Students need to know there is more than one way to interpret a statement, an event or action. By being allowed to learn in different ways or to share perspectives based on their own cultural experiences has students become active participants in their learningStrategies Ask educators who come from the same cultural backgrounds as the students effective ways to teach them Ask students about their learning style preferences Ask the parents about how and what students learn from them Allow students to set their own goals for projects Allow students lots of opportunities to share their cultural knowledge to create an environment that encourages and embraces culture. Source Teaching Diverse Learners http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/
The curriculum needs to include topics related to the students backgrounds and culture.Students need to be challenged to develop higher order knowledge and skills.Transdisciplinary instruction facilitates the acquisition of new knowledge. Students strengths in one subject will support new learning in another.Use of students personal experiences makes meaningful connections between school and real life.Strategies to learn about students cultures Have students share artifacts from home. Have students share their preferred learning styles Use the resource Culture Grams Source Teaching Diverse Learners http://www.alliance.brown.edu/tdl/
As teacher’s reflect on a lesson just taught these are key questions to ask :In my lesson did I involve?Critical ThinkingCollaborationCreativityCommunication
The next few slides give examples of culturally responsive math and science instruction. (Ask participants to share their definition of inquiry based instruction with a partner ,then in table groups. If time allows responses could be captured on chart paper, posted and participants could be involved in a gallery walk.
Ask people to share how they provide opportunities for cooperative learning
This is a really important concept. Have partners or table groups generate a list of 5 ways they connect instruction to students’ daily lives. It can be in any curricular area.Have a few people share with the total group. Collect the responses and summarize. Return the summary to the participants at some point so that they have a collection of ways to connect to students'’ home lives to reference in the future.
This speaks to the importance of the teacher as a facilitator of student learning.
Student discourse is essential to student engagement .
As we look at how teachers are evaluated we can see by this slide culturally responsive instruction is embedded in domains 1-3. Culturally responsive instruction is not and add on but a part of the culture of our classrooms.
The Salient 5 are the research based pedagogical practices that need to occurring in every classroom .These are practices that do prepare our students for the future.Common Formative Assessments-Assessments for learning that guide instructionCollaborative Practice- Benefits listening ,speaking ,perseveringVerbal Discourse-benefit promotes critical thinking ,vocabulary development Questioning(Student and Teacher)-Benefit student and teacher engagementTechnological expression and delivery-benefit contemporary resources
Common Formative Assessments-Assessments for learning that guide instructionThese are familiar examples used currently in FCPS.
Cooperative learning is an example of collaborative practice for students.Think Pair Share initiates feedback through peer teaching and allows students to ask questions, thus increasing student engagement.
This link would be very beneficial to share during the presentation. This could also be uploaded to the staff drive and made available to all educators in the school.
Pose the question How many students in your classroom must talk things through to develop understanding?Verbal discourse is important for all students. For some students eligible to receive free/reduced meals and for some African-American students to be fully engage in instruction you have to provide opportunities for verbal discourse.Discussions- Talking things through – How many of us do this?
Research shows prior knowledge is critical to learning of all types. Classroom Instruction that Works- Research based strategies for increasing student achievement (Marzano, Pickering and Pollack, 2001. www.ascd.org. ) Background knowledge can influence what we perceive (Brewer & Treyens, 1981). Teachers need to find resources, activities, that connect with the various cultural perspectives students bring to the classroom situation.Questioning not lecturingQuestioning may account for 80% of what happens in a classroom in a given day. Allowing students to questions helps clarify learning. Questioning considerations: Wait time, advance notice of questions. (Meeting the Needs of Diverse Learners, Rutherford, 2010Example: Instead of saying, “Who saw ___ Movie this weekend?”, say, “ How many of you have seen or experienced this _____ in your life?”Effective questioning strategies can trigger students’ interest. When a student is answering a question his/her working memory is fully attentive.A question by definition presents missing information. Questions are like games and are a strategy for engaging students. Marzano ,The Highly Engaged Classroom. pp 12,13
All students have to think of an answer even though they may not be called onStrategies-Pulling names from a hat, nametsicks, using technology with an interactive systemOrganize students in pairs, give the pairs time to talk, and prepare their response, randomly call on a pair to give their responseWaiting allows students to process the question and think about their answer rather than answering impulsivelyOne student answers, other students are then asked to add on the responseChoral response is a strategy many African American students may be very familiar with, its often referred to call and response, all students are answering in unisonStudents vote on what they fill the correct response may be ,for example using hand signals , cards, or response technology tools
Teachers need to reacquaint themselves with Bloom’s Taxonomy especially the higher level prompts in order or help students effectively address the rigor associated with the common core
Has sample lesson plans for all disciplines and resources – tells how a 21st century classroom looks
Culturally mediated instruction
Culturally mediated instruction incorporates diverse ways of knowing, understanding and representing information. Multicultural viewpoints are encouraged.
