Chapter 4
Newspapers: Where Journalism Begins
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
Chapter Outline
•...
Do newspapers still matter in an age of the
Internet, cable, and other hi-tech media?
YES NO
Chapter 4
A Brief History of Newspapers
The First Newspapers
• Town criers “posted” notices
• First newspapers in China more than 1,...
A Brief History of Newspapers
The Newspaper in Early America
A Brief History of Newspapers
• Licensing
• seditious libel laws
• 1735 Zenger Trial
• 1791 First Amendment established
• ...
A Brief History of Newspapers
Newspapers and revolution
• Colonial newspapers published Thomas
Paine and Samuel Adams.
• T...
A Brief History of Newspapers
Changes in the Concept of News
• Standard definition of news begins to emerge
• Editorial pa...
A Brief History of Newspapers
• Ethnic press
• Freedom’s Journal (1827)
• The penny press: New York Sun, 1833
• Profit der...
A Brief History of Newspapers
• The Associated Press (1848) leads to
objectivity
• Inverted pyramid
• Yellow journalism: H...
A Brief History of Newspapers
The Making of the Modern Press
• The New York Times, The Wall Street
Journal, and The Christ...
A Brief History of Newspapers
Leading The News Process
• America learned about the 1960s civil rights
battles because of n...
A Brief History of Newspapers
• Since the 1960s newspapers have
shifted from mostly afternoon
editions to mostly morning e...
Understanding Today’s Newspaper
Publishing Industry
Understanding Today’s Newspaper
Publishing Industry
• The Newspapers
• The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times,
The Ch...
Understanding Today’s Newspaper
Publishing Industry
Milestones in U.S. newspaper history timeline
Understanding Today’s Newspaper
Publishing Industry
Understanding Today’s Newspaper
Publishing Industry
Understanding Today’s Newspaper
Publishing Industry
• Alternative papers
• 200 Hispanic papers: Chicago’s El Manana
Daily ...
Understanding Today’s Newspaper
Publishing Industry
Support Services
• The Associated Press
• Other major wire services in...
Understanding Today’s Newspaper
Publishing Industry
The Reader
• The average age of today’s newspaper reader is 53.
• Publ...
Controversies
• Concentration of Ownership
• Lack of Diversity in the Newsroom
• Influence of advertisers in news
coverage
Controversies
Lack of Diversity in the Newsroom
• In the 1970s, following several urban riots, the National
Commission on ...
Controversies
Lack of Diversity in the Newsroom
• A number of minority organizations now exist to
promote the interests of...
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Mm ch 04newspapers

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Newspapers: Where Journalism Begins © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Chapter Outline • History • Industry • Controversies
  2. 2. Do newspapers still matter in an age of the Internet, cable, and other hi-tech media? YES NO Chapter 4
  3. 3. A Brief History of Newspapers The First Newspapers • Town criers “posted” notices • First newspapers in China more than 1,200 years ago. • 1600s: Gutenberg’s printing press allowed newspapers to be mass produced in Europe. • 1640s: Italian newspapers cover local fires and murders, sell for one Gazetta.
  4. 4. A Brief History of Newspapers The Newspaper in Early America
  5. 5. A Brief History of Newspapers • Licensing • seditious libel laws • 1735 Zenger Trial • 1791 First Amendment established • Partisan Press (Whigs and Tories) • Mercantile Press • Similarities with today’s media?
  6. 6. A Brief History of Newspapers Newspapers and revolution • Colonial newspapers published Thomas Paine and Samuel Adams. • The Federalist Papers • Stamp Act 1765
  7. 7. A Brief History of Newspapers Changes in the Concept of News • Standard definition of news begins to emerge • Editorial page becomes place for properly labeled opinion pieces. • The front page reserved for hard news. • Feature stories (a.k.a. soft news), directed more toward human interest and curiosity.
  8. 8. A Brief History of Newspapers • Ethnic press • Freedom’s Journal (1827) • The penny press: New York Sun, 1833 • Profit derived from advertising income, not subscription rates • News hole • Newsprint and steam presses
  9. 9. A Brief History of Newspapers • The Associated Press (1848) leads to objectivity • Inverted pyramid • Yellow journalism: Hearst’s Journal and Pulitzer’s World • sensationalism, reached its height in the Hearst-Pulitzer wars of the 1890s. • Spanish-American War (1898)
  10. 10. A Brief History of Newspapers The Making of the Modern Press • The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, and The Christian Science Monitor presented more balanced, serious reporting by late 19th century. • New York Daily News • The American Society of Newspaper editors was formed in 1923. • Today, 80 percent of U.S. daily newspapers are owner by chains
  11. 11. A Brief History of Newspapers Leading The News Process • America learned about the 1960s civil rights battles because of newspaper reporting • The Watergate scandal (1972-1974) • Today, newspapers provide more context than 24-hour news channels.
  12. 12. A Brief History of Newspapers • Since the 1960s newspapers have shifted from mostly afternoon editions to mostly morning editions. • Newspapers have historically adapted to competition from newsreels, radio, television, cable, and the World Wide Web.
  13. 13. Understanding Today’s Newspaper Publishing Industry
  14. 14. Understanding Today’s Newspaper Publishing Industry • The Newspapers • The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, The Christian Science Monitor, and USA Today are distributed nationally and internationally. • USA Today specifically designed for national distribution • local dailies
  15. 15. Understanding Today’s Newspaper Publishing Industry Milestones in U.S. newspaper history timeline
  16. 16. Understanding Today’s Newspaper Publishing Industry
  17. 17. Understanding Today’s Newspaper Publishing Industry
  18. 18. Understanding Today’s Newspaper Publishing Industry • Alternative papers • 200 Hispanic papers: Chicago’s El Manana Daily News, Los Angeles’ La Opinion, and New York’s El Diario-La Prensa. • Chicano press • 170 black newspapers: New York’s Amsterdam News, the Chicago Defender and Baltimore’s Afro-American • Gay-Lesbian press: The Advocate, The Stonewall News
  19. 19. Understanding Today’s Newspaper Publishing Industry Support Services • The Associated Press • Other major wire services include United Press International (UPI), Agence France-Press, and Reuters. • Feature syndicates • Audit Bureau of Circulation
  20. 20. Understanding Today’s Newspaper Publishing Industry The Reader • The average age of today’s newspaper reader is 53. • Public Journalism: papers should become involved in, rather than just cover, community issues. • Citizen Journalism: asks readers to go into the community and tell stories using consumer-level equipment
  21. 21. Controversies • Concentration of Ownership • Lack of Diversity in the Newsroom • Influence of advertisers in news coverage
  22. 22. Controversies Lack of Diversity in the Newsroom • In the 1970s, following several urban riots, the National Commission on the Causes of Violence pointed out that the lack of minority viewpoint in the nation’s press was partially to blame for the alienation felt by many ethnic groups. • The American Society of Newspaper Editors resolve in 1978 that minority employment should match the percentage of minorities in the population • In 1998, 11 percent of daily newspaper journalists were black, Hispanic, Asian-American and American Indian, while the Census bureau reported that 28 percent of the population belonged to those groups.
  23. 23. Controversies Lack of Diversity in the Newsroom • A number of minority organizations now exist to promote the interests of these underrepresented groups including: • the National Association of Black Journalists • the National Association of Hispanic Journalists • the Asian American Journalists Association • the National Gay and Lesbian Journalists Association

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