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Chapter 10
The Internet: Convergence in a Networked
World
Chapter Outline
• History
• Industry
• Controversies
A Brief History of the Net
A Brief History of the Net
A Brief History of the Net
A Brief History of the Net
Top Five Internet Nations
A Brief History of the Net
Top Five Internet Nations
A Brief History of the Net
A Brief History of the Net
A Brief History of the Net
A Brief History of the Net
Top Five Internet Nations
A Brief History of the Net
Top Five Internet Nations
A Brief History of the Net
Top Five Internet Nations
A Brief History of the Net
Top Five Internet Nations
A Brief History of the Net
The Computer
• The first rudimentary computer was the abacus, a
simple counting aid invented ar...
A Brief History of the Net
UNIVAC 1951
A Brief History of the Net
Early computers were made up of three components:
• The processor, or CPU (for “central process...
A Brief History of the Net
A Brief History of the Net
A Brief History of the Net
A Brief History of the Net
A Brief History of the Net
A Brief History of the Net
A Brief History of the Net
A Brief History of the Net
A Brief History of the Net
Apple I 1976
Price $666
A Brief History of the Net
A Brief History of the Net
• During the 1970s integrated circuits, now called “chips,”
were becoming smaller, more powerfu...
A Brief History of the Net
The History of Internet
• Animated video
• Phone Phreaking
• Pranksters at the creation
A Brief History of the Net
Going Digital
• Scientists convinced senior military officials that
computers could be used for...
A Brief History of the Net
From the Military to the Civilian Net
• The U. S. Department of Defense (DOD)
completed its nat...
A Brief History of the Net
The First Commercial Online Services
• The first successful general interest online service
was...
A Brief History of the Net
The World Wide Web
• In 1989, British researcher Tim Berners-Lee invented
the World Wide Web, a...
A Brief History of the Net
Internet Components
A Brief History of the Net
Global Dimensions
• The Internet has made the world a “global village” by
allowing web surfers ...
Understanding Today’s Internet
Industry
The Architecture of the Net
• Users connect to the Internet via host computers bel...
Understanding Today’s Internet
Industry
Internet Addresses
• Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) are Internet addresses
that ...
Understanding Today’s Internet
Industry
Networks attached to the Internet are organized into a
limited number of categorie...
Understanding Today’s Internet
Industry
Browsers
• A Web browser such as Mozilla’s Firefox, Apple’s Safari or
Microsoft’s ...
Understanding Today’s Internet
Industry
Search Engines
• A traditional search engine sends out automated software
robots c...
Understanding Today’s Internet
Industry
Top Search Engines (2012)
Understanding Today’s Internet
Industry
• Personal Web pages enable Internet users
to tell the world about themselves.
• W...
Internet and culture
• Hive mind acceptance
• Cyberbullying
• Shallowness vs. depth
• Present shock
• Online vs. IRL frien...
Four stages of Internet development
• Web portals
• AOL, Yahoo
• Search engines
• Google
• Social media
• MySpace, Faceboo...
Understanding Today’s Internet
Industry
The Economics of the Net
• Jerry Yang and Dave Filo, the founders of Yahoo!,
start...
Understanding Today’s Internet
Industry
• Systems-oriented Webmasters have computer science
and programming skills, and un...
Understanding Today’s Internet
Industry
Revenue Sources
• Online commerce, or e-commerce is the selling of goods
and servi...
Understanding Today’s Internet
Industry
Advertising
• Ads on popular Web pages allow surfers to
access the advertiser’s We...
Understanding Today’s Internet
Industry
Paid Content
• Users seem willing to pay for online education in
the form of dista...
Understanding Today’s Internet
Industry
Online Dangers: Hacker Attacks
• Hacker used to mean a person who was
proficient a...
Understanding Today’s Internet
Industry
Online Dangers: Hacker Attacks
• Some viruses are harmless, others can
corrupt a c...
Understanding Today’s Internet
Industry
Online Dangers: Hacker Attacks
• Worms take over e-mail systems and send themselve...
Understanding Today’s Internet
Industry
Online Dangers: Hacker Attacks
• By 2004, one-third of e-mail users reported
that ...
Controversies
Control versus Freedom
• The unlimited freedom of the Internet has caused a
number of problems:
• Propagatio...
Controversies
Commercialism Versus Public Service
• Net neutrality: Should there be centralized
commercial control of the ...
Controversies
Censorship
• The Internet offers the First Amendment its biggest
challenge.
• The Communications Decency Act...