The curriculum needs to beintegrated, transdisciplinary, meaningful and student centered.
Critical Thinking Collaboration Creativity Communication
1. Promotes inquiry-based instruction: Engaging students in math and science experiments and word problems, collecting and examining data, and asking authentic questions.
2.Diversifying seating andgrouping: Establishing opportunities for students to work individually, in dyads, and cooperatively in small groups.
3. Connecting to students’ lives at home: Linking science and math practices with students’ home lives and everyday experiences.
4. Creating a shared learning environment: Shifting authority so that students take more responsibility in math and science activities and their own learning.
5.Encouraging real, active, and engagedconversations: Building on students’ knowledge and experiences in the development of meaningful science and math conversations.
6.Creating a safe environment: Ensuring student and teacher responses are highly valued.
7.Developing students’ capacity to think andact independently: Scaffolding students’ understanding of science and math through activities that build self-confidence, develop competence and motivate learning in science.
Charlotte Danielson-Framework for ProfessionalPracticeFor Example: Domain1 - Planning and preparation 1B: Demonstrating knowledge of students Knowledge of students’ interest and cultural heritage Domain 2 - Classroom Environment 2A: Creating an environment of respect and rapport Teacher is aware of student cultures 2B: Establishing a Culture or Learning Expectations for learning and achievement Domain 3 –Instruction 3B: Using Questioning and Discussion Techniques Quality of questions, Discussion techniques, Student participation
Researched based pedagogical practice that prepare students for the future. Common Formative Assessments Collaborative Technological Expression Practice and Delivery Questioning Verbal (Student and Discourse Teacher)
Assessments for Learning and Guiding our InstructionGlobal ScholarCRESMSA/HSAAP ExamQuarterly County Assessments
What is collaborative practice?Benefits: Listening, Speaking, Persevering Example of Collaborative Practice - CooperativeLearning Jigsaw Small Groups Think-Pair-Share Learning Buddies Study Groups, etc.Benefits of Cooperative Learning: Internalize new knowledge Learn how to make the knowledge applicable Teaching the concept yourself Teaching students about other cultures, behavior, beliefs, etc. Fosters tolerance and acceptance in the community
How does this technique benefit studentlearning and achievement?http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwltc/howto/enablestudentcolla b.htm “… when properly structured, collaboration for learning can boost academic performance and has a positive impact on the performance of minority students, particularly those from low-income backgrounds.” (Ginsburg-Block, Rohrbeck, Lavigne, & Fantuzzo, 2008)
What is verbal discourse?http://www.marzanoresearch.com/popups/resources.aspx?product=59Benefit: Critical Thinking, VocabularyDevelopment Encouraging students to develop skills to articulate their thinking When students develop, and use these skills, it encourages higher level thinking and expression
Benefit: Student and Teacher Engagement ◦ Cues and questions should focus on what is important NOT what is unusual! ◦ Go Beyond Summarizing ◦ Allow Students to Question Students’ Prior Knowledge is Critical (remember the cultural context) “If you want to train students, then ask most ofthe questions-and have predetermined answers. If you want to educate students, however, encourage them to ask questions, and make sure the questions are open-ended.” (p.6, Understanding Black Male-Learning Styles, Kunjufu.)
Call On Students Randomly Give opportunities for to work with partner to answer a question Wait Time Response Chaining Choral response Simultaneous Individual Response
Revisiting Bloom’s Taxonomy…..Skill Sample Prompts Purpose Level combine elements design, construct,Creating into a new pattern Higher plan, produce or product check, critique, judge, judge or decideEvaluating hypothesize, conclude, according to a set of Higher explain criteria compare, organize, break down orAnalyzing cite differences, examine Higher deconstruct information implement, carry out, apply knowledge toApplying Lower use, apply, show, solve new situations describe, explain, understand andUnderstanding Lower estimate, predict interpret meaning recognize, list, memorize and recallRemembering describe, identify, Lower facts retrieve, name
Benefit: Contemporary Resources Using technology is the norm for the Millennials Allows students to acquire, develop, and express their knowledge in a variety of waysExamples of Classroom Technology: Quizlet.com Prezi ReadWriteThink.org Edmodo Pebble Go ActiveInspire Discovery Streaming CPS Remotes (Clickers) Kid Pix PBS Kids Dropbox
http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/scmsAdmin/uploads/005/120/Culturall y%20Responsive%20Differientiated%20Instruction.pdf This website contains K-12 lessonsusing culturally responsive practices. It provides examples of culturally responsive classrooms.