Computer programming programming_langugages


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Computer programming is the process of creating software through the use of logic, algorithms, and programming language

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Computer programming programming_langugages

  1. 1.
  2. 2. ● Computer programming is the process of creating software through the use of logic, algorithms, and programming language● Programmers use a program code to make software● Program code : a set of instructions that signal the CPU to perform circuit witching operations
  3. 3. ● A language designed for writing system software● It offers more direct access to the physical hardware of the machine● System Software : Operating System, Language Processor & System Utilities● Major System Programming Languages ○ C, C++, ESPOL, PL/I, BLISS
  4. 4. ● A language designed for writing application software● Application Software : Payroll system, Inventory System, Attendance System etc.● Major Application Programming Languages ○ C, C++, VB.NET, Java, etc.
  5. 5. ● Procedural Programming Languages● Procedural programming specifies a list of operations that the program must complete to reach the desired state.● Each program has a starting state, a list of operations to complete, and an ending point. This approach is also known as imperative programming.● Integral to the idea of procedural programming is the concept of a procedure call. Procedures, also known as functions, subroutines, or methods, are small sections of code that perform a particular function.● Procedural programming can be compared to unstructured programming, where all of the code resides in a single large block.● It splits the programmatic tasks into small pieces, procedural programming allows a section of code to be re-used in the program without making multiple copies.● It also makes it easier for programmers to understand and maintain program structure.● Two of the most popular procedural programming languages are FORTRAN and BASIC.
  6. 6. ● Structured Programming Languages● Structured programming is a special type of procedural programming. It provides additional tools to manage the problems that larger programs were creating.● Structured programming requires that programmers break program structure into small pieces of code that are easily understood.● It also frowns upon the use of global variables and instead uses variables local to each subroutine.● One of the well known features of structural programming is that it does not allow the use of the GOTO statement. It is often associated with a “top-down” approach to design.● The most popular structured programming languages include C, Ada, and Pascal.
  7. 7. ● Object-Oriented Programming Languages● Object-oriented programming is one the newest and most powerful paradigms.● In object oriented programs, the designer specifies both the data structures and the types of operations that can be applied to those data structures.● This pairing of a piece of data with the operations that can be performed on it is known as an object.● A program thus becomes a collection of cooperating objects, rather than a list of instructions.● Objects can store state information and interact with other objects, but generally each object has a distinct, limited role.
  8. 8. ● Low Level Programming Language ○ Machine Language ○ Assembly Language● High Level Programming Language
  9. 9. ● Low Level Machine Language● Computer understand only a language that is known as “Machine Language”● It consists of set of instructions in form of ‘1s’ and ‘0s’● Example of Machine Instruction ○ 1110001110000● It is difficult for human to read and write machine language
  10. 10. ● i) It makes fast and efficient use of the computer.● ii) It requires no translator to translate the code i.e.Directly understood by the computer
  11. 11. ● i) All operation codes have to be remembered● ii) All memory addresses have to be remembered.● iii) It is hard to amend or find errors in a program written● In the machine language● iv) These languages are machine dependent i.e. a particular● Machine language can be used on only one type of computer
  12. 12. ● Inconveniences of machine language.● Assembly language in which operation codes and operands are given in the form of alphanumeric symbols instead of 0’s and l’s.● These alphanumeric symbols will be known as mnemonic codes and can have maximum up to 5 letter combination ○ e.g. ADD for addition, SUB for subtraction, START, LABEL etc.● Because of this feature it is also known as ‘Symbolic Programming Language’. This language is also very difficult and needs a lot of practice to master it because very small
  13. 13. ● Advantages of Assembly Language i) It is easier to understand and use as compared to machine language. ii)It is easy to locate and correct errors.iii) It is modified easily ● Disadvantages of Assembly Language i) Like machine language it is also machine dependent. ii) Knowledge of hardware required
  14. 14. ● High level computer languages give formats close to English language and the purpose of developing.● It enables people to write programs easily and in their own native language environment (English).● High-level languages are basically symbolic languages that use English words and/or mathematical symbols rather than mnemonic codes.● Each instruction in the high level language is translated into many machine language instructions thus showing one-to-many translation
  15. 15. ● Readablity● Portability● Easy Debugging● Easy Software Development