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CChhaapptteerr 2255 
MMuullttiimmeeddiiaa 
Objectives 
Upon completion you will be able to: 
• Know the characteristics of...
Figure 25.1 Internet audio/video 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 2
NNoottee:: 
Streaming stored audio/video refers to 
on-demand requests for compressed 
audio/video files. 
TCP/IP Protocol...
NNoottee:: 
Streaming live audio/video refers to 
the broadcasting of radio and TV 
programs through the Internet. 
TCP/IP...
NNoottee:: 
Interactive audio/video refers to the 
use of the Internet for interactive 
audio/video applications. 
TCP/IP ...
25.1 DIGITIZING AUDIO AND VIDEO 
Before audio or video signals can be sent on the Internet, tthheeyy nneeeedd ttoo bbee 
d...
NNoottee:: 
Compression is needed to send video 
over the Internet. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 7
25.2 AUDIO AND VIDEO 
COMPRESSION 
To send audio or video over the Internet rreeqquuiirreess ccoommpprreessssiioonn.. 
TTh...
Figure 25.2 JPEG gray scale 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 9
Figure 25.3 JPEG process 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 10
Figure 25.4 Case 1: uniform gray scale 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 11
Figure 25.5 Case 2: two sections 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 12
Figure 25.6 Case 3: gradient gray scale 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 13
Figure 25.7 Reading the table 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 14
Figure 25.8 MPEG frames 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 15
Figure 25.9 MPEG frame construction 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 16
25.3 STREAMING STORED 
AUDIO/VIDEO 
We turn our attention to a specific applications ccaalllleedd ssttrreeaammiinngg sstto...
Figure 25.10 Using a Web server 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 18
Figure 25.11 Using a Web server with a metafile 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 19
Figure 25.12 Using a media server 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 20
Figure 25.13 Using a media server and RTSP 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 21
25.4 STREAMING LIVE 
AUDIO/VIDEO 
In streaming live audio/video the stations bbrrooaaddccaasstt tthhrroouugghh tthhee 
IIn...
25.5 REAL-TIME INTERACTIVE 
AUDIO/VIDEO 
In real-time interactive audio/video, people communicate vviissuuaallllyy aanndd ...
Figure 25.14 Time relationship 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 24
NNoottee:: 
Jitter is introduced in real-time data by 
the delay between packets. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 25
Figure 25.15 Jitter 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 26
Figure 25.16 Timestamp 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 27
NNoottee:: 
To prevent jitter, we can timestamp the 
packets and separate the arrival time 
from the playback time. 
TCP/I...
Figure 25.17 Playback buffer 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 29
NNoottee:: 
A playback buffer is required for 
real-time traffic. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 30
NNoottee:: 
A sequence number on each packet is 
required for real-time traffic. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 31
NNoottee:: 
Real-time traffic needs the support of 
multicasting. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 32
NNoottee:: 
Translation means changing the 
encoding of a payload to a lower 
quality to match the bandwidth 
of the recei...
NNoottee:: 
Mixing means combining several 
streams of traffic into one stream. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 34
NNoottee:: 
TCP, with all its sophistication, is not 
suitable for interactive multimedia 
traffic because we cannot allow...
NNoottee:: 
UDP is more suitable than TCP for 
interactive traffic. However, we need 
the services of RTP, another transpo...
25.6 RTP 
Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is the protocol ddeessiiggnneedd ttoo hhaannddllee 
rreeaall--ttiimmee ttrraa...
Figure 25.18 RTP 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 38
Figure 25.19 RTP packet header format 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 39
TTaabbllee 2255..11 PPaayyllooaadd ttyyppeess 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 40
NNoottee:: 
RTP uses a temporary even-numbered 
UDP port. 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 41
25.7 RTCP 
Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) is a pprroottooccooll tthhaatt aalllloowwss 
mmeessssaaggeess tthha...
Figure 25.20 RTCP message types 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 43
NNoottee:: 
RTCP uses an odd-numbered UDP 
port number that follows the port 
number selected for RTP. 
TCP/IP Protocol Su...
25.8 VOICE OVER IP 
Voice over IP, or Internet telephony is an application tthhaatt aalllloowwss 
ccoommmmuunniiccaattiioo...
Figure 25.21 SIP messages 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 46
Figure 25.22 SIP formats 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 47
Figure 25.23 SIP simple session 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 48
Figure 25.24 Tracking the callee 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 49
Figure 25.25 H.323 architecture 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 50
Figure 25.26 H.323 protocols 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 51
Figure 25.27 H.323 example 
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 52
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Chap 25 multimedia