Controversies
Privacy
• All Manner of Personal Information is Online:
• Patterns of credit card purchases.
• Secret conten...
Controversies
Reliability of Information
• The Internet is a mass of unedited information in which
credible content sits s...
Chapter 10
The Internet: Convergence in a Networked
World
Chapter Outline
• History
• Industry
• Controversies
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Mm ch 10 internet

  1. 1. Chapter 10 The Internet: Convergence in a Networked World Chapter Outline • History • Industry • Controversies
  2. 2. A Brief History of the Net
  3. 3. A Brief History of the Net
  4. 4. A Brief History of the Net
  5. 5. A Brief History of the Net Top Five Internet Nations
  6. 6. A Brief History of the Net Top Five Internet Nations
  7. 7. A Brief History of the Net
  8. 8. A Brief History of the Net
  9. 9. A Brief History of the Net
  10. 10. A Brief History of the Net Top Five Internet Nations
  11. 11. A Brief History of the Net Top Five Internet Nations
  12. 12. A Brief History of the Net Top Five Internet Nations
  13. 13. A Brief History of the Net Top Five Internet Nations
  14. 14. A Brief History of the Net The Computer • The first rudimentary computer was the abacus, a simple counting aid invented around 3000 BC in Babylonia, or what is now Iraq. • Both Germans and Americans developed huge electronic computers during WW II for the accurate placement of artillery and code breaking. • The integrated circuit, which enabled electronic components to be manufactured in a solid block without connecting wire, became available in 1959. This allowed computers to become more powerful, by making their electronics smaller.
  15. 15. A Brief History of the Net UNIVAC 1951
  16. 16. A Brief History of the Net Early computers were made up of three components: • The processor, or CPU (for “central processing unit”), which actually processes the algorithms that “crunch the numbers.” • Memory, or RAM (for “random access memory”), which holds the data currently being worked with. • Storage (a hard drive or some other device), which stores data, including programs and documents. In the 1960s IBM became the first large, successful computer manufacturer.
  17. 17. A Brief History of the Net
  18. 18. A Brief History of the Net
  19. 19. A Brief History of the Net
  20. 20. A Brief History of the Net
  21. 21. A Brief History of the Net
  22. 22. A Brief History of the Net
  23. 23. A Brief History of the Net
  24. 24. A Brief History of the Net
  25. 25. A Brief History of the Net Apple I 1976 Price $666
  26. 26. A Brief History of the Net
  27. 27. A Brief History of the Net • During the 1970s integrated circuits, now called “chips,” were becoming smaller, more powerful and less expensive. Young enthusiasts like Bill Gates and Steve Jobs were busy writing programming language. • By 1977, Apple Computer was selling a small personal computer for a little more than $1,000. • The early Internet was developed with military funds when, in response to the Cuban missile crisis, ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) began to hook computers together into networks. • Like radio, the Internet was put to civilian use after the government helped to develop it.
  28. 28. A Brief History of the Net The History of Internet • Animated video • Phone Phreaking • Pranksters at the creation
  29. 29. A Brief History of the Net Going Digital • Scientists convinced senior military officials that computers could be used for digital communication which would be more accurate and reliable because a message converted into digits could be sent without distortion. • Programmers developed protocols, or codes that allow one machine to communicate with another, because early computers had been developed by different companies and were not compatible.
  30. 30. A Brief History of the Net From the Military to the Civilian Net • The U. S. Department of Defense (DOD) completed its national system of computers in 1969 and called it ARPANET, for Advance Research Project Agency Network. • In 1979, civilian researchers who had been excluded from ARPANET invented USENET, which drew on the technology developed by DOD but included the ability to support discussion groups that could carry on conversations in real time and newsgroups in the form of online bulletin boards.
  31. 31. A Brief History of the Net The First Commercial Online Services • The first successful general interest online service was Compuserve, whose early users had to master complex codes and commands to retrieve the simplest information. • Microsoft’s Bill Gates and Apple co-founder Steve Jobs led a revolution in which business and educational institutions became equipped with personal computers, and those who used them at work purchased units for home. • America Online (AOL) easier to use.
  32. 32. A Brief History of the Net The World Wide Web • In 1989, British researcher Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web, a software system that simplifies access to files on Internet computers. • The Web was based on the use of hypertext links (hyperlinks), which are highlighted words and images within the Web page that allow the user to move to another site by simply pointing and clicking a mouse. • By 1995, so many people were online that it was no longer useful for national security purposes, and the military turned it over to the public sector.
