Social Class & Adventism


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  • Social Class & Adventism

    1. 1. Prepared by Erwin Sicher Social Class: A Great Gift ? The Adventist Experience!
    2. 2. “ Shadowy Lines that Still Divide” by J. Scott and D. Leonhardt “ Class is still a powerful force in American life… Over the past three decades, it has come to play a greater, not lesser, role in important ways.”
    3. 3. Consequences of Social Class and Social Stratification: Survivors of the Titanic: 1st class 60% 2nd class 36% 3rd class 24%
    4. 4. <ul><li>Social stratification is “...the division of society into levels, steps or positions” </li></ul><ul><li>Social stratification refers to persistent patterns of social inequality in society: how wealth, power, and prestige are socially distributed and transmitted from one generation to the next. Social Class: Result of Social Stratification </li></ul>What is Social Stratification?
    5. 5. What is a Social Class ?
    6. 6. Intergenerational mobility Intragenerational mobility William Gates Social mobility--the movement from one socioeconomic status to another (individual, collective) Social Mobility- Joseph Patrick &quot;Joe&quot; Kennedy, Sr.
    7. 7. <ul><li>1.Caste System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The caste system is a rigid form of stratification based on ascribed characteristics such as skin color or family identity. </li></ul></ul>Stratification Systems: Brahmin caste <ul><li>Brahmins—priests </li></ul><ul><li>Kshatryas—warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Vaishyas--traders </li></ul><ul><li>Shudras—laborers </li></ul><ul><li>Untouchables </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>2.Estate System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In an estate system, a person's position is defined by law and determined primarily by inheritance. Each estate has legally established rights and duties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1 st Estate: nobles, </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Estate: clergy, </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd Estate: commoners. </li></ul>noble clergy commoner
    9. 9. 3. Social-Economic Class Social Class Occupation Education Upper Class Corporate Ownership; Upper-Echelon Politics; Honorofic positions Liberal Arts education at elite schools Upper-Middle Class Professional and technical fields; managers; proprietors College and graduate school training Lower-Middle Class Clerical and sales; small business owners; semi-professionals High School; some college Working Class Skilled and semiskilled manual labor; crafts; foremen Some or all of high school Lower Class Unskilled labor; service work; farm labor; private household work Some or all of high school
    10. 10. Dimensions of Social Stratification Wealth Power Prestige
    11. 11. <ul><ul><li>TOP 1 PERCENT OF AMERICANS HOLD 5.7 TRILLION DOLLARS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IN WEALTH ! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1% of Americans own 22% of the wealth </li></ul></ul>1.Wealth Dimensions of Social Stratification cont.
    12. 12. <ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to attain goals, control events, and maintain influence over others – even in the face of opposition </li></ul></ul></ul>2.Power Dimensions of Social Stratification cont.
    13. 13. Prestige Rankings of Various Occupations Dimensions of Social Stratification cont. Occupation Score Physician 86 College Professor 78 Lawyer 72 High School Teacher 66 Sociologist 65 Police Officer 60 Social Worker 52 Carpenter 43 Sales Clerk 29 Garbage Collector 13
    14. 14. Wealth, Prestige, Power, etc. determine Class & Rewards High Low Large Large Number of People Rewards Lower Class Lower Middle Class Upper Middle Class Upper Class Little Wealth Low Prestige Little Power Much Wealth High Prestige Much Power
    15. 16. Health and Illness Education Marriage and Divorce Longevity Crime and Criminal Justice Contacts etc. Consequences of Social Stratification Studies of social stratification have shown that social class affects many aspects of people's lives Church Affiliaction THE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL CLASS
    16. 17. The widening mortality gap between social classes Source: Office for National Statistics Social class I - Professional V - Unskilled Average for working age men Years 1930-32 1959-63 1991-93 Log scale 160 100 25 1.2 times greater 2.9 times greater *1979-83 excludes 1981 England and Wales. Men of working age (varies according to year, either aged 15 or 20 to age 64 or 65) Note: These comparisons are based on social classes I & V only. 125 80 63 50 40 30 1970-72 1979-83* 1949-53 Consequences of Social Stratification
    17. 18. Class and Mortality & Health Source: Monthly Labor Review, May 1996, p. 10. Percent Per 1,000 Per 1,000 Lower Classes Upper Classes Lower Class Upper Class Consequences of Social Stratification
    18. 19. Class and Health Source: Cohen's analysis of 2000 March Current Population Survey. U.S.: Percent of adults 18-64 reporting health “excellent,”2000 Lower Class Lower Middle Class Middle Class Upper Middle Class Upper Class 41.05 Consequences of Social Stratification
    19. 20. Personal Health by Class Consequences of Social Stratification Soci-Economic Class Excellent Health Poor Health Upper Class 47.2% 0.9% Upper Middle Class 34.6 2.4 Lower Middle 27.7 4.6 Lower Class 24.1 7.2
    20. 21. Children’s poor social/emotional adjustment by father’s social class at birth Upper Lower Class Upper Middle Middle Class Class Consequences of Social Stratification Mental HEALTH Poor Mental Health
    21. 22. Social class and economic advantage have long-lasting impact on children’s life chances Class Really Matters Consequences of Social Stratification
    22. 23. Staying in School and getting Higher Education by Social Class Consequences of Social Stratification Education
    23. 24. Class Upper Class Upper Middle Class LowerMiddle Class LowerMiddle Class Groton: Elite Boarding School Consequences of Social Stratification
    24. 25. Consequences of Social Stratification
    25. 26. Percent of U.S. Women with Divorcing within 10 Years of a First Marriage, by Year of Marriage and Socio-Economic Level. SIPP 1996/2001 Lower Class Upper Class Consequences of Social Stratification Divorce Socioeconomic status is probably the most important correlate of divorce. Overall, the higher the socioeconomic status - the lower the likelihood of divorce (Guttman, 1993).