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TCP-IP BY FOROUZAN

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Chap 25 multimedia

  1. 1. CChhaapptteerr 2255 MMuullttiimmeeddiiaa Objectives Upon completion you will be able to: • Know the characteristics of the 3 types of services • Understand the methods of digitizing and compressing. • Understand jitter, translation, and mixing in real-time traffic • Understand the role of RTP and RTCP in real-time traffic • Understand how the Internet can be used as a telephone network TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1
  2. 2. Figure 25.1 Internet audio/video TCP/IP Protocol Suite 2
  3. 3. NNoottee:: Streaming stored audio/video refers to on-demand requests for compressed audio/video files. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 3
  4. 4. NNoottee:: Streaming live audio/video refers to the broadcasting of radio and TV programs through the Internet. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 4
  5. 5. NNoottee:: Interactive audio/video refers to the use of the Internet for interactive audio/video applications. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 5
  6. 6. 25.1 DIGITIZING AUDIO AND VIDEO Before audio or video signals can be sent on the Internet, tthheeyy nneeeedd ttoo bbee ddiiggiittiizzeedd.. WWee ddiissccuussss aauuddiioo aanndd vviiddeeoo sseeppaarraatteellyy.. TThhee ttooppiiccss ddiissccuusssseedd iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn iinncclluuddee:: DDiiggiittiizziinngg AAuuddiioo DDiiggiittiizziinngg VViiddeeoo TCP/IP Protocol Suite 6
  7. 7. NNoottee:: Compression is needed to send video over the Internet. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 7
  8. 8. 25.2 AUDIO AND VIDEO COMPRESSION To send audio or video over the Internet rreeqquuiirreess ccoommpprreessssiioonn.. TThhee ttooppiiccss ddiissccuusssseedd iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn iinncclluuddee:: AAuuddiioo CCoommpprreessssiioonn VViiddeeoo CCoommpprreessssiioonn TCP/IP Protocol Suite 8
  9. 9. Figure 25.2 JPEG gray scale TCP/IP Protocol Suite 9
  10. 10. Figure 25.3 JPEG process TCP/IP Protocol Suite 10
  11. 11. Figure 25.4 Case 1: uniform gray scale TCP/IP Protocol Suite 11
  12. 12. Figure 25.5 Case 2: two sections TCP/IP Protocol Suite 12
  13. 13. Figure 25.6 Case 3: gradient gray scale TCP/IP Protocol Suite 13
  14. 14. Figure 25.7 Reading the table TCP/IP Protocol Suite 14
  15. 15. Figure 25.8 MPEG frames TCP/IP Protocol Suite 15
  16. 16. Figure 25.9 MPEG frame construction TCP/IP Protocol Suite 16
  17. 17. 25.3 STREAMING STORED AUDIO/VIDEO We turn our attention to a specific applications ccaalllleedd ssttrreeaammiinngg ssttoorreedd aauuddiioo aanndd vviiddeeoo.. WWee uussee ffoouurr aapppprrooaacchheess ttoo sshhooww hhooww aa ffiillee ccaann bbee ddoowwnnllooaaddeedd,, eeaacchh wwiitthh aa ddiiffffeerreenntt ccoommpplleexxiittyy.. TThhee ttooppiiccss ddiissccuusssseedd iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn iinncclluuddee:: FFiirrsstt AApppprrooaacchh:: UUssiinngg aa WWeebb SSeerrvveerr SSeeccoonndd AApppprrooaacchh:: UUssiinngg aa WWeebb SSeerrvveerr wwiitthh MMeettaaffiillee TThhiirrdd AApppprrooaacchh:: UUssiinngg aa MMeeddiiaa SSeerrvveerr FFoouurrtthh AApppprrooaacchh:: UUssiinngg aa MMeeddiiaa SSeerrvveerr aanndd RRTTSSPP TCP/IP Protocol Suite 17
  18. 18. Figure 25.10 Using a Web server TCP/IP Protocol Suite 18
  19. 19. Figure 25.11 Using a Web server with a metafile TCP/IP Protocol Suite 19
  20. 20. Figure 25.12 Using a media server TCP/IP Protocol Suite 20
  21. 21. Figure 25.13 Using a media server and RTSP TCP/IP Protocol Suite 21
  22. 22. 25.4 STREAMING LIVE AUDIO/VIDEO In streaming live audio/video the stations bbrrooaaddccaasstt tthhrroouugghh tthhee IInntteerrnneett.. CCoommmmuunniiccaattiioonn iiss mmuullttiiccaasstt aanndd lliivvee.. LLiivvee ssttrreeaammiinngg iiss bbeetttteerr ssuuiitteedd ttoo tthhee mmuullttiiccaasstt sseerrvviicceess ooff IIPP aanndd tthhee uussee ooff pprroottooccoollss ssuucchh aass UUDDPP aanndd RRTTPP.. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 22
  23. 23. 25.5 REAL-TIME INTERACTIVE AUDIO/VIDEO In real-time interactive audio/video, people communicate vviissuuaallllyy aanndd oorraallllyy wwiitthh oonnee aannootthheerr iinn rreeaall ttiimmee.. EExxaammpplleess iinncclluuddee vviiddeeoo ccoonnffeerreenncciinngg aanndd tthhee IInntteerrnneett pphhoonnee oorr vvooiiccee oovveerr IIPP.. TThhee ttooppiiccss ddiissccuusssseedd iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn iinncclluuddee:: CChhaarraacctteerriissttiiccss TCP/IP Protocol Suite 23