  33. 33. A Brief History of the Net Internet Components
  34. 34. A Brief History of the Net Global Dimensions • The Internet has made the world a “global village” by allowing web surfers to connect on a personal level with others in different countries every day. • Iran, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, China, and Myanmar permit limited or no Internet access. • There is more cultural diversity on the Web than in other mediums. Women, African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, Asians and Gays and Lesbians have their own portals (sites from which people begin surfing).
  35. 35. Understanding Today’s Internet Industry The Architecture of the Net • Users connect to the Internet via host computers belonging to Internet service providers (ISPs). • ISPs include broadband services provided by cable television coaxial and fiber optic lines, telephone companies’ dedicated service lines (DSL), and dial-up services such as AOL. The more expensive broadband ISPs are rapidly replacing the older dial-up ISPs. • Major ISPs have proprietary content such as e-mail services, chat rooms, forums on everything from astrology to zoology, and stock portfolio managers that allow users to follow personal investments.
  36. 36. Understanding Today’s Internet Industry Internet Addresses • Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) are Internet addresses that connect to sites on a particular machine. • E-mail addresses have a user I.D. before the @ and a domain after it, as in President@whitehouse.gov. • The most common protocol beside e-mail is hypertext transfer protocol (http), which enables computers to recognize links on the Web. • Hypertext mark up language (html) is the basic language used to write http. • Java is a programming language used for animated images and advanced sound applications
  37. 37. Understanding Today’s Internet Industry Networks attached to the Internet are organized into a limited number of categories: • .com (dot com) for commercial entities • .edu for educational entities • .gov for U.S. government • .org for nonprofit organizations • .net for network access providers • .jp is for Japan and .mx is for Mexico Some speculators began cybersquatting, registering trademarked names with hopes of reselling them to the companies that owned the trademarks, but the practice became illegal in 1999.
  38. 38. Understanding Today’s Internet Industry Browsers • A Web browser such as Mozilla’s Firefox, Apple’s Safari or Microsoft’s Internet Explorer decodes the hypertext language used in Web documents, allowing Net surfers to click and jump through these dense data fields. • Users can navigate through sites by using hyperlinks, icons (small symbols), pull-down menus, and “hot spots” that turn a cursor into a pointing hand. These features are called GUIs (gooeys), for Graphical User Interfaces. • Users “visit” a site by downloading a page of information into the memory of the user’s computer.
  39. 39. Understanding Today’s Internet Industry Search Engines • A traditional search engine sends out automated software robots called “spiders” or “crawlers” to discover new sites and categorize them according to the information contained on their home page. • Site owners submit home page information to directories and editors assign it to a category. Directories won’t return as many results as the traditional search engine, but are often more accurate. • All major search engines are hybrid search engines which have both robots and human editors. • Metacrawlers, such as Dogpile and Hotbot, combine results from more than one search engine at a time.
  40. 40. Understanding Today’s Internet Industry Top Search Engines (2012)
  41. 41. Understanding Today’s Internet Industry • Personal Web pages enable Internet users to tell the world about themselves. • Web logs, or blogs for short are online journals. • MMORPGS, or massively multiplayer online role playing games, are very popular. • MOOCS: Massively Open Online Course
  42. 42. Internet and culture • Hive mind acceptance • Cyberbullying • Shallowness vs. depth • Present shock • Online vs. IRL friendships • language • Anonymity • Communities without borders
  43. 43. Four stages of Internet development • Web portals • AOL, Yahoo • Search engines • Google • Social media • MySpace, Facebook • What’s next? • #twitter_rules_the_world?
  44. 44. Understanding Today’s Internet Industry The Economics of the Net • Jerry Yang and Dave Filo, the founders of Yahoo!, started in a trailer at Stanford University. Sergey Brin and Larry Page developed Google’s technology in Page’s Stanford dormitory room. Both companies are worth billions today. • Network engineers design and build systems that make up the Internet. Most work for telecommunications companies, network service providers and information technology firms. • Network managers provide day-to-day maintenance of local systems, also called Intranets and LANs (local area networks).
  45. 45. Understanding Today’s Internet Industry • Systems-oriented Webmasters have computer science and programming skills, and understand networking protocols and software involved in running a web site. • Content-oriented Webmasters have backgrounds in media, editing, graphic design, desktop publishing, and art. They are often called “producers.” • Knowledge workers use the Net and other information sources in their work. The might be content providers such as online journalists who post information on the Net or workers who use information provided on the Net, such as print and broadcast journalists.