    26. 27. Married Single Mother Single Father Lower Class, Married and Single Parent Consequences of Social Stratification
    27. 28. <ul><li>For the same crime , the Upper Classes are less likely... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T o b e a r r e s t e d </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>t o b e c h a r g e d </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>t o b e c o n v i c t e d </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to go to prison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to get long sentences </li></ul></ul>Consequences of Social Stratification
    28. 29. Socio-Economic Class and Punishment Upper Class Crimes Lower Class Crimes Consequences of Social Stratification Sentencing and prison more extensive for Lower Class Crimes
    29. 30. Social Class and two Kinds of “Gated Communities” Over 7 million people in gated communities in 2001 Over 2 million people in state and federal prisons—the highest incarceration rate in the world Consequences of Social Stratification Upper Classes Mostly Lower Classes
    30. 31. Consequences of Social Stratification Social Class Church Affiliation Upper Class Episcopalian or Presbyterian Upper-Middle Class <ul><ul><ul><li>Presbyterian, Congregationalist, Jews, Unitarians </li></ul></ul></ul>Lower-Middle Class <ul><ul><li>LUTHERANS, CATHOLICS </li></ul></ul>Working Class BAPTIST, METHODIST, Lower Class FUNDAMENTALIST OR REVIVALIST RELIGION
    31. 32. Social Class and U S Church Membership Consequences of Social Stratification Upper Class Middle
    32. 33. Social Class and Housing Consequences of Social Stratification Upper Classes Lower Classes
    33. 34. Social Class and Life Style Consequences of Social Stratification Upper Classes Lower Classes
    34. 35. Consequences of Social Stratification
    35. 36. Social Class: A Great Gift ? The Adventist Experience!
    36. 37. <ul><li>Converts are of low socioeconomic status </li></ul><ul><li>For converts, assimilation into the church is associated with upward social and economic mobility. </li></ul><ul><li>Bull and Lockhart, p.354 </li></ul><ul><li>3. Black Adventists enjoy higher socieconomic status than that of most other black Protestants. </li></ul><ul><li>Bull and Lockhart, p.354 </li></ul>Social Class: A Great Gift ? The Adventist Experience!
    37. 38. J W Converts 43.1 47.8 8.9 Ex-Jehovah'sWitnesses 37.2 45.5 17.5 Adventist Converts 41.9 46.5 11.2 Exiting-Adventists 22.6 50.0 27.2 Nazarene Converts 25.2 58.8 15.5 Ex-Nazarenes 31.8 51:3 16.6 Episcopalian Converts 16.6 44.2 39.0 Ex-Episcopalians 25.8 40.3 33.3 Denominational income relative to others in percentages. Source: GSS 1972-2000 Cumulative Datafile Bull and Lockhart, p.360 CHURCH BELOW AVERAGE AVERAGE ABOVE AVERAGE
    38. 39. Four times more Doctors in Adventism in 1936 than in the general population Bull and Lockhart, p.353 College graduates in Adventism in excess of 25%. Higher than in the general population. Bull and Lockhart, p.353 Social Class: A Great Gift ? The Adventist Experience!
    39. 40. <ul><li>Converts are of low socioeconomic status </li></ul><ul><li>For converts, assimilation into the </li></ul><ul><li>church is associated with upward social </li></ul><ul><li>and economic mobility </li></ul>Adventism and Social Mobility: A Case Study Grand Parents: Anton & P Parents: E & E Children: S, B & A
    40. 41. <ul><li>For lifelong members, upward economic mobility is associated with disengagement from the church. </li></ul><ul><li>Bull and Lockhart, p.354 </li></ul><ul><li>Although many individual Adventists do achieve impressive levels of socio!economic advancement, it does not have impact on the membership as a </li></ul><ul><li>whole because new poor converts are constantly entering the church and wealthier lifelong members are leaving. </li></ul>Bull and Lockhart, p.360 Social Class: A Great Gift or Curse ? Adventist Experience
    41. 42. Bull and Lockhart, p.355 Social Class: A Great Gift or Curse ? Adventist Experience
    42. 43. SECOND EDITION Malcolm Bull and Keith Lockhart Indiana University Press / Bloomington and Indianapolis, 2007 The End