  24. 24. Figure 25.14 Time relationship TCP/IP Protocol Suite 24
  25. 25. NNoottee:: Jitter is introduced in real-time data by the delay between packets. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 25
  26. 26. Figure 25.15 Jitter TCP/IP Protocol Suite 26
  27. 27. Figure 25.16 Timestamp TCP/IP Protocol Suite 27
  28. 28. NNoottee:: To prevent jitter, we can timestamp the packets and separate the arrival time from the playback time. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 28
  29. 29. Figure 25.17 Playback buffer TCP/IP Protocol Suite 29
  30. 30. NNoottee:: A playback buffer is required for real-time traffic. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 30
  31. 31. NNoottee:: A sequence number on each packet is required for real-time traffic. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 31
  32. 32. NNoottee:: Real-time traffic needs the support of multicasting. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 32
  33. 33. NNoottee:: Translation means changing the encoding of a payload to a lower quality to match the bandwidth of the receiving network. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 33
  34. 34. NNoottee:: Mixing means combining several streams of traffic into one stream. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 34
  35. 35. NNoottee:: TCP, with all its sophistication, is not suitable for interactive multimedia traffic because we cannot allow retransmission of packets. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 35
  36. 36. NNoottee:: UDP is more suitable than TCP for interactive traffic. However, we need the services of RTP, another transport layer protocol, to make up for the deficiencies of UDP. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 36
  37. 37. 25.6 RTP Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is the protocol ddeessiiggnneedd ttoo hhaannddllee rreeaall--ttiimmee ttrraaffffiicc oonn tthhee IInntteerrnneett.. RRTTPP ddooeess nnoott hhaavvee aa ddeelliivveerryy mmeecchhaanniissmm;; iitt mmuusstt bbee uusseedd wwiitthh UUDDPP.. TThhee ttooppiiccss ddiissccuusssseedd iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn iinncclluuddee:: RRTTPP PPaacckkeett FFoorrmmaatt UUDDPP PPoorrtt TCP/IP Protocol Suite 37
  38. 38. Figure 25.18 RTP TCP/IP Protocol Suite 38
  39. 39. Figure 25.19 RTP packet header format TCP/IP Protocol Suite 39
  40. 40. TTaabbllee 2255..11 PPaayyllooaadd ttyyppeess TCP/IP Protocol Suite 40
  41. 41. NNoottee:: RTP uses a temporary even-numbered UDP port. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 41
  42. 42. 25.7 RTCP Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) is a pprroottooccooll tthhaatt aalllloowwss mmeessssaaggeess tthhaatt ccoonnttrrooll tthhee ffllooww aanndd qquuaalliittyy ooff ddaattaa.. RRTTCCPP hhaass ffiivvee ttyyppeess ooff mmeessssaaggeess.. TThhee ttooppiiccss ddiissccuusssseedd iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn iinncclluuddee:: SSeennddeerr RReeppoorrtt RReecceeiivveerr RReeppoorrtt SSoouurrccee DDeessccrriippttiioonn MMeessssaaggee BByyee MMeessssaaggee AApppplliiccaattiioonn SSppeecciiffiicc MMeessssaaggee UUDDPP PPoorrtt TCP/IP Protocol Suite 42
  43. 43. Figure 25.20 RTCP message types TCP/IP Protocol Suite 43
  44. 44. NNoottee:: RTCP uses an odd-numbered UDP port number that follows the port number selected for RTP. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 44
  45. 45. 25.8 VOICE OVER IP Voice over IP, or Internet telephony is an application tthhaatt aalllloowwss ccoommmmuunniiccaattiioonn bbeettwweeeenn ttwwoo ppaarrttiieess oovveerr tthhee ppaacckkeett--sswwiittcchheedd IInntteerrnneett.. TTwwoo pprroottooccoollss hhaavvee bbeeeenn ddeessiiggnneedd ttoo hhaannddllee tthhiiss ttyyppee ooff ccoommmmuunniiccaattiioonn:: SSIIPP aanndd HH..332233.. TThhee ttooppiiccss ddiissccuusssseedd iinn tthhiiss sseeccttiioonn iinncclluuddee:: SSIIPP HH..332233 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 45
  46. 46. Figure 25.21 SIP messages TCP/IP Protocol Suite 46
  47. 47. Figure 25.22 SIP formats TCP/IP Protocol Suite 47
  48. 48. Figure 25.23 SIP simple session TCP/IP Protocol Suite 48
  49. 49. Figure 25.24 Tracking the callee TCP/IP Protocol Suite 49
  50. 50. Figure 25.25 H.323 architecture TCP/IP Protocol Suite 50
  51. 51. Figure 25.26 H.323 protocols TCP/IP Protocol Suite 51
  52. 52. Figure 25.27 H.323 example TCP/IP Protocol Suite 52
  • TahiraAwan3

    Jan. 15, 2020
  • HarunYARDIMCI1

    Jun. 12, 2019

TCP-IP BY FOROUZAN

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