See Next Slide TCP/IP Protocol Suite 20
  • 21. TTaabbllee 77..33 UUppddaatteedd ccaacchhee ttaabbllee ffoorr EExxaammppllee 44 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 21
  • 22. ExamplE 5 Twenty-five seconds later, the cache-control module updates every entry. The time-out values for the first three resolved entries are decremented by 60. The time-out value for the last resolved entry is decremented by 25. The state of the next-to-the last entry is changed to FREE because the time-out is zero. For each of the three pending entries, the value of the attempts See Next Slide TCP/IP Protocol Suite 22
  • 23. TTaabbllee 77..44 UUppddaatteedd ccaacchhee ttaabbllee ffoorr EExxaammppllee 55 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 23
  • 24. 7.3 RARP RARP finds the logical address for a machine tthhaatt oonnllyy kknnoowwss iittss pphhyyssiiccaall aaddddrreessss.. TThhee ttooppiiccss ddiissccuusssseedd iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn iinncclluuddee:: PPaacckkeett FFoorrmmaatt EEnnccaappssuullaattiioonn RRAARRPP SSeerrvveerr AAlltteerrnnaattiivvee SSoolluuttiioonnss ttoo RRAARRPP TCP/IP Protocol Suite 24
  • 25. NNoottee:: The RARP request packets are broadcast; the RARP reply packets are unicast. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 25
  • 26. Figure 7.10 RARP operation TCP/IP Protocol Suite 26
  • 27. Figure 7.11 RARP packet TCP/IP Protocol Suite 27
  • 28. Figure 7.12 Encapsulation of RARP packet TCP/IP Protocol Suite 28