  46. 46. Understanding Today’s Internet Industry Revenue Sources • Online commerce, or e-commerce is the selling of goods and services online. Almost anything can be sold over the Net and it is a very inexpensive way for most businesses to bring goods and services to market. • Companies that are successful with e-commerce are usually those that take advantage of the Net’s unique capabilities: its interactivity, its ability to target very specific customers and its ability to offer inventories that couldn’t exist in physical space. • Walmart.com carries six times as many items as the largest Wal-mart store.
  47. 47. Understanding Today’s Internet Industry Advertising • Ads on popular Web pages allow surfers to access the advertiser’s Web pages with the click of a mouse but pop-up ads are seen as intrusive and as cluttering up the memory of the user’s computer. • Spyware programs track user activities and report them back to advertisers.
  48. 48. Understanding Today’s Internet Industry Paid Content • Users seem willing to pay for online education in the form of distance learning courses, Web based information services such as Lexis/Nexis, and online pornography. • Millions of Americans visit at least one online dating site such as Yahoo Personals, Match.com, or eHarmony.com every month.
  49. 49. Understanding Today’s Internet Industry Online Dangers: Hacker Attacks • Hacker used to mean a person who was proficient at using or programming a computer. In recent years, the term has been used to describe a person who uses programs to gain illegal access to a computer network or file. • A virus is a computer program designed to reproduce itself by copying itself into other programs stored in a computer.
  50. 50. Understanding Today’s Internet Industry Online Dangers: Hacker Attacks • Some viruses are harmless, others can corrupt a computer’s memory, cause programs to operate incorrectly or delete key files. • Anti-virus software will both detect and eliminate viruses. • A firewall program is installed to prevent unauthorized access.
  51. 51. Understanding Today’s Internet Industry Online Dangers: Hacker Attacks • Worms take over e-mail systems and send themselves to other computers from the infected computer’s address book. • Trojan horses sneak into infected computers disguised as something else. • Phishing is the practice of sending out official-looking e- mails that use stolen brand names and trademarks of legitimate banks and Internet merchants with the intent of luring the victim into revealing sensitive information, such as credit card details. • Spam, or unsolicited e-mail messages, have seriously disrupted the efficiency of e-mail.
  52. 52. Understanding Today’s Internet Industry Online Dangers: Hacker Attacks • By 2004, one-third of e-mail users reported that 80 percent or more of incoming e-mail was spam. • The first federal law to address spam was not effective because many spammers operate out of the country and outside of U.S. jurisdiction.
  53. 53. Controversies Control versus Freedom • The unlimited freedom of the Internet has caused a number of problems: • Propagation of Viruses • Fraud • Spam • Copyright infringement • Child pornography • Identity theft Proposals to control the Internet include requiring an Internet driver’s license for all users, or electronically watermarking every computer, program and file.
  54. 54. Controversies Commercialism Versus Public Service • Net neutrality: Should there be centralized commercial control of the Internet? • Wi-Fi or wireless fidelity, high-speed wireless Internet access. • Proposals to control the Internet include requiring an Internet driver’s license for all users, or electronically watermarking every computer, program, and file.
  55. 55. Controversies Censorship • The Internet offers the First Amendment its biggest challenge. • The Communications Decency Act of 1996, made it illegal to make “indecent communication” available to anyone under 18, but was overturned by the Supreme Court because it was too broad. • Hate groups and racist organizations openly exist on the Web. • Sites list bomb-making instructions and give advice on procuring stolen credit cards. • There are gambling sites in communities where gambling is illegal.
  56. 56. Controversies Privacy • All Manner of Personal Information is Online: • Patterns of credit card purchases. • Secret contents of personal e-mails. • Spyware tracks user activities and reports them back to advertisers. • Sites place cookies on the hard drives of visitors and track their movement through other sites. • Sites say tracking enables them to personalize advertising and other services, but privacy advocates say few consumers realize they are monitored. Others users find it difficult to opt out.
  57. 57. Controversies Reliability of Information • The Internet is a mass of unedited information in which credible content sits side-by-side, in the same format, with nonsense and fraud. • Library experts suggest the following four criteria to evaluate Web pages used for research: • Attribution: Are the author and publishing institution listed? Can the URL be traced? • Authority: What credentials are listed for the author? • Objectivity:What are the author’s objectives? • Currency: How up-to-date is the information?
  58. 58. Chapter 10 The Internet: Convergence in a Networked World Chapter Outline • History • Industry • Controversies

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