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The Presentation  On Programming Languages Project Work 2008 Presented By: Archana Maharjan  Bishnu Rajbhandari  Manish Ta...
INTRODUCTION  <ul><li>an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a compute...
Programming Languages  <ul><li>Machine Languages/First generation </li></ul><ul><li>Assemble Languages/Second generation <...
Machine Languages <ul><li>Uses binary system </li></ul><ul><li>0s and 1s for electricity on / off </li></ul><ul><li>0s is ...
Assembly Languages <ul><li>For more standardization, assembly languages developed </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as symbolic...
High Level Languages <ul><li>More Standard Language in text like “Calculate gross Pay” </li></ul><ul><li>Types of High lev...
Procedural Oriented languages  <ul><li>General purpose programming languages are called procedural languages or third gene...
Problem Oriented Languages & Application <ul><li>It is designed to solve specific problems or develop specific application...
Natural language <ul><li>Still in development stage </li></ul><ul><li>It is the natural more human like </li></ul><ul><li>...
Difference between 3 GLs and 4 GLs <ul><li>Third GLs </li></ul><ul><li>Intended for use by professional programmers </li><...
Compilers and Interpreters <ul><li>There are two types of translators. </li></ul><ul><li>Compilers </li></ul><ul><li>Inter...
CONCLUSION <ul><li>Consolidation and growth  </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring language usage  </li></ul><ul><li>Taxonomies   </...
REFERENCE <ul><li>Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>httpprogr...
THANK YOU
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Programming languages

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Types of Programming Languages such as High Level Languages, Low Level Languages...

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Programming languages

  1. 1. The Presentation On Programming Languages Project Work 2008 Presented By: Archana Maharjan Bishnu Rajbhandari Manish Tamrakar Ranju Silwal BE Computer, III rd Semester, Group-3 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>used to facilitate communication about the task of organizing and manipulating information </li></ul><ul><li>to express algorithms precisely </li></ul>
  3. 3. Programming Languages <ul><li>Machine Languages/First generation </li></ul><ul><li>Assemble Languages/Second generation </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural Languages/Third generation </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Oriented languages/Fourth </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Languages/Fifth </li></ul>
  4. 4. Machine Languages <ul><li>Uses binary system </li></ul><ul><li>0s and 1s for electricity on / off </li></ul><ul><li>0s is off and 1s on </li></ul><ul><li>Alphabet A as 1000001 </li></ul><ul><li>To convert decimal to binary </li></ul><ul><li>24 divided by 2 </li></ul><ul><li>11000 </li></ul><ul><li>Early age machines like ENIAC uses vacuum tubes where tubes lit up or unlit which corresponds 10 binary state </li></ul><ul><li>Early age there was no software, they uses switches, 3000 switches where they used to on and off for one program they used to take one week. </li></ul><ul><li>Machine code has one advantages as its runs fast and efficient as it is machine language itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages : There is no one standard machine language </li></ul>
  5. 5. Assembly Languages <ul><li>For more standardization, assembly languages developed </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as symbolic languages </li></ul><ul><li>Machine languages </li></ul><ul><li>11110010 01110011 11010010 00010000 01110000 00101011 </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly languages </li></ul><ul><li>Pack 210(8,13), 02B(4,7) </li></ul><ul><li>Pack 218(8,13), 02F(4,7) </li></ul><ul><li>MP 212(G,13), 21D(3,13) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply hours worked by pay rate </li></ul><ul><li>In order to execute assemble languages need to change into machine language. 15 assemble statement need to translate 15 machine standard. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>More standardize and easier than machine languages </li></ul><ul><li>Operate efficiently not so efficient than machine languages </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to debug programs </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Very long </li></ul><ul><li>Complex </li></ul><ul><li>Dependant with machine languages </li></ul>
  6. 6. High Level Languages <ul><li>More Standard Language in text like “Calculate gross Pay” </li></ul><ul><li>Types of High level languages </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural-Oriented Languages </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Oriented languages </li></ul><ul><li>Natural or fifth generation </li></ul>
  7. 7. Procedural Oriented languages <ul><li>General purpose programming languages are called procedural languages or third generation languages e.g.. Pascal, Cobol, Fortran, Basic etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Statements are in English, easy to work </li></ul><ul><li>English language so it takes less time to program </li></ul><ul><li>Once coded easy to understand and modify </li></ul><ul><li>Languages are machine independent </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Execute slow </li></ul><ul><li>Less efficient </li></ul>
  8. 8. Problem Oriented Languages & Application <ul><li>It is designed to solve specific problems or develop specific application by enabling what you want rather than step by step procedures </li></ul><ul><li>It is fourth generation language </li></ul><ul><li>Application tools </li></ul><ul><li>Personal computer application software: word-process, spreadsheet, database, PowerPoint etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Query languages and report generators: QBE, SQL, answer/database QMF, RPGIII etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Decision support systems and financial planning languages: Express, FCS, IFPD, System W etc. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Natural language <ul><li>Still in development stage </li></ul><ul><li>It is the natural more human like </li></ul><ul><li>Allow the computer to become smarter </li></ul><ul><li>Most popular natural language are LISP and Prolog. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Difference between 3 GLs and 4 GLs <ul><li>Third GLs </li></ul><ul><li>Intended for use by professional programmers </li></ul><ul><li>Requires specification of how to perform task </li></ul><ul><li>All alternatives must be specified </li></ul><ul><li>Require large number of procedural instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Code may be difficult to read, understand and maintain. </li></ul><ul><li>Language developed for batch operations </li></ul><ul><li>Can be difficult to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to debug </li></ul><ul><li>Typically file oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth GLs </li></ul><ul><li>May be used by a non programming end user as well as a professional programmer. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires specification of what task is to be performed (system determines how to perform the task) </li></ul><ul><li>Default alternatives are built in; an end user need not specify these alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Require far fewer instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Code is easy to understand and maintain because of English-like commands </li></ul><ul><li>Language developed primarily for on line user </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to debug </li></ul><ul><li>Typically database-oriented </li></ul>
  11. 11. Compilers and Interpreters <ul><li>There are two types of translators. </li></ul><ul><li>Compilers </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreters </li></ul><ul><li>High level languages are called compiler language or interpreters language </li></ul><ul><li>Compiler language </li></ul><ul><li>A translation program is run to convert the programmer’s entire high-level program, which is called the source code, into a machine language. It is called compilation </li></ul><ul><li>Machine code is called object code and can be saved and either run immediately or later. E.g.. COBOL, C, C++, FORTRAN etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreters </li></ul><ul><li>A translation program converts each program statement into machine code just before the program statement is to be executed. </li></ul><ul><li>Translation and execution occur immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>One after another and one statement at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>Compiler languages are better than interpreted languages as they can be executed faster and more efficiently once the object code has been obtained. </li></ul>
  12. 12. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Consolidation and growth </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring language usage </li></ul><ul><li>Taxonomies </li></ul>
  13. 13. REFERENCE <ul><li>Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>httpprogramminglanguages </li></ul>
  14. 14. THANK YOU

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