lcome to the world ofurnalism, whereporters have beengging dirt, raking muck,king headlines andadlines for centuriesw. It’s a history full ofbloid trash, of slimynsationalists, ofrunkards, deadbeats andmmers” (as a Harvardiversity president oncescribed reporters).But it’s a history full ofroes, too: men andmen risking their livestell stories of war andagedy, riskingprisonment to defendee speech. And as youn see here, reports havecome beloved charactersp culture, too, turning upmovies, comics and TVows as if guided by ancult hand.Every culture seekseffective ways to spreadnew information and gossip.In ancient times, news waswritten on clay tablets. InCaesar’s age, Romans readnewsletters compiled bycorrespondents andhandwritten by slaves.Wandering minstrels spreadnews (and the plague) in theMiddle Ages. Them cameink on paper. Voices onairwaves. Newsreels, Websites, And 24-hour cablenews networks.Thus when scholarsanalyze the rich history ofjournalism, some view it interms of technologicalprogress—for example, thedramatic impact of bigger,faster printing presses.Others see journalism as aspecialized form literaryexpression, one that’sconstantly evolving,reflecting and shaping itsculture.Others see it as aninspiring quest for freespeech, an endless powerstruggle between Authority(trying to controlinformation) and the People(trying to learn the truth).Which brings to mind thewords of A.J. Liefling:“Freedom of the press isguaranteed only to htosewho own one.”In the pages ahead, we’lltake a quick tour of 600years of journalism history,from hieroglyphics tohypertext: the media, themessage and the politics.Technical advances andbrilliant ideas forged a newstyle of journalism. It was acentury of change, andnewspapers changeddramatically. The typinewspaper of 1800 waundisciplined mishmalegislative proceedinglong-winded essays asecondhand gossip. B1900, a new breed oftor had emerged. Jourhad become big businReporting was becomdisciplined craft. Andnewspapers were becmore entertaining andessential than ever, wmost of the features wexpect today: Snappyheadlines, Ads, ComicSports pages. And an“inverted pyramid” stywriting that made storitighter and newsier.Radio and televisionbrought an end tonewspapers’ mediamonopoly. Why? Wellyourself: Which did yoOnline repor*ng Inside ReportingTim Harrower8
2 From print to the Web Media convergence Online storytelling op9ons Wri9ng for online media
3 Online media oﬀers readers more variety and control Naviga9on crucial factor Electronic newspapers may replace dead-tree newspapers!
5 Need to develop new ways to tell stories. Tomorrow’s journalists will plan and produce news stories in diﬀerent ways. To fulﬁll the potential of new media!
6 Timeliness Print uses large photo to catch eye; Web uses smaller image Print uses smaller text; Web uses larger text Navigating online news sites!
7 Home page is gateway to online news Must be comprehensive Must be easy to navigate Compelling headlines for links Navigating online news sites!
8 Gatekeeper (past) Journalist shares with readers informa9on to which only she has access. The role of the journalist is changing alongwith the media !Navigator (present)Journalist helps toguide readers throughan ever-increasing bodyof information on aspecific topic.
9 Time/date Index Lead story Page design for single-‐screen display Naviga9on buXons Key home page elements!• Search engine• Ads/promotions• Interactive extras• Links• Footer
10 Newsroom convergence Journalists from diﬀerent media share same workspace. Technological innovations transforming21st-century journalism!NewsgatheringconvergenceReporters, editors andphotographerscollaborate on reports.
12 Use print to explain. Use mul9media to show. Use interac9ves to demonstrate and engage. New forms of news deliveries!
13 Video Audio Webcams and Webcasts Podcasts Animated graphics • Archives • Other Web sites • Organiza9ons • Editorials and columns • Addi9onal story elements Multimedia Interactive Links• Live chats • Reader feedback and comments • Online polls and quizzes • Downloads
14 Who creates blogs? Journalists Par9cipants in breaking news Bloggers who monitor what’s new and newsworthy Are blogs important? Everyone has a voice BLOGS: a way to add viewpoints!
15 “Chunk” your informa9on. Tweak your type to make it easier to scan. Rethink what a “story” is. Tips for creating readable, user-friendlynews stories for Web sites5• Enhance your story withextra elements.• Collaborate.
16 Photocopy page 161. Ask the team what’s this story really about. Summarize in 25 words or less. Online package planning guide!• Think like a reader.• Organize.• Distribute copies.