Walk the Walk: Using Learning Theory in the Exhibit Design Process was presented by Stacey Mann, Cynthia Sharpe, and Phil Lindsey at the 2011 American Association of Museums (AAM) conference in Houston, TX.
Walk the Walk: Using Learning Theory in the Exhibit Design Process (AAM 2011)
Walk the Walk: Using Learning Theory in the Exhibit Design Process She forgets Blah, blah, that I’m a blah, blah, kinesthetic blah… learner. lStacey MannCynthia SharpePhil LindseyPhil LindseyMay 24, 2011
Why does this matter? Why does this matter?• Presumably you want visitors to actually learn Presumably you want visitors to actually learn something• You also probably don’t want them feeling You also probably don t want them feeling bored, stupid, or incapable• Y ’ You’re competing for people: you can’t get i f l ’ them in the door again if they have a lousy time i
Learning over a lifetimeLearning over a lifetime (LIFE Center: Stevens, R. Bransford, J. & Stevens, A., 2005 ) IMPLICIT LEARNING
Learning in the Post Modern MuseumLearning in the Post‐Modern Museum• Different museum experiences Different museum experiences – didactic, exploratory, immersive, social, “interactive” interactive• Different types of visitors (aka learners) – behaviors cultures sociability behaviors, cultures, sociability• Different motivations – intrinsic vs. extrinsic
Successful design attends to:Successful design attends to: Visceral Sweet Spot Behavioral h i l Reflective fl i Norman, D. (2005)
Successful learning requires:Successful learning requires:• Clear learning goals Clear learning goals – cognitive, affective (attitude/behavior), skills• Attention to theory (D Attention to theory (Dewey, Piaget, Vygotsky, etc.) Pi V k ) – Constructivism • children & adults construct knowledge hild & d l k l d • social context – Social Cognition Social Cognition • activate prior knowledge • modeling / scaffolding / coaching modeling / scaffolding / coaching
Successful learning requires:Successful learning requires:• Appropriately matched activities Appropriately matched activitiesLevel Skill Purpose PromptsLOWER Remembering R b i Memorize & recall facts M i & ll f t Recognize, list, identify… R i li t id tif Understanding Comprehend & interpret Explain, estimate, describe… meaning Applying Transfer knowledge to Use, apply, show… new situationsHIGHER Analyzing Examine information Compare, contrast, organize… Evaluating Judge/decide based on Critique, conclude, explain… set criteria Creating Combine elements into Design, construct, plan… new pattern/product tt / d t Bloom’s Taxonomy ‐ revised
(Iterative) Design Process:(Iterative) Design Process: Mission Audience Goals Requirements / Constraints Buy in Buy‐in Multiple Learning Scenarios Multiple Learning Scenarios Development • Personas Implementation • Use‐Case scenarios Use Case scenarios Evaluation(Wash, Rinse, Repeat)
Design CharetteDesign Charette Checklist• Mission aka “The Big Idea” (purpose of the exhibit / program / product) g (p p /p g /p )• Audience (primary / secondary / tertiary)• Goals – strategic (tied to institutional mission, business goals) – learning (cognitive, attitudinal, behavioral)• Requirements & Constraints Requirements & Constraints – budget vs. scope – experience/interaction type vs. learning intent – have vs. need to get/create – square footage vs. impact of pieceLeading to Multiple Learning Scenarios (personas + use‐cases)
Resources Resources (abridged)Books: Articles:The Design of Everyday Things ( h f d h (Don Norman) ) Kelley, T. (2001). The art of innovation: Lessons in creativity from Insightful look at the connection between cognitive science IDEO, America’s leading design firm. Doubleday: New York. and good design. (Also read: Emotional Design, Things That Chapter 3: Innovation begins with an eye. Make us Smart)Made to Stick (Chip and Dan Heath) Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., & Bloom, B. S. (2001). A The science of storytelling and crafting a compelling narrative The science of storytelling and crafting a compelling narrative taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of taxonomy for learning teaching and assessing: A revision of Blooms taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Efficiency in Learning: Evidence‐based Guidelines to Manage Longman. Chapters 1‐3. Cognitive Load (Ruth Clark, Frank Nguyen, John Sweller) Comprehensive overview of how to use visuals, written text, and audio to best effect in learning environments Collins, A. (1995). Design Issues for Learning Environments. In S. Vosniadou, E. de Corte & H. Mandle (Eds.), International Learning in the Museum (George E. Hein) perspectives on the psychological foundations of technology‐ Very academic application of education and learning theory based learning environments (pp. 347‐361). Hillsdale, NJ: within the museum context Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Contemporary Theories of Learning: Learning Theorists… In Their Huitt, W. (2001). Motivation to learn: An overview. Educational Own Words (Knud Illeris, editor) Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State P h l I t ti V ld t GA V ld t St t Presents a wide variety of current theories, moving from defining the frameworks of learning to the specific nuances of University: learning, bridging pure content and the social context. http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/motivation/motivat e.htmlFrames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (Howard Gardner) The updated for 2011 version of the landmark Theory of The pdated for 2011 ersion of the landmark Theor of Multiple Intelligences.