Lang generations 7557_syed_ghazanfarnaqvi_saturday


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Lang generations 7557_syed_ghazanfarnaqvi_saturday

  1. 1. SYED GHAZANFAR NAQVI IT for Managers 1
  2. 2.  History Of Programming Languages Primary function of language Generations of programming languages ◦ First Generation ◦ Second Generation ◦ Third Generation ◦ Fourth Generation ◦ Fifth Generation ◦ Object-Oriented Of Programming Language Conclusion IT for Managers 2
  3. 3.  The first programming languages predate the modern computer. At first, the languages were codes. The Jacquard loom, invented in 1801, used holes in punched cards to represent sewing loom arm movements in order to generate decorative patterns automatically. In the 1940s, the first recognizably modern, electrically powered computers were created. IT for Managers 3
  4. 4.  Main function as the name suggest is most important function in every C or C++ program. It is an entry point or starting point of program execution. C compiler only recognize “main()” function for execution nothing else. If your user defined function call is not included in “main()” function then it will never be executed during program execution. IT for Managers 4
  5. 5. IT for Managers 5
  6. 6.  1st Generation – Machine language 2nd Generation – Assembly language 3rd Generation – Imperative languages 4th Generation – Object oriented languages 5th Generation – Logic languages IT for Managers 6
  7. 7.  A first-generation programming language is a machine-level programming language. Low level language 1’s and 0’s Originally, no translator was used to compile or assemble the first-generation language. Complex and long-winded for programming High level of developer control IT for Managers 7
  8. 8.  A Second-generation programming language is a Assembly language. Low level language Shortened instructions, O’s and 1’s replace by abbreviations Second-generation programming language is a generational way to categorise assembly languages. The code can be read and written by a programmer. To run on a computer it must be converted into a machine readable form, a process called assembly. The language is specific to a particular processor family and environment. Assembler program is needed to translate. IT for Managers 8
  9. 9.  A third-generation programming language is a Imperative language. High level language Must have some form of translation A third-generation programming language (3GL) is a refinement of a second-generation programming language. The "High level language" is a synonym for third- generation programming language. First introduced in the late 1950s, Fortran, ALGOL, and COBOL are early examples of this sort of language. Most popular general-purpose languages today, such as C, C++, C#, Java, BASIC and Delphi, are also third- generation languages. IT for Managers 9
  10. 10.  A fourth-generation programming language is a object Oriented & Event Driven language. High level language. Object oriented language organize coding around objects. Non-procedural The term fourth-generation programming language (1970s- 1990) (abbreviated 4GL) is better understood to be a fourth generation environment Historically often used for prototyping and evolutionary development of commercial business software. In the history of computer science, the 4GL followed the 3GL in an upward trend toward higher abstraction and statement power[citation needed]. The 4GL was followed by efforts to define and use a 5GL. IT for Managers 10
  11. 11.  A fifth-generation programming language is a logic language. High level language. User knowledge bases and expert systems. Less programmer control. A fifth-generation programming language (abbreviated 5GL) is a programming language based on solving problems using constraints given to the program, rather than using an algorithm written by a programmer. Most constraint-based and logic programming languages and some declarative languages are fifth-generation languages. Fifth-generation languages are used mainly in artificial intelligence research. Prolog, OPS5, and Mercury are examples of fifth-generation languages. IT for Managers 11
  13. 13.  Focuses less on procedures, more on relationship between objects. OOP: Object-oriented programming. Object contains both the data and the processing Operations. Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that represents concepts as "objects" that have data fields(attributes that describe the object) and associated procedures known as methods. Objects, which are instances of classes, are used to interact with one another to design applications and computer programs. IT for Managers 13
  14. 14.  The First generation: Flat (non-nested) blocks of storage Examples: FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC. The Second generation: Generalized numbers, strong typing. Algol 60 was the premier 2G language. The Third generation: New data types, user-defined data structures, dynamic memory allocation. The Fourth generation: Non-Lexical control of data access Examples are Ada, Modula. The Fifth generation: objects encapsulate their methods. Presented by: Syed Ghazanfar Naqvi IT for Managers 14