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Clap lll 4a


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Clap lll 4a

  1. 1. LIFELONG LEARNING EDUC07011 Dr. Kate Miller Unit 4a
  2. 2. Learning Aims By the end of this sub-unit, you will be able to:  1. Explain the function of the SCQF;  2. Discuss three contemporary learning theories
  3. 3. Overview  Your preparatory work  The function of the SCQF  Three contemporary learning theories:  Five minute activity  Conclusion  Further reading
  4. 4. Your preparatory work  Scottish Credit and Qualification Framework. Scotlalnd’s Framework for Lifelong Learning: a guide for learners, providers and employers. Glasgow: SCQF (accessed 18.11.12).
  5. 5. The SCQF  A tool designed to be used by employers, learners and educational providers.  Describes the courses and programmes that lead to qualifications  Helps with development of progression routes  Provides opportunities to transfer credit points between qualifications  It has 12 levels which provide a basis for broad comparisons between learning and qualifications achieved in different contexts.
  6. 6. Learning Theories  Actually five families of learning theories. We will focus on three but look briefly at all five  Behaviourism - Rat in a cage  Information processing – shopping lists  Constructivist and experiential - building blocks  Personal Development and Transformation – on phone to mum  Socio cultural –having a barbeque
  7. 7. Theories-in-use  What do teachers and learners do and why do we do these things?  How else can we do it?  How can my practice change in order to better draw upon what we know about teaching and learning?  How times are a changing: policies, new client groups, business models, ICT
  8. 8. Behaviourism  Learning as Behaviour modification  Behaviourist models see learning as publicly observable change in behaviour in response to altered circumstances  Positive and negative reinforcement through stimulusresponse- stimulus. E.g. Skinner, Thorndike.  These approaches link to competence based education, performance indicators and learning outcomes.
  9. 9. Information processing  Learning as acquisition of static knowledge  Transmission model  Mentalist process  Banking: receiving filing, depositing, storing  Role of learner?
  10. 10. Info processing Principles in Practice  Repetition  Organising  Pointing  Chunking  Sequencing  Drill and practice  Prior learning  Memory work  Catergorizing  Inductive teaching
  11. 11. Processing and constructing Processing and Constructing  Bloom’s Taxonomy – beyond knowledge transfer Bloom’s Taxonomy of the cognitive domain (Bloom et al., 1956).
  12. 12. Constructivist/ Experiential  From knowledge as static to experiential  From objective knowledge to constructed  From transmission to production  From rote learning to building on prior learning  From outcomes to a focus on processes  From training to teaching and learning
  13. 13. Kolb – Leaning grounded in Experience Kolb - Concrete Experience Active Experimentation Reflective Observation Abstract Conceptualization 13
  14. 14. Constructivist Teachers …  Student autonomy / initiative.  Primary sources & physical materials.  Use words carefully  Let students drive lessons  Inquire about their understandings  Students engage in dialogue Ask thoughtful, openended questions n Demand students ask questions n Seek elaboration n Provide experiences that challenge n Allow ‘wait time’ n Let students construct relationships n Nurture curiosity n 14
  15. 15. Models of Learning and Teaching Constructivist / Experiential From surface to deep learning: some strategy types and examples- „self-directed‟ „active‟ ?… • • • • • • • Independent learning (self-study materials) Personal development (eg, peer counselling) Problem-based (eg case study, syndicate) Reflection (eg discussion, diary) Group work (eg quiz, field trip) Learning by doing (using artefacts, materials, art) Project work (eg students‟ business venture) 15
  16. 16. Personal Development and Transformation n Similarly … Learner autonomy & agency, selfdirected, experiential learning, learning to learn,  n n n n n Humanist democratic perspectives Empowerment & self-realisation & critical Start with the self: perplexity, hesitation and doubt, inner discomforts, disorientating dilemmas'. The power of individual agency Who: Rogers, Maslow, Knowles, Freire, Mezirow
  17. 17. … this space “fosters collaborative self-directed experiential learning. The fully flexible space can accommodate different types of activities from more formal classroom settings to relaxed informal peer-to-peer interactions.” 17
  18. 18. Knowledge emerges only through invention and re-invention, through the restless, impatient, continuing, hop eful inquiry human beings pursue in the world, with the world, and with each other."
~Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed 18
  19. 19. Personal Development and Transformation Carl Rogers‟ view of learning: n n n n n a belief in humans ability to learn self-initiated and self-evaluated behaviour, attitudes and feelings results in personal meaning teacher‟s role in relationship / listening / feedback / warmth / changing the person‟s concept of themselves / threats Rogers, C. and Freiberg, H. J. (1993) Freedom to Learn (3rd edn.), New York: Merrill. See: Merriam, S. and Caffarella (1991) Learning in Adulthood. A comprehensive guide, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 19
  20. 20. Socio-cultural Perspectives  Learning as „becoming‟ …it‟s relational, situated, embodied, social, value laden (and always shaped by and shaping of cultures)  Learning as a Change of Disposition ?  It’s not just about cognition but about Practice  The practice: ways of doing things – a set of common approaches (using tools, language, procedures)
  21. 21. Five minute activity  What does a good teacher do?  What approaches to teaching do you think (a)work well(b)that you prefer to use?  How do I know when my students are learning?  What do you think ‘changes’ when learners learn? What sort of evidence is important when judging whether learning is taking place?  What are your past experiences that have shaped your understanding as an educator? What formal (education, work) and informal (up-bringing, leisure, family life) experiences have been influential in shaping how you educate or how you would like to educate?
  22. 22. Conclusion  The SCQF useful for some things but has its limitations and problems  Learning theories have changed and developed in various directions over time and space.  Practice often draws on a range of theories in use  Useful to know about different learning theories how they have developed and how they relate to different purposes and practices.
  23. 23. Further reading  Atherton, J. (2005) Learning and Teaching (on-line) UK:   This is a wonderful site that lends itself to self-study and to exploring some of the families of models of learning (behaviourism, cognitivism, and so